Tyrannosaurus rex brought to museum this Friday


This is a Dutch June 2016 video, recorded in Montana in the USA. It is about assembling fossil Tyrannosaurus rex Trix for transportation to Naturalis museum in the Netherlands; and about excavating Triceratops fossils not far away.

Dutch NOS TV reports today that on Friday 26 August, a Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton will be brought from Schiphol airport to Naturalis museum in Leiden.

The fossil dinosaur is probably an elderly female. Her name is Trix.

Three years ago, Trix was found in Montana in the USA. This animal will make Naturalis the only museum outside the US with a Tyrannosaurus rex.

On 10 September, Trix will be at a special tyrannosaur exhibition.

From the end of 2018 on, she will be part of the regular Naturalis exhibition.

Tyrannosaurus rex quest on video


This 17 August 2016 Dutch video shows how scientists of Naturalis museum in Leiden went to the USA to look for Tyrannosaurus rex fossils.

Triceratops dinosaur fossils, from the USA to Dutch museum


After the earlier video about this on this blog, these Dutch videos are about people from Naturalis museum in Leiden in the Netherlands going to the USA to fetch Triceratops dinosaur fossils.

This 15 July 2016 video is the most recent one of the series.

Dinosaur extinction, new theory


This 2015 video is called National Geographic Documentary: Extinction Of Dinosaurs. What About Killer Dinosaurs.

From daily The Independent in Britain:

Dinosaur extinction mystery solved? Asteroid hit oil field causing smoke that filled Earth’s atmosphere

Temperatures would have plunged as soot blocked out the sun and the rain virtually stopped falling

Ian Johnston, Science Correspondent

21 minutes ago

The dinosaurs were wiped out 66 million years ago because a massive asteroid hit vast oil deposits in Mexico, sending thick black smoke into the atmosphere all over the world, according to a new study.

Soot blocked out the sun, causing the planet to cool significantly and experience devastating droughts.

The amount of sunlight would have fallen by up to 85 per cent, while the Earth would have cooled by as much as 16 degrees Celsius on land for about three years.

At the same time, rainfall would have fallen by up to 80 per cent causing extreme drought.

In a paper in the journal Scientific Reports, the researchers wrote: “Although small mammals and reptiles could have lived underground where it is warmer, the dinosaurs did not.

“The different habitats of the dinosaurs and small mammals and reptiles would also have been key factors in determining their extinction or survival.”

The six-mile-wide asteroid, which hit what is now the Yucatan Peninsula, created the third-largest crater on Earth, some 110 miles across.

It struck the Earth with the force of about a billion nuclear bombs of the size that destroyed the Japanese city of Hiroshima during World War Two.

It had been something of a mystery why some dinosaurs had died out while others, like the ancestors of crocodiles,

The ancestors of crocodiles were not dinosaurs. Though, like dinosaurs, they belonged to the bigger group called archosaurs.

did not.

Previously it was thought that the impact caused vapours of sulphuric acid in the sky, which reflected sunlight leading to global darkness, near-freezing conditions and widespread acid rain.

But the researchers, from Japan’s Meteorological Research Institute and Tohuku Univeristy, said: “If this had occurred, crocodilians and various other animals would have also gone extinct.

“Recent impact experiments and model calculations have demonstrated that condensed sulfuric acid aerosols cannot form and persist over long periods following asteroid impacts.”

It is estimated that just 12 per cent of life on land survived the chaos unleashed by the asteroid, but 90 per cent of freshwater species were able to ride out the sudden shock to the planet.

Unusual carnivorous dinosaur described


This video says about itself:

13 July 2016

A newly discovered meat-eating dinosaur that prowled Argentina 90 million years ago would have had a hard time using strong-arm tactics against its prey. That’s because the beast, though a fearsome hunter, possessed a pitifully puny pair of arms.

Scientists said on Wednesday they have unearthed fossils in northern Patagonia of a two-legged, up to 26-foot-long (8-meters-long) predator called Gualicho shinyae with arms only about 2 feet (60 cm) long, akin to a human child’s.

The fossils of Gualicho, named after an evil spirit feared by Patagonia’s indigenous Tehuelche people, were discovered in Argentina’s Rio Negro Province.

Gualicho and other carnivorous dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex are part of a group called theropods that included Earth’s largest-ever land predators. But a curious thing happened during their many millions of years of evolution. For some, as they acquired huge body size and massive skulls, their arms and their number of fingers shrank.

From the Christian Science Monitor in the USA:

T. rex wasn’t the only one with those strange little arms

Paleontologists discover a new dinosaur with T. rex-like arms, but it’s not a tyrannosaur.

