Luminiscent coral video


This video says about itself:

Fluorescent Coral Glows in the Depth of the Ocean | BBC Earth

18 May 2018

These corals can absorb ultraviolet light and glow in the dark.

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How Australian coral survives cold


This video is called Giant Cabbage Coral (Turbinaria reniformis).

From the ARC Centre of Excellence in Coral Reef Studies in Australia:

How high-latitude corals cope with the cold

Corals growing in high-latitude reefs in Western Australia can regulate their internal chemistry to promote growth under cooler temperatures

May 22, 2018

Corals growing in high-latitude reefs in Western Australia can regulate their internal chemistry to promote growth under cooler temperatures, according to new research at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at The University of Western Australia.

The study, published today in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, suggests that ocean warming may not necessarily promote faster rates of calcification in reefs where temperatures are currently cooler (lower than 18C).

Lead author Claire Ross said the study was carried out over two years in Western Australia’s Bremer Bay, 515km south-east of Perth in the Great Southern region. Bremer Bay is a renowned diving, snorkelling and tourism hot spot due to its stunning crystal clear waters, white sand and high marine biodiversity.

“For two years we used cutting-edge geochemical techniques to link the internal chemistry of the coral with how fast the corals were growing in a high-latitude reef”, Ms Ross said.

“These high-latitude reefs (above 28 degrees north and below 28 degrees south) have lower light and temperatures compared to the tropics and essentially provide natural laboratories for investigating the limits for coral growth.”

Ms Ross said the researchers expected the corals to grow slower during winter because the water was colder and light levels lower but they were surprised to find the opposite pattern.

“We were able to link the remarkable capacity for temperate corals to maintain high growth during winter to the regulation of their internal chemistry,” she said.

“We also found that there was more food in the water for corals during winter compared to summer, indicating that (in addition to internal chemical regulation) corals may feed more to sustain growth.”

Coral reefs are one of world’s most valuable natural resources, providing a habitat for many ocean species, shoreline protection from waves and storms, as well as being economically important for tourism and fisheries.

However, studies have shown that the important process by which corals build their skeletons is under threat due to CO2-driven climate change. The effects of climate change on coral reefs are likely to vary geographically, but relatively little is known about the growth rates of reefs outside of the tropics.

“Our study is unique because it is among the first to fully decipher the corals’ internal chemistry”, Ms Ross said. “The findings of this study help better understand and predict the future of high-latitude coral reefs under CO2-driven climate change.”

Blue hole diving in the Bahamas


This video says about itself:

15 December 2017

Jonathan travels to Andros, an island in the Bahamas, to investigate underwater caves that start in blue holes. A blue hole looks like a pond, but leads into a vast underwater cave system. In the Bahamas, these caves often lead to the ocean. As Jonathan explores the ocean end of the caves, he learns how the two systems are connected.

JONATHAN BIRD‘S BLUE WORLD is an Emmy Award-winning underwater science/adventure program.

Saba coral reef, new wildlife discoveries


This 20 February 2018 deep sea video shows conger eels, sharks and other wildlife near Saba island in the Caribbean.

The Dutch ship Pelagia is doing research about the coral reefs of the Saba Bank. Near the island, there are pollution problems. However, the ship also discovered a so far unknown reef which is in good condition.

This 2014 video features a closer inspection of some of the coral reef fauna found at Saba.

This video is about the 2018 Pelagia research.

Small cleaner fish keep coral reefs healthy


This 2012 video says about itself:

This tiny bluestreak cleaner wrasse looks pretty brave by swimming into that big potato cod‘s mouth, but don’t worry. These two fish have a deal!

The cleaner wrasse helps out bigger fish by eating any parasites and dead tissue that might be clinging to them. In exchange for the wrasse’s assistance, the bigger fish refrain from snacking on them. The wrasse gets a free meal from the cod, and the cod stays healthier because of the wrasse.

Relationships like this, where different plants or animals work together and help each other out is called “mutualism” because both organisms mutually benefit from the other being around. In fact, these little cleaner wrasses are so good at what they do, that these bigger fish will actually seek them out– they’ll deliberately pay visits to wrasse cleaning stations along reefs, much the same way people will line up to have their cars cleaned on a nice summer day!

From the Université de Montréal in Canada:

Staying clean keeps seafish smart

March 7, 2018

“Vet” service provided by smaller fish is key to keeping coral reefs healthy, a Canadian study finds.

A team of international researchers led by a Canadian biologist has found that infection with parasites makes it harder for seafish living in coral reefs to think.

The study, conducted at the Lizard Island Research Station in Australia and led by Assistant Professor Sandra Binning of Université de Montréal’s Department of Biological Sciences, was published today in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

It highlights the important role of both parasites and cleaning organisms in the decision-making abilities of reef fish.

Binning and her team found that sick seafish can get well again by seeking out other animals like the blue-streaked “cleaner wrasse”, a common aquarium fish that eats harmful parasites off their “clients”, helping keep them healthy.

“We collected wild damselfish with or without access to cleaner wrasse and tested their ability to solve a feeding test in the lab”, Binning recalled. “We then compared their performance to fish that we infected with parasites experimentally.”

“We found that infection with parasites, especially in high numbers, really affects the ability of fish to learn.”

These results may not be surprising to anyone who’s been sick and tried to do activities requiring thinking and concentration. “When we’re sick, our body diverts resources away from our brain towards fighting off the infection”, Binning noted. “This makes it harder for us to think and learn.”

Humans may also benefit from staying parasite-free. “Studies have found that schoolchildren with stomach worms perform worse on standardized tests that their parasite-free peers,” said Binning. “Treating these kids with anti-parasite medication improves their performance.”

Although fish can’t take medication when they’re feeling under the weather, they can enlist the help of cleaners to help rid them of their parasites. This access to cleaning services can dramatically improve a fish’s performance in a learning test.

According to Dr. Binning, “cleaner wrasse act like the vets of the sea. Clients visit cleaners to get their parasites removed, and this helps boost their ability to think and solve the test.”

Interactions with cleaner wrasse are also known to reduce client stress levels and increase local recruitment of coral reef fishes.

However, this vital role in maintaining healthy reef communities may be under threat: cleaner wrasse are among the top marine fishes caught for the aquarium industry, due to their colourful patterns and charismatic behaviour.

“It’s important that we understand the impacts of reduced access to cleaners on client fishes”, said Binning. “Cleaners may not be the largest or most abundant fish on the reef, but they affect the well-being of thousands of their clients. This needs to be taken into consideration when setting collection limits and managing marine parks.”

The study was done in collaboration with several groups of researchers: Derek Sun and Alexandra Grutter of the University of Queensland in Australia; Dominique Roche, Simona Colosio and Redouan Bshary of the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland; and Joanna Miest of the University of Greenwich in the U.K.

Great Barrier Reef coral reproduction


This 9 January 2018 video says about itself:

See ‘Underwater Snowstorm’ of Coral Reproducing | National Geographic

This is what it looks like when coral spawns in the Great Barrier Reef.

REEF REPAIR Australia will spend $379 million trying to save the Great Barrier Reef — the largest single investment ever made toward protecting the fading ecosystem. [HuffPost]

Scientists reveal global warming’s impact on Great Barrier Reef: here.