Bernie Sanders’ second round election victory in Nevada, USA

This 2 April 2016 video from Nevada in the USA says about itself:

Final delegate count Clark county Nevada. Bernie Sanders Wins Nevada! Crowd goes crazy.

From DeathAndTaxes in the USA:

Sanders wins surprise victory in Nevada county convention

Jordan Freiman / April 3, 2016

In a result that most people did not see coming, Bernie Sanders came out of the Clark County convention on Saturday night with more delegates than Hillary Clinton, essentially flipping the results of the Nevada caucus from February.

Nevada has a three step process for assigning delegates to presidential candidates. Step one was the caucus, when 23 delegates were assigned. Step two was Saturday’s county conventions, which are used to select the delegates that will go on to the third step, the state convention, where the remaining 12 delegates will be assigned based on the proportion of delegates won in the county conventions.

According to the Las Vegas Sun there were 3,825 delegates, 915 elected alternates, and 604 unelected alternates at the Clark County convention (out of a possible 9,000, but an important part of being a delegate is actually showing up when needed). The final results in Clark County were 2,964 for Sanders and 2,386 for Clinton, which will allow Sanders to send 1,613 delegates to the state convention against Clinton’s 1,298.

Again, from the Las Vegas Sun:

What that means is the delegates from Clark County — along with the delegates selected by Nevada’s other counties Saturday — will attend the state convention in May, where they will help select delegates to go to July’s Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia. But, because of the way delegate-selection rules work in Nevada, they will only get to decide the proportion of 12 delegates — five pledged party leaders and elected official delegates and seven at-large delegates — that go to each candidate.

Saturday’s result does not affect the 23 delegates that were assigned in February’s caucus, but Sanders’ unexpected win in the county convention combined with the narrow margin of defeat from the caucus means he can now take the majority of delegates from Nevada.

Put far more simply by Sanders’ state director Joan Kato, “We pretty much won Nevada.”

Nevada African American support for Bernie Sanders

This video from the USA says about itself:

Sanders Earns Endorsement of Nevada’s Largest County’s Black Caucus

19 February 2016

Yvette Williams, Chair and Founder of the Clark County Black Caucus, says Sanders is pushing the Democratic party towards policy positions more in the interest of Black Americans.

Their letter of endorsement is here.

In Nevada, young Latinos are ‘Bernie kids’ while their parents are ‘with Hillary’: here.

Rare Nevadan Death Valley fish, how old?

This video from the USA says about itself:

29 July 2015

Devils Hole pupfish are the world rarest fish Jennifer Mutz reports for UNLV’s Studio G.

From the BBC:

Death Valley fish a ‘recent arrival’

By Jonathan Amos BBC Science Correspondent

4 hours ago

One of the most extraordinary fish species in world may not be as old as once thought.

The Devil’s Hole pupfish survive in 32-degree Celsius water in a rock shaft in Death Valley in the US.

Previous studies suggested they could have become separated as a distinct population more than 10,000 years ago.

But the latest genetic analysis points to the pupfish being resident in their unique habitat for perhaps only a few hundred years at most.

Christopher Martin and colleagues tell a Royal Society journal that the revelation raises interesting questions as to how the animals got into their present location.

There are other pupfish populations in Death Valley but for any of those to have colonised Devils Hole they would somehow have had to cross one of the driest, hottest deserts on Earth.

“My best guess is that they got in there during some extreme flooding event,” Dr Martin, a scientist from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, told BBC News.

“The ages we’ve come up with for the Devils Hole fish do overlap with the great flood of 1862, which was the largest rainfall event ever recorded for California/Nevada.

“We also know that pupfish eggs are adhesive and will stick to vegetation, so it’s possible they came in stuck on birds’ legs.”

It is not beyond possibility that the fish were directly moved by Native Americans at some point.

The Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) were once dubbed the “rarest fish on the planet” because their numbers were so limited. As few as 35 individuals have been counted in the past.

They certainly live a precarious existence. Their rock pool is more than 100m deep, which means they must spawn on a narrow shelf near the surface.

Food takes the form of algae, but this is in short supply for two months of the year when sunlight does not fall on the water’s surface. A mass die-off is a regular occurrence.

The geological evidence suggests the rock pool opened to the surface about 60,000 years ago, and that large regions of Death Valley were under water some 10,000 years. This would have enabled pupfish populations in the region to move more freely.

