Mammoth discovery in Mexico

This 28 May 2020 video says about itself:

It is a discovery that could shed some light on the hunting habits of prehistoric communities in Mexico.

Archaeologists near Mexico City have discovered the remains of about 60 mammoths and other species.

Al Jazeera’s Sara Khairat reports.

Elephants versus lions in South Africa

This 16 January 2020 video from South Africa says about itself:

Elephant herd confronts a lion pride

An elephant herd that was drinking in a waterhole in Kruger park chased a lion pride that had caught something. The elephant herd was just being cautious for their young ones.

Filmed and credit via Brent Schnupp.

Crowned crane chases elephants from nest

This 12 May 2020 video says about itself:

Brave Bird Chases Elephants from Nest

A crowned crane is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List and is protected by law in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Uganda and Kenya. They are usually very territorial especially in pairs and can get quite aggressive defending their territory or chicks.

It’s a different story when size comes to play, and for this crane, it seems that size was not even a problem when it took on a herd of elephants!

This incredible sighting was shared with by WildEearth’s SafariLive show. It is a company that streams live safaris every day from Greater Kruger, East Africa and other reserves. This sighting was, too, streamed on a live safari and in this episode, Tayla McCurdy, the presenter, narrates the experience.

Tayla McCurdy from South Africa came across a wonderfully unique sighting in Maasai Mara. A crowned crane had some eggs in an open area when a herd of elephants tried to walk through, grazing on the water plants which seem grass-like.

“I cannot say for sure if this is a male or female crowned crane, as both genders sit on the nest during breeding season. The crane jumped to the defense of the unborn chicks, as the mother took on the elephants!”

“The elephant seemed rather bemused by the situation and remained curious as to why the bird was flapping its wings. Various alarm calls did, in fact, seem to work at the beginning, as the bird kept launching forward, flapping wings and calling in defense of its nest. Eventually, the elephant became rather irritated and tried to push the bird away with its trunk before wandering off, leaving the eggs unharmed.”

“The bird, seemingly relaxed, then turned its attention to a baby elephant calf grazing nearby, as soon as it tried to charge for the calf, the 1st young elephant trumpeted a warning call and paced quickly in the direction of the calf. The crowned crane moved off, realizing that there was no longer any danger, leaving the elephant to graze peacefully but keeping a close eye.”

Extinct and living elephants, size comparison video

This 5 January 2020 video compares the sizes of extinct and living elephants.

Some elephant species, past and present:

0.African Bush Elephant
1.Eritherium azzouzorum
2.Phosphatherium escuilliei
4.Cyprus dwarf elephant
6.Barytherium grave
7.Pygmy Mammoth
8.Stegodon florensis
10.Palaeomastodon beadnelli
11.Notiomastodon platensis
12.Phiomia serridens
13.Borneo pygmy
15.Cuvieronius hyodon
17.African forest elephant
19.Palaeoloxodon naumanni
20.American mastodon
21.Asian elephant
23.Sri Lanka elephants
25.Woolly mammoth
26.Stegodon zadanskyi
27.Columbian mammoth
28.Southern mammoth
30.Imperial mammoth
32.Palaeoloxodon antiquus
33.Palaeoloxodon recki
34.Deinotherium giganteum
35.Steppe mammoth
36.Palaeoloxodon namadicus

How elephants and armadillos get drunk

This 2011 video is called African Animals Getting Drunk From Ripe Marula Fruit.

By Susan Milius, May 1, 2020 at 6:00 am:

Why mammals like elephants and armadillos might get drunk easily

Differences in a gene for breaking down alcohol might help explain which mammals get tipsy

An elephant, a narwhal and a guinea pig walk into a bar. From there, things could get ugly.

All three might get drunk easily, according to a new survey of a gene involved in metabolizing alcohol. They’re among the creatures affected by 10 independent breakdowns of the ADH7 gene during the history of mammal evolution. Inheriting that dysfunctional gene might make it harder for their bodies to break down ethanol, says molecular anthropologist Mareike Janiak of the University of Calgary in Canada.