By Eva Botkin-Kowacki, Staff writer

July 13, 2016

Quick! Make like a T. rex.

What is the first step to mimicking the famous, fearsome dinosaur? After roaring, a person probably pulls both arms in, contorting them to make them tiny relative to the rest of the body, mashing the five fingers together to have just two digits on each hand. One of the most characteristic features of the iconic tyrant lizard dinosaur is its strange, seemingly uselessly small forelimbs.

But Tyrannosaurus rex wasn’t the only two-legged carnivorous dinosaur to sport such teeny, two-fingered arms.

“Theropods in general do this quite often,” Lindsay Zanno, head of the Paleontology Research Lab at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, tells The Christian Science Monitor in a phone interview. “There are a lot of different groups of theropods that tend to reduce the size of their hands and their arms or change the way that they’re used.”

And another one is joining the bunch.

Gualicho shinyae, discovered in Argentina in 2007, is named and described in a paper published Wednesday in the journal PLOS ONE.

This new dinosaur’s “arms are short – about 2 ft long – which is less than the length of the thigh bone, and they have weak muscle attachments and poorly developed articulations indicating they had little strength,” Peter Makovicky, associate curator of dinosaurs at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago who co-led the team that discovered Gualicho, describes in an email to the Monitor.

The fingers on the 90-million-year-old fossil are similar to those of tyrannosaurs. The thumb has a large claw while the second finger is more slender. A third finger has become so reduced that it is just a tiny bone in the flesh of the animal’s hand. …

Gualicho has weak little arms with just two functional fingers like T. rex, but the similarities pretty much stop there.

“This animal has a kind of mosaic of features. There are aspects of its skeleton that show some affinities with some groups of dinosaurs and some affinities with other groups of dinosaurs, although none of those are really tyrannosaurs,” study co-author Nathan Smith, associate curator in the Dinosaur Institute at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, tells the Monitor in a phone interview.

But the “oddball” dinosaur, as Dr. Smith describes it, could help researchers figure out why so many diverse theropod dinosaurs have evolved similar, reduced forelimbs. …

Some scientists have suggested that humongous predatory dinosaurs would have evolved smaller arms because their skulls were used more readily to wrangle prey, she says.

There seems to be a pattern among tyrannosaurs, for example, in which the arms became shorter and the fingers fewer as the animals’ skulls and bodies became larger over generations, says Stephen Brusatte, a paleontologist at the University of Edinburgh who was not part of the study, in an email to the Monitor. This would suggest that “the head was taking over many of the duties that the arms once had, like procuring and processing food.”

“Most theropods with reduced forelimbs, like tyrannosaurs, ceratosaurs, and carcharodontosaurs are clearly macropredators that rely on their massive skulls for hunting, so it seems likely that the same was true of Gualicho,” Makovicky says.

These diverse dinosaurs were likely under similar evolutionary pressures that lead to similarly reduced forelimbs. The feature would have evolved independently in the different groups, in a process called convergent evolution. …

The mosaic features of Gualicho “makes figuring out the evolutionary placement of this animal a little difficult,” Smith says.

Weighing an estimated 1,000 pounds, Gualicho appears to fit into the family neovenatoridae, a large-bodied branch of carnivorous theropod dinosaurs, Smith says, but it also seems to bear the closest resemblance to Deltadromeus, a large theropod from Africa.

But could a South American dinosaur be closely related to an African one?

Possibly. Scientists have previously noted a lot of similarities between dinosaurs unearthed in the Kem Kem Beds on the border of Morocco and Algeria, where Deltadromeus has been found, and the Huincul Formation in Argentina, where Guialicho was discovered, Smith says. “So it may not be surprising that these two carnivorous dinosaurs are close relatives.”

And at the time when Guialicho roamed the Earth, the two continents had only recently, geologically speaking, begun to separate as the supercontinent Gondwana broke up.

Triceratops dinosaur expedition video


This 14 June 2016 video is from Naturalis museum in Leiden in the Netherlands. It shows how a paleontologist prepares to go to Wyoming in the USA for excavating Triceratops dinosaur fossils.

Tyrannosaur in Dutch museum’s name is Trix


This 2015 Dutch video is about the Tyrannosaurus rex which is now in Naturalis museum in Leiden in the Netherlands.

The Tyrannosaurus rex, excavated in Montana in the USA in 2013, will be exhibited in Naturalis from 10 September 2016 on.

This dinosaur is said to be ‘an old lady’.

Today, Dutch NOS TV reports that her name will be Trix. An abbreviation of Beatrix, the name of Princess Beatrix, ex-queen of the Netherlands.

See also here.