Some of the first genetic analyses that tried to age the distinctiveness of Cyprinodon diabolis looked at mitochondrial DNA – genetic material held in the “energy factories” in cells. This DNA incorporates mutations at a regular rate through the generations, and can be used as a kind of clock. But the approach is notoriously sensitive to the calibration rules that are applied to the analysis.

Early mtDNA efforts suggested Cyprinodon diabolis might have been a separate species for 2-3 million years. But the geological indicators rule this out.

For their study, Dr Martin and his team deployed the very latest genomic techniques, analysing thousands of genetic markers and using demographic models that took into account the variation that exists within and across pupfish populations. Calibration was applied from what appeared to be more solid data based on pupfish diversity in Mexico.

The research estimates that Devils Hole was colonised between 105 and 830 years ago.

“They are special fish,” said Dr Martin. “The ecology of the Devils Hole is reflected by the very phenotypic distinctiveness of these pupfish. They have not only reduced aggression and a darker metallic colouration, but they have completely lost their pelvic fins. We don’t know whether the loss of this major appendage is due to the effects of severe inbreeding over time or if it’s adaptive in this habit.”

The study is published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Greater sage-grouse in Nevada, new study

This video from the USA is called Greater sage-grouse strut display.

From Ibis, international journal of avian science:

Lek fidelity and movement among leks by male Greater Sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus: a capture-mark-recapture approach

11 AUG 2014


Males in lek mating systems tend to exhibit high fidelity to breeding leks despite substantial evidence of skewed mating success among males. Although movements between leks are often reported to be rare, such movements provide a mechanism for an individual to improve lifetime fitness in response to heterogeneity in reproductive conditions. Additionally, estimates of apparent movements among leks are potentially biased due to unaccounted variation in detection probability across time and space.

We monitored breeding male Greater Sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus on 13 leks in eastern Nevada over a 10-year period, and estimated movement rates among leks using capture-mark-recapture methods. We expected that male movement rates among leks would be low, despite predictions of low breeding success for most males, and that detection rates would be highly variable among leks and years. We used a robust design multistate analysis in Program mark to estimate probability of movements among leks, while accounting for imperfect detection of males.

Male Sage-grouse were extremely faithful to their leks; the annual probability of a male moving away from its original lek of capture was approximately 3% (se = 0.01). Detection probabilities varied substantially among leks (range = 0.21–0.95), and among years (range = 0.30–0.76), but remained relatively constant within years at each lek. These results suggest that male Sage-grouse dispersal is either rare, or consists primarily of dispersal of sub-adults from their natal areas prior to the breeding season. The study highlights the benefits of robust design multistate models over standard ‘live-encounter’ analyses, as they not only permit estimation of additional parameters, such as movement rates, but also allow for more precise parameter estimates that are less sensitive to heterogeneity in detection rates. Additionally, as these data were collected using capture-mark-recapture methods, our approach to estimating movement rates would be beneficial in systems where radiotagging is detrimental to the study organism.

Meet the fanciest wild birds in North America. Male sage-grouse gather by the hundreds to strut their stuff on their high-stakes breeding grounds. Only an elite few have what it takes to impress the discerning female judges and become fathers. The rest will have to try again next year: here.

Bears not hibernating in Nevada, USA

This video from the USA says about itself:

Awake for Winter: Tahoe Bears Not Hibernating

14 Jan 2014

Nevada wildlife officials say bears in the Tahoe Basin aren’t hibernating due to the mild winter weather, and that instead the animals are looking out looking for food, and getting closer to people. (Jan. 14).

In northern Europe winter weather so far may be mild, causing bears not to hibernate there as well etc; but elsewhere in North america, a “polar vortex” brings extremely cold weather.

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Sabre-tooth cat discovery near Las Vegas

This video is called Extinction: Smilodon, The Saber Toothed Tiger Nature & Animal Documentary.

Long before the modern presence of the mafia in Las Vegas in the USA, there were other dangers.

From Associated Press:

Fossils of sabre-tooth cat found in Nevada

Sunday 16 December 2012

Researchers say a pair of fossils unearthed in the hills north of Las Vegas belonged to a sabre-toothed cat.

The Las Vegas Review-Journal reports that a team from California’s San Bernardino County Museum identified the fossils dug up in June as being front leg bones from the extinct predator.

Kathleen Springer, the museum’s senior curator, says the fossils are thought to be approximately 15,590 years old.

The discovery marks the first of its kind in the fossil-rich Upper Las Vegas Wash. Ms Springer heads a team that’s been studying the wash for a decade.

This cat species is Smilodon fatalis; see more on this discovery here. And here.