She and colleagues didn’t look at all the genes needed to metabolize ethanol, but the failure of this important one might allow ethanol to build up more easily in these animals’ bloodstreams, Janiak and colleagues report April 29 in Biology Letters.

The carnivorous cetaceans, grain- or leaf-eating guinea pigs and most other animals that the study identified as potentially easy drunks probably don’t binge on sugary fruit and nectar that brews ethanol. Elephants, however, will feast on fruit, and the new study reopens a long-running debate over whether elephants truly get tipsy gorging on marula fruit, a relative of mangoes.

Descriptions of elephants behaving oddly after binging on overripe fruit go back at least to 1875, Janiak says. Later, a taste test offering the animals troughs of water spiked with ethanol found that elephants willingly drank. Afterward, they swayed more when moving and seemed more aggressive, observers reported.

Yet in 2006, physiologist Steve Morris of the University of Bristol in England and colleagues attacked the notion of elephant inebriation as “a myth”. Among their arguments was a calculation that even if African elephants really were feasting on fallen, fermenting marula fruit, the animals could not physically eat the huge amount necessary at one time to get a buzz (SN: 6/13/17). However, that calculation extrapolated from human physiology. The new insight that elephants’ ADH7 gene doesn’t work might mean they have a lower tolerance for the tipple.

It wasn’t elephants, though, but tree shrews that inspired the new work (SN: 7/28/08). They look like “cute squirrels with pointed noses,” says senior author Amanda Melin, a biological anthropologist also at Calgary, and they have a prodigious tolerance for alcohol. Concentrations of ethanol that would make a human sloppy apparently don’t phase the little animals. She, Janiak and colleagues decided to survey all of the mammal genetic information that they could find to indirectly assess the variety of responses to alcohol. “We were on a patio drinking beer when we first sketched out the paper,” Janiak remembers.

Looking at genetic information available on 79 mammal species, researchers found that ADH7 has lost its function in 10 separate spots on the mammal family tree. These ethanol-susceptible twigs sprout quite different animals: elephants, armadillos, rhinos, degus, beavers and cattle among them.

In contrast, humans and nonhuman African primates have the reverse situation, a mutation that renders their ADH7 some 40 times more efficient at dismantling ethanol than a typical mammalian version. Aye-ayes, with diets rich in fruit and nectar, have independently evolved the same trick (SN: 10/22/19). What gives tree shrews their drinking superpower, however, remains a mystery since they don’t have the same superefficient gene.

Finding the gene dysfunction in the African elephant, however, raises questions about the old inebriation arguments. A slower capacity for clearing ethanol from the body could mean that the smallish amount that an elephant gets from eating its full of fermented fruit might be enough to change their behavior after all, Melin says.

Behavioral ecologist Phyllis Lee has been watching elephants in Kenya’s Amboseli National Park since 1982 and is now director of science for Amboseli Trust for Elephants. “In my youth, we tried to brew a form of maize beer (we were desperate), and the elephants loved to drink it,” she says. She does not take sides in the myth debate, although she muses about the “huge liver” of elephants, which would have at least some detoxifying power.

“I never saw one that was tipsy”, Lee says, although that home brew “didn’t do much for us puny humans either.”

Top 15 biggest extinct elephants and mammoths

This November 2019 video says about itself:

Experts say the last mammoths died out just 3600 years ago…but they should have survived. We usually think of woolly mammoths as purely Ice Age creatures. But while most did indeed die out 10,000 years ago, one tiny population endured on isolated Wrangel Island until 1650 BCE. Geneticists have sketched out the woolly mammoth’s family tree using ancient DNA found preserved in Siberia.

The extinct beasts are more closely related to Asian elephants than to African elephants, the researchers found, and the three species diverged within a surprisingly short period of time. In this video, we showcase and explain to you the 15 largest and biggest extinct elephants and mammoths.

Sleepy elephants in Kenya

This 24 March 2020 video from Kenya says about itself:

These calves and adult elephants from the ‘Winds’ herd show us just how they like their midday naps in Samburu National Reserve. Some prefer standing, others like to snuggle up, and then, of course, there are those who eventually give in to the wave of sleep after a delicate balancing act! Footage: Alfred Ngachi / Save the Elephants.