Many fungi, some birds in Terschelling woodland

Parasol mushroom, Terschelling, 20 September 2019

After 20 September 2019 at Meisterplak lake on Terschelling, we continued to a wooded area of the island. There, we saw this young parasol mushroom.

Not far away, a smaller relative of that fungus, a stinking parasol.

A bit further, Parasola plicatilis.

Great spotted woodpecker sound.

Smooth puffballs.

Shaggy ink cap, 20 September 2019

Shaggy ink cap fungi.

Then, a special species: velvet roll-rim. It depends on coniferous tree stumps, which are here.

Velvet roll-rim, 20 September 2019

Pincushion moss.

Birch bracket.

Copper spike.

Sticky bun.

Leccinum cyaneobasileucum.

Sulphur tuft.

A tawny grisette grows on the footpath.

Pestle puffball.

Special flowers here: round-leaved wintergreen.

Penny bun.

Common toadflax flowers.

Coprinellus truncorum on a tree trunk.

At 5pm, on another tree trunk: two robins.


European Mushroom Day, 28th September 2019

This 2017 video says about itself:

Time Lapse: Mushrooms Growing

This video showcases the mushroom growing process over the course of just six days!

From in Germany:

The fourth European Mushroom Day will take place on 28th September 2019.

The action day for the mushrooms was initiated by „Der Tintling“, a German popular-scientific journal.

It is celebrated every fourth Saturday in September, in 2019 on September 28th.

The objectives of the European Mushroom Day:

•    Increase of the popularity of mushrooms
•    Intensification of the knowledge about mushrooms
•    Promotion of the mushrooms as hobby for youths
•    Central announcement of mycological events at this day
•    Protection of habitats of rare fungal species
•    Preservation of traditional folk names of mushrooms in the languages of the world

Birds, flowers and fungi of Terschelling island

Honeysuckle, Terschelling, 19 September 2019

After 18 September 2019 on Terschelling island came 19 September. Which started for us with this beautiful honeysuckle flower. Like all photos in this blog post, a macro lens photo.

Honeysuckle flowers, Terschelling, 19 September 2019

And these ones.

Honeysuckle flowers on Terschelling, 19 September 2019

And these ones.

Most heather flowers were gone; except for a few small patches.

Parasol mushroom, Terschelling, 19 September 2019

A bit further, big parasol mushrooms.

Parasol mushrooms, Terschelling, 19 September 2019

Parasol mushroom, on Terschelling, 19 September 2019

Eight meadow pipits on the meadow near these mushrooms.

A buzzard on a top of a coniferous tree.

A speckled wood butterfly.

In the Kroonpolders lake, two greenshanks.

Brown roll-rim fungi.

As we approached the North Sea, a dead young herring gull along the footpath.

In a sea-buckthorn bush, a brown-tail moth winter nest.

On a coastal sand dune, European searocket attracted honeybees and a bumblebee.

A great cormorant swims and dives in the North Sea.

European searocket, Terschelling, 19 September 2019

As we walked back, this European searocket photo.

We walked back further. Now, four greenshanks at the Kroonpolders lake.

Still further, two buzzards circling around each other.

New fungus species discovered in national park

Pycnoporellus fulgens (Fr.) Donk, CC BY-SA 3.0

Translated from Dutch NOS TV today:

Unique mushroom discovered in Drents-Friese Wold

A unique mushroom has been discovered in the Drents-Friese Wold National Park. The Pycnoporellus fulgens, as the fungus is officially called, has never been found in the Netherlands and therefore has no Dutch name.

According to mushroom experts, the orange fungus normally only occurs in coniferous forests that have been left alone for a long time. The species is also rare in other European countries. It is found mainly in the middle level mountains in Northern and Central Europe.

“This discovery shows that the beautiful, old spruce woodlands in Drenthe are now comparable to the natural, untouched forests in Scandinavia“, says mycologist Rob Chrispijn, who found the fungus.

The mushroom has not yet been seen in countries bordering the Netherlands. The Dutch Mycological Association is still investigating how the mushroom ended up here, writes RTV Drenthe.

See also here.

Mushrooms’ colours, new research

This 2015 video is about colourful mushrooms.

From the Technical University of Munich (TUM) in Germany:

Mushrooms: Darker fruiting bodies in cold climates

July 2, 2019

The fly agaric with its red hat is perhaps the most evocative of the diverse and variously colored mushroom species. Hitherto, the purpose of these colors was shrouded in mystery. Researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), in collaboration with the Bavarian Forest National Park, have now put together the first pieces of this puzzle.

In nature, specific colors and patterns normally serve a purpose: The eye-catching patterns of the fire salamander convey to its enemies that it is poisonous. Red cherries presumably attract birds that eat them and thus disperse their seed. Other animals such as chameleons use camouflage coloring to protect themselves from discovery by predators.

But climate also plays a role in coloration: Especially insects and reptiles tend to be darker in colder climates. Cold-blooded animals rely on the ambient temperature to regulate their body temperature. Dark coloration allows them to absorb heat faster. The same mechanism could also play a role in fungi, as the research team of Franz Krah, who wrote his doctoral thesis on the topic at TUM and Dr. Claus Bässler, mycologist at the TUM and coworker in the Bavarian Forest National Park suspect. Mushrooms might benefit from solar energy to improve their reproduction as well.

Distribution of 3054 fungus species studied

To test their theory, the researchers combed through vast volumes of data. They investigated the distribution of 3054 species of fungi throughout Europe. In the process, they analyzed the lightness of their coloration and the prevailing climatic conditions in the respective habitats. The results showed a clear correlation: Fungal communities have darker mushrooms in cold climates. The scientists also accounted for seasonal changes. They discovered that fungal communities that decompose dead plant constituents are darker in spring and autumn than in summer.

“Of course, this is just the beginning,” explains Krah. “It will take much more research before we develop a comprehensive understanding of mushroom colors.” For example, further seasonal coloring effects cannot be detected in fungi that live in symbiosis with trees. “Here, other coloration functions, such as camouflage, also play a role.” The researchers also need to study the degree to which dark coloration influences the reproductive rate of fungi.

New Dutch fungus species discovery

This video is called Mycoacia nothofagi – fungi kingdom.

In January this year, Jaap van den Berg discovered this species, for the first time ever in the Netherlands, in woodland near Soest in Utrecht province.

Mycoacia nothofagi lives in many countries all over the world; even in Antarctica. So far, it had not been found in the Netherlands. It has not been found in Belgium yet.

Clavaria argillacea, Dutch Mushroom of the Year

Clavaria argillacea, 13 November 2017

This photo shows the Clavaria argillacea fungus. It was taken in 2017, in the Kootwijkerzand nature reserve, as mentioned earlier in this blog.

The Dutch Mycological Society has named Clavaria argillacea its Mushroom of the Year 2019, as reported on 20 March 2019.

The species used to be common in the Netherlands in the 1930s. About 1980, it had become threatened because of acid rain. Since then, there have been some measures against acid rain. Things are a bit better for Clavaria argillacea now. It is considered no longer ‘endangered‘, but ‘vulnerable‘.