In dry Nevada, it now seems to be raining cats and dogs:)

This video is called Prehistoric Predators: Dire Wolf.

From the Las Vegas Review-Journal:

UNLV team finds evidence of extinct wolf

By Henry Brean

Posted: Dec. 14, 2012 | 5:17 p.m.

The Pleistocene predators are starting to pile up in the fossil-rich hills at the northern edge of the valley.

Less than a month after a California team found evidence of a saber-tooth cat in the Upper Las Vegas Wash, UNLV researchers announced the discovery of a 1½-inch long foot bone from what they believe was a dire wolf that stalked the valley between 12,000 and 15,000 years ago.

It marks the first time the extinct species of wolf has been found in the 22,650-acre swath of desert proposed for designation as Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument.

Josh Bonde, a visiting assistant professor at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, made the discovery. He was surveying a 160-acre plot of state land near Floyd Lamb Park this summer when he spotted the tip of the bone sticking out of a hill. The piece that was showing was no bigger than a quarter, he said, “just enough to identify it as a dog.”

After carefully unearthing and processing the fossil, Bonde took it to the lab of zooarchaeology and anthropology professor Levent Atici, who maintains what is known as a comparative collection of animal bones.

“He started going through his dog drawer, and he said, ‘Man, this is a great big dog,’ ” Bonde said.

Enter longtime UNLV geology professor Steve Rowland, who is collaborating with Bonde on a study of local ice age fossils. Rowland sent a photograph of the bone to Xiaoming Wang, curator of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County and one of the world’s leading experts on ancient carnivores, especially canines. Wang identified it as a bone from the foot of an extinct wolf.

Rowland and Bonde are convinced it belonged to a dire wolf, but there is a small chance it could be from a gray or even a timber wolf.

Rowland is headed to California for a field trip with students next week. He plans to bring the bone with him so he can compare it with the thousands of dire wolf fossils in the collection at the Page Museum at the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles.

This isn’t the first big find for Bonde, who specializes in much older mysteries. The geologist and paleontologist previously discovered roughly 100 million-year-old dinosaur fossils in Valley of Fire and the mountains of central Nevada.

The dire was one of the largest wolves to have ever lived, weighing about 150 pounds with thicker, shorter legs and a wider mouth than its modern equivalent.

Bonde said there is debate about how the animals behaved. Some believe they hunted their own prey; others portray them as scavengers, the ice age version of hyenas.

But like their present-day cousins, they were probably social animals. “These were packs of big old wolves,” Bonde said.

As for the name, Rowland said, “it means a bad thing is about to happen if you see one of these. A ferocious wolf – that’s what it implies.”

The approximate age of Bonde’s speciman is not known. Rowland said the bone is so small that they couldn’t sacrifice any of it to get a radiocarbon date from it. They hope to pin down how old it is by testing snail shells, charcoal and other “datable material” found nearby.

Bonde and company have returned to the site in search of more wolf fossils. None has turned up so far, but they have found camel bones and other items of interest. “It’s been a pretty fruitful little area,” he said.

The adjacent federal land is loaded with old bones as well. Working under a contract with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, a team from California’s San Bernardino County Museum has pulled thousands of ice age fossils from the area, including the unprecedented recent discovery of bones from a saber-tooth cat.

Before the cat and the wolf fossils were found, no predators had been positively identified in the Upper Las Vegas Wash since the jawbone of a North American lion was found there in the early 1960s.

Researchers long suspected that more meateaters must have lived here because of all the meat that was available back then, but finding predators in the fossil record is rare.

Asked what other fossils might be hiding in the wash, Bonde said, “If I’m going to get greedy, I guess I’d like to find a cheetah.”

Since the researchers began surveying the pocket of state land in the Las Vegas Wash in 2010, they have turned up ice age bones of mammoths, camels, bisons, birds, rodents and reptiles.

The fossils they collect are processed in a lab at the Las Vegas Natural History Museum on Las Vegas Boulevard just south of Washington Avenue. Bonde said he and his team are there most weekends, covered in dirt and hunched over their latest finds. Visitors to the museum are welcome to watch them – even ask questions – while they work, he said. “People can come in and enjoy the fossils from their own backyard.”

Bonde expects his team to be working out in his corner of the Upper Las Vegas Wash “for the foreseeable future.”

They can’t stop now, he said.

“Every time we’re out there we find another site.”

The extinct and highly unusual [marsupial] predator Thylacosmilus atrox relied on brute brawn to pin its prey: here. And here.