California police kill unarmed Stephon Clark


This 28 March 2018 video from the USA is called RAW VIDEO: Stephon Clark’s Brother Confronts Sacramento Police & Interrupts City Council Meeting.

29 March 2018: Over the last week, hundreds of people in Sacramento, California have participated in demonstrations protesting the police murder of Stephon Clark, a 22-year-old African American man who was unarmed when he was shot 20 times in his grandparent’s backyard. Many more are expected to pay their respects today at Clark’s funeral: here.

ACTIVISTS ARE KEEPING UP PROTESTS OVER THE STEPHON CLARK SHOOTING On Wednesday, protesters again took to the streets of Sacramento to call for justice in the March 18 shooting death. Clark, a black man, was unarmed in his own backyard when two cops, reportedly mistaking his cellphone for a weapon, shot him 20 times. [HuffPost]

Sacramento protests continue over Stephon Clark death: here.

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE FATAL BROOKLYN SHOOTING Police fatally shot an unarmed black man who was pointing what 911 callers believed to be a gun, but turned out to be a metal pipe, in the Crown Heights neighborhood Wednesday. [HuffPost]

Advertisements

Ravens, from two species to one?


This video says about itself:

Ravens in wintertime

Winter 2015-2016, Belarus.

From the University of Washington in the USA:

Two species of ravens nevermore? New research finds evidence of ‘speciation reversal’

March 2, 2018

Summary: A new study almost 20 years in the making provides some of the strongest evidence yet of the ‘speciation reversal’ phenomenon — where two distinct lineages hybridize and eventually merge into one — in two lineages of common ravens.

For over a century, speciation — where one species splits into two — has been a central focus of evolutionary research. But a new study almost 20 years in the making suggests “speciation reversal” — where two distinct lineages hybridize and eventually merge into one — can also be extremely important. The paper, appearing March 2 in Nature Communications, provides some of the strongest evidence yet of the phenomenon, in two lineages of Common Ravens.

“The bottom line is [speciation reversal] is a natural evolutionary process, and it’s probably happened in hundreds or almost certainly thousands of lineages all over the planet”, said Kevin Omland, professor of biological sciences at University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) and co-author on the new study. “One of our biggest goals is to just have people aware of this process, so when they see interesting patterns in their data, they won’t say, ‘That must be a mistake’, or, ‘That’s too complicated to be correct.'”

“We examined genomic data from hundreds of ravens collected across North America”, said Anna Kearns, the study’s first author and a former postdoctoral fellow at UMBC, who is now a postdoc at the Smithsonian Center for Conservation Genomics. “Integrating all of the results across so many individuals, and from such diverse datasets, has been one of the most challenging aspects of this study. Next-generation genomic techniques are revealing more and more examples of species with hybrid genomes.”

When Omland initially began work on this project in 1999, Common Ravens were considered a single species worldwide. He thought further research might uncover two distinct species — perhaps an “Old World” and “New World” raven — but the real story is much more complicated. Omland reported the existence of two Common Raven lineages in 2000, one concentrated in the southwestern United States dubbed “California”, and another found everywhere else (including Maine, Alaska, Norway and Russia) called “Holarctic.”

Since then, the plot has thickened. Two undergraduates in Omland’s lab, Jin Kim and Hayley Richardson, analyzed mitochondrial DNA from throughout the western United States and found the two lineages are extensively intermixed. In 2012, the Norwegian Research Council provided major funding for the project and Kearns spent a year at the University of Oslo analyzing nuclear genome data.

The best explanation based on the team’s analysis is that the California and Holarctic lineages diverged for between one and two million years, but now have come back together and have been hybridizing for at least tens of thousands of years.

“The extensive genetic data reveals one of the best supported examples of speciation reversal of deeply diverged lineages to date”, said Arild Johnsen, professor of zoology and evolutionary biology at University of Oslo and another leader of the study. “The biggest thing is the degree to which we’ve caught them in the act.”

How does this relate to people? Humans are also a product of speciation reversal, Omland notes, with the present-day human genome including significant chunks of genetic material from Neanderthals and Denisovans, another less well-known hominid lineage. Recent genetic studies have even indicated a mysterious fourth group of early humans who also left some DNA in our genomes.

“Because speciation reversal is a big part of our own history”, Omland said, “getting a better understanding of how that happens should give us a better sense of who we are and where we came from. These are existential questions, but they are also medically relevant as well.”

Next steps in the current avian research include analyzing genetic data from ravens who lived in the early 1900s to investigate the potential role of humans in the speciation reversal process. “Getting genomic data out of such old, degraded specimens is challenging,” Kearns said, “and all work must be done in a special ‘ancient DNA‘ lab at the Smithsonian’s Center for Conservation Genomics.”

If those ravens have a similar distribution of genes from the Holarctic and California lineages as the ravens living today, it’s unlikely changes in human civilization over the last century played a role.

Co-author John Marzluff, professor of wildlife science at the University of Washington, summed up the experience of being part of the study: “It is fascinating to me that this complex history of raven speciation has been revealed. For decades my students and I held and studied ravens throughout the West and never once suspected they carried evidence of a complex past,” he said. “Thanks to collaborations among field workers and geneticists, we now understand that the raven is anything but common.”

California coast wildlife, BBC virtual reality


This video says about itself:

BBC Earth: Life in VR – California Coast | Launch Trailer | Google Daydream

13 February 2018

Meet one of the furriest animals on the planet, experience life at microscopic scale and dive into the Deep Ocean with giants.

Download for Google Daydream: here.

BBC Earth: Life in VR – California Coast Launch Trailer

An Official BBC Earth VR experience. Life in VR is a new way to experience the Natural World. Discover the Californian Coast and an underwater world bursting with life.

Witness first hand the creature behaviours and relationships which sustains this ocean’s rich and diverse ecosystems, and discover the secrets that underpin it.

California, USA police helping neo-nazis


This video from the USA says about itself:

Police Teaming Up With Neo-Nazis Now

9 February 2018

Police in California worked with neo-Nazi groups to pursue anti-racism activists. Cenk Uygur, Ana Kasparian, and Mark Thompson, the hosts of The Young Turks, discuss.

“California police investigating a violent white nationalist event worked with white supremacists in an effort to identify counter-protesters and sought the prosecution of activists with “anti-racist” beliefs, court documents show.

The records, which also showed officers expressing sympathy with white supremacists and trying to protect a neo-Nazi organizer’s identity, were included in a court briefing from three anti-fascist activists who were charged with felonies after protesting at a Sacramento rally. The defendants were urging a judge to dismiss their case and accused California police and prosecutors of a “cover-up and collusion with the fascists”.

Defense lawyers said the case at the state capital offers the latest example of US law enforcement appearing to align with neo-Nazi and white supremacist groups while targeting anti-fascist activists and Donald Trump protesters after violent clashes.”

Read more here.

California condor, from egg to fledging


The Cornell Lab of Ornithology in the USA writes about this video:

Surviving Devils Gate: 2017 California Condor Cam Highlights

5 February 2018

Peer into the lives of one of the worlds most majestic endangered species on the California Condor cam, and relive the events of a harrowing breeding season from the rocky ridges of the Devils Gate nest.

Watch condor chick #871 grow out of her natal down, survive sweeping wildfires, and become the first ever successful fledgling on the California Condor cam.

85 new wildlife species described by California Academy of Sciences in 2017


This video says about itself:

Expedition Malaysia: A Top-to-Bottom Rainforest Survey | California Academy of Sciences

6 December 2017

Academy scientists are working with local scientists in Penang, Malaysia to survey a very special rainforest.

From the California Academy of Sciences in the USA:

85 new species described by the California Academy of Sciences in 2017

From fish to flowering plants and sea slugs to scorpions — spanning five continents and three oceans– these discoveries add to Earth’s tree of life

December 18, 2017<

In 2017, researchers at the California Academy of Sciences added 85 new plant and animal species to the family tree, enriching our understanding of Earth’s complex web of life and strengthening our ability to make informed conservation decisions. The new species include 16 flowering plants, one elephant-shrew, 10 sharks, 22 fish, three scorpions, seven ants, 13 nudibranchs, seven spiders, three wasps, one fossil sand dollar, one deepwater coral, and one lizard. More than a dozen Academy scientists — along with several dozen international collaborators — described the discoveries.

Proving that our planet contains unexplored places with never-before-recorded plants and animals, the scientists made their finds over five continents and three oceans, venturing into vast deserts, diving to extreme depths, and scouring rugged mountain ranges. Their results help advance the Academy’s mission to explore, explain, and sustain life on Earth.

Despite tireless efforts to explore from the far-flung corners of the globe to our backyard crannies,” says Dr. Shannon Bennett, Academy Chief of Science, “scientists estimate that more than 90 percent of species have yet to be discovered — with many going extinct before we even know they exist. We are not only losing members of the tree of life; we are also forfeiting potential breakthroughs in medicine, agricultural pollinators, water purifiers, and many other critical components of a healthy planet. Our understanding of sustainable ecosystems — and the diversity of species comprising them — will help us chart a successful way forward for the future of all life on Earth.”

Below are a few highlights from the 85 new species described by the Academy in 2017.

Plateau princesses

Every spring, plants in the princess flower family color the rocky plateaus in Southeastern Brazil with flowers ranging from shades of purple, magenta, and pink to white, yellow, and orange. The plants have evolved small, thick leaves to retain water during the dry season and a woody underground root for water storage and weathering periodic fires, says emeritus curator of botany Dr. Frank Almeda. Lavoisiera canastrensis — one of several new species described this year — is critically endangered. This species is known from fewer than a dozen populations that grow on a single loaf-like mountaintop in Brazil’s Serra da Canastra National Park — their only known habitat on Earth.

Roa rumsfeldi from the twilight zone

A newly described species of brown-and-white, charismatic butterflyfish made a fantastic, 7,000-mile journey before surprising scientists with its unknown status. Live specimens collected from 360 feet beneath the ocean’s surface in the Philippine’s Verde Island Passage escaped special notice until a single black fin spine tipped off aquarium biologists back in San Francisco.“We named this reef fish Roa rumsfeldi because, as Donald Rumsfeld once said, some things are truly ‘unknown unknowns,'” says senior author Dr. Luiz Rocha, Academy curator of ichthyology and co-leader of its Hope for Reefs initiative to research, explore, and sustain global reefs. Roa rumsfeldi joins 21 other fish, including a catfish from China (described by Senior Collections Manager David Catania and Academy research associate Dr. William Poly) and twenty new reef fish (described by Academy research associate Dr. Mark Erdmann, also of Conservation International).

Sea slugs galore

Academy curator of invertebrate zoology Dr. Terry Gosliner has discovered one thousand species of sea slugs (and counting) — over half of all species known to science — and this year he formally describes 13 of his finds. Eight of the new species were described from the Philippines and are members of the bat-wing family. Unlike most sea slugs, they are capable of swimming. “They have tiny ‘wings’ on the side that they flap to move through the water,” says Gosliner. He named one species Siphopteron dumbo given its resemblance to the famed flying elephant.

Three new species join the club-tailed scorpions

A painstaking revision of a large group of Neotropical “club-tailed” scorpions led to three new descriptions of colorful species (and two new groups) hailing from the tropical regions of North, Central, and South America. “One wild thing about this group is that many species have the unique ability to make sounds by rubbing a specialized comb-like structure against their sandpaper-like abdomen,” says arachnology curator Dr. Lauren Esposito. She says the warning is audible to the human ear, “sounding like a hiss, or a maraca shaking,” and is likely a loud way to tell predators: back off.

Meet night blooms, where bats loom

For one month out of the year, a rare flowering tree in the Oaxaca region of Mexico opens creamy white blooms around mid-afternoon. Hummingbirds visit until the light fades, and at dusk, bats arrive to pollinate throughout the night. By dawn, the flowers have dropped and the tree — recently named Louteridium dendropilosum by emeritus botany curator Dr. Tom Daniel — is already preparing a fresh set of blooms for the next afternoon.

Welcome back to an elephant-shrew

In a triumphant return, Academy scientists elevated a subspecies of elephant-shrew known as Rhynchocyon stuhlmanni back to its original full species status. These small mammals are more closely related to elephants, sea cows, and aardvarks than to true shrews. “Understanding the evolutionary relationships among elephant-shrews has proven particularly challenging given they have relatively few differentiating physical traits,” says co-author and mammalogy curator Dr. Jack Dumbacher. “Cutting-edge genetic tools paired with preserved museum specimens has greatly aided in our ability to make modern discoveries.

Ants come marching one by (seven)

This year seven new species of ants join the tree of life in their march toward global domination. (Ants rival humans having colonized almost every landmass on Earth.) One new species, collected in Taiwan, was described from the Stigmatomma genus of ‘Dracula ants’ infamous for drinking the blood of their larvae. “Members of this cryptic group are rarely collected,” says postdoctoral researcher Dr. Flavia Esteves. “It’s an exciting new species to describe since it spends the entirety of its life beneath the soil or inside rotten logs.” Entomology curator Dr. Brian Fisher has uncovered numerous Dracula ants in Madagascar, where he opened the nation’s first biodiversity center and has spent two decades researching insect diversity. This year he discovered an additional six species from the island, increasing his impressive career tally to over 1,000 new ant finds.

Ghost sharks revealed

From “Austin’s guitarfish” to the “Long-nosed African spurdog,” many recently described species of sharks sound like cartoon characters from a faraway world. Indeed, several new finds from the ghost shark group are “rarely encountered because they inhabit great depths of over 7,000 feet,” says ichthyology research associate Dr. David Ebert, who tallied ten new species of sharks and rays this year. “However, as commercial fisheries move into deeper waters these species are being discovered and described at a higher rate than ever.”

Shapes of the deep

In a 2011 deepwater exploration of the Philippines’ Verde Island Passage — the “center of the center” of marine biodiversity — a beam trawl drew an octocoral from over 1,000 feet beneath the surface. (Octocorals are distinguished from other corals by the eight tentacles on their polyps.) But it would take close inspection to confirm the denizen of the deep as a new-to-science find. “By using an electron microscope, I was able to pinpoint a distinguishing feature — tiny mineralized structures known as spicules that are common to all octocorals were markedly rectangular in shape,” says octocoral expert and invertebrate zoology curator Dr. Gary Williams, who formally described the species as Grasshoffia profundica (which means deep) this year.

Peaceful wolf spiders

Research associate Dr. Charles Griswold and his team described seven new spiders this year, and two are named in honor of peace. Devendra saama and Devendra amaiti are false wolf spiders that skitter across their only known home in the southern highlands of Sri Lanka. Both names mean peace in the prominent languages of the nation — Sinhalese and Tamil — and were chosen “to express our gratitude that the 26-year civil war has ended and our hope that Sri Lanka continues to live in harmony,” says Griswold.