Why post-1865 Reconstruction failed for African Americans


1874 cartoon by Thomas Nast, about violence by organisations like the Ku Klux Klan and the White League against African Americans in the southern states of the USA

This is an October 1874 cartoon from Harper’s Weekly, by Thomas Nast, about violence by organisations like the Ku Klux Klan and the White League against African Americans in the southern states of the USA.

Translated from Leiden University in the Netherlands today:

US government offered little protection to black population

The federal government ignored the rights of the black population after the American Civil War. Historian Mark Leon de Vries discovered that the national government virtually did not help at all. Doctorate ceremony on 23 April.

Terror campaign by the Ku Klux Klan

After the American Civil War (1861-1865) the national government passed a number of laws that should provide far-reaching social and political equality for blacks in the southern United States. This did not happen: a group of conservative whites in the region, the Ku Klux Klan, vehemently protested against this policy and orchestrated a campaign of terror against blacks and whites who supported them.

Government did not maintain its own laws

But not only local opposition was a cause of the sorry state of black Americans. De Vries: “Politicians from the north did little to enforce their own laws in the south. That was because the topic did not really live in the north, where relatively few blacks lived. It did not help the government much electorally to deploy people and resources accordingly. In addition, after some time the recovery of the relationship with the southern states became increasingly important.”

Red River Valley: hotbed of violence

De Vries discovered this by the study of violence against blacks in the Red River Valley, Louisiana. “According to statistics, this was one of the regions where most violence occurred against black people. That was also because the federal court was far away: to get there you had to travel a few days, first on the Red River, then along the Mississippi. When the water was high enough, at least. Law enforcement was done mainly by local sheriffs and judges who disliked the ideas from the north.”

Washington knew of abuses

He believes that compliance with the laws certainly would have had effect on the position of black people. “First, because the violence in the area noticeably decreased in those places where local federal officials themselves took the initiative to enforce existing laws. Because there were abuses in the Red River Valley, Washington heard that too. After a few years, after federal enforcement was greatly reduced, violence flared up again. Second, if the legislation would have brought nothing, why did the southerners there resist it so much?” De Vries was the first historian who through the study of a particular subject area studied how the national government in the United States reacted to violence against blacks.

Echo of the past

De Vries explains on the basis of his research there is a link between the past and the present. “The racial terror and lawlessness of that period reverberates in the recent murders of black Americans.” Does he think that even now the national government should intervene more actively? “That’s a tough question. You can see that now more organs react to abuses. The policeman who recently shot and killed black man Walter Scott will be prosecuted, the police union does not support him. Let’s hope that change in culture will continue.”

In the Walter Scott case, it was extremely important that a bystander made an amateur video. If there would have been no video, then things might unfortunately have gone like in the case of the death of Michael Brown.

Also translated from Leiden University about this:

The prevailing view, often based on research into federal level politics, is that the failure of Reconstruction was a more or less inevitable consequence of the compromises that the Republican party had to make and of, as a consequence, the relatively conservative reforms that they endorsed.

This research suggests, in contrast, that the failure of Reconstruction was by no means inevitable.

It was due to the refusal of the federal government to maintain in practice its reforms, limited as they were. These reforms could have achieved much more if the federal government would have found an adequate response to the violent opposition among the white population. The outcome of Reconstruction was therefore not so much a “compromise of principles,” but overall a capitulation to terror.

Another suicuide in Missouri Republican party anti-Semitism scandal?


This video from Missouri in the USA says about itself:

Just over a month after the suicide of his boss, Missouri Auditor Tom Schweich, communications director Spence Jackson was found dead Sunday in his apartment in Jefferson City in what police are investigating as a suicide. Jefferson City Police Captain Doug Shoemaker takes media questions about the investigation on Monday, 03/30/2015.

From Slate.com in the USA:

Aide to Missouri Politician Who Committed Suicide Is Found Dead in Apparent Suicide

By Ben Mathis-Lilley

An upsetting story out of Missouri: A former aide to a political figure named Tom Schweich—who died Feb. 26 in an apparent suicide—has been found dead in what is also thought to have been a suicide. Spence Jackson, 44, was the media director for Schweich, a former Bush administration official and state auditor who was “a frontrunner,” per the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, to be the Republican party’s nominee in the 2016 Missouri governor’s race.

Schweich and Jackson were both recently involved in a strange scandal involving allegations of an “anti-Semitic ‘whisper campaign’” against Schweich perpetrated by fellow Missouri Republican John Hancock. Schweich was not, in fact, Jewish.

Schweich was a Protestant Christian. One of his grandfathers was Jewish.

United States religious fundamentalist’s half-retraction of ‘stone gays’ advocacy


This video from the USA says about itself:

Stone Gays To Death Or Risk God’s Wrath, Says GOP Candidate

16 June 2014

“Scott Esk, a Republican candidate for the Oklahoma state house, endorsed stoning gay people to death last year in a comment thread on Facebook.

By David Edwards in the USA:

Bob Jones apologizes 35 years after saying gays should be ‘stoned’ — still calls them ‘sinners

22 March 2015 at 10:09 ET

Bob Jones III, chancellor of Bob Jones University, shocked LGBT activists by apologizing for anti-gay comments that he made 35 years ago.

Bob Jones University is a fundamentalist Protestant organisation, (in-)famous inter alia for denying evolution science, for racism, etc. Similar in many respect to the self-styled ‘Liberty University’, founded by Bob Jones’ colleague fundamentalist preacher Jerry Fallwell; an institution where President Obama’s Democratic Party is banned.

In 1980, Jones made the remarks to the Associated Press while he and other fundamentalist Christian pastors were visiting the White House to oppose equal rights for LGBT people.

“I’m sure this will be greatly misquoted,” Jones told the AP. “But it would not be a bad idea to bring the swift justice today that was brought in Israel’s day against murder and rape and homosexuality. I guarantee it would solve the problem post-haste if homosexuals were stoned, if murderers were immediately killed as the Bible commands.”

His comments were recently in the news again when authors of a 3-year-old Change.org petition noted that Jones had still not apologized.

Over the weekend, Jones shocked activists by finally apologizing for the comments.

“I take personal ownership of this inflammatory rhetoric. This reckless statement was made in the heat of a political controversy 35 years ago,” Jones said in a statement. “Upon now reading these long-forgotten words, they seem to me as words belonging to a total stranger—were my name not attached.”

“I cannot erase them, but wish I could, because they do not represent the belief of my heