Baboons in Kenya, video


This video from Kenya says about itself:

10 October 2016

The Tyack family are back on safari on Ol Pejeta Conservancy and have an interesting encounter with a troop of baboons.

Dogs against monkeys at Japanese farms


This video says about itself:

Dog Vs Monkey In Japan – Wild Japan – BBC

11 July 2016

Japanese farmers have been using the internet’s favourite dog to protect their crops from thieving monkeys.

Baboons save impala, other animal lives saved, video


This video says about itself:

20 April 2016

AMAZING: Baboons Save Deer [rather: impala antelope] From LeopardHyena Helps Deer [rather: antelope], Bear Saves Crow

New monkey species discovery in Peru


Urubamba brown titi

From New Scientist:

7 August 2015

New species of titi monkey discovered in remote Peruvian forest

A new species of monkey has been discovered on an expedition to the remote Urubamba river in Amazonian Peru. It has been named the Urubamba brown titi, Callicebus urubambensis.

Titis are the largest group of South American monkeys, and the discovery pushes the number of known species to 34, though the exact number is still a matter of some debate. Most are the size of a domestic cat, live in small family groups and defend their territories with howl-like roars.

“Its appearance is very distinct from other titis, the entire body and tail are much darker, and the face is all black,” says co-discoverer Jan Vermeer, coordinator of the Peru-based primate research programme, Proyecto Mono Tocón.

Each titi species has a specific colour pattern, and these patterns seem to be evolutionarily important.

Surprisingly, the new monkey seems to be common along a swathe of forest some 350 kilometres long.

“So often when a new monkey is discovered it is already threatened with extinction” says Vermeer. “This is a remote area with very little hunting, so for once this is not the case.”

The region in which the research was conducted, the Madre do Dios section of the Peruvian Amazon, is an area of extraordinary biological richness, with many species restricted to the forests between two large rivers. The width of the rivers – and the voracious piranhas that live in them – provide natural barriers to dispersion.

The expedition also allowed scientists to study another titi monkey species for the first time since it was described 100 years ago, the Toppin’s titi monkey (Callicebus toppini).

Vermeer and colleagues hope the discoveries will shed light on titi monkey evolution and dispersal, as well as help raise awareness of this remote and little-studied region.

Titi monkeys are small and discreet. We are only just beginning to understand the factors driving their diversity,” says Stephen Ferrari of the Sergipe Federal University in Brazil. “A few decades ago, only five titi species were known. I think many more will be discovered as we explore southern Amazonia’s biologically uncharted forests.”

Journal reference: Primate Conservation

See also here. And here.

Nut-bashing capuchin monkeys and human evolution


This 2013 video is called Brown capuchin monkeys breaking nuts – One Life – BBC.

From National Geographic:

Nut-Bashing Monkeys Offer Window Into Human Evolution

Brazil’s bearded capuchins know how much force is needed to crack open a nut—a surprisingly human-like skill, a new study says.

By Liz Langley

PUBLISHED July 18, 2015

Give me a hammer, and I’d probably end up bashing my thumb with it. When it comes to tool use, dexterity counts.

So when Saturday’s Weird Animal Question of the Week heard about the famous nut-crushing monkeys of Brazil, we took the prerogative to ask: “How can these monkeys crack nuts so accurately?”

First off, these bearded capuchins open tough palm nuts by putting them on “anvils,” including logs and boulders, and hammering at them, according to research by National Geographic explorer Dorothy Fragaszy of the University of Georgia at Athens.

Fragaszy and colleagues already knew the monkeys are choosy about their nut-cracking tools, for instance by selecting rocks that are heavier than themselves. (Related: “Hercules Monkeys Lift Stones to Crack Nuts.”)

But she didn’t know how the capuchins can skillfully get to their snack without smashing it to smithereens—until now. New observations in the southeastern state of Piauí, Brazil (map) reveal that the animals carefully regulate the force they use in nut-cracking.

After each strike, the monkeys evaluate the condition of the nut and then tailor the force of the next blow accordingly. (See National Geographic‘s monkey pictures.)

That’s called dexterity, “a very surprising skill we never expected to find in a non-human animal,” says Madhur Mangalam, also of the University of Georgia at Athens. (Read about how clever crows use one tool to acquire another.)

“We thought they’d try to break the nut with as much force as they can,” adds Mangalam, who’s a co-author with Fragaszy on a recent study published in the journal Current Biology.

Monkey Practice, Monkey Do

The monkeys’ impressive skill also offers some insight into the evolution of human tool use, the scientists say.

Take stone knapping, or using one stone to strike another in order to shape it into an arrowhead or other useful object—a strategy used by many early humans.

“A novice knapper sort of bangs one stone against another and produces nothing very much that’s usable,” Fragaszy says. (Read how a wrong discovery led to the discovery of the oldest stone tools.)

A skilled knapper, on the other hand, controls the force of the stone “hammer”—much like capuchins.

Our ancestors’ nut-cracking skills likely “allowed us to have a more complex skill of stone knapping,” Mangalam adds. (See “Human Ancestors May Have Used Tools Half-Million Years Earlier Than Thought.”)

Another thing the monkeys have in common with people: They both have to learn their expertise.

Capuchins take a couple of years to learn nut-cracking, which takes a lot of practice and playing with tools nuts and stones in different ways to get it right, Mangalam says.

Practice makes perfect—sounds anything but nutty to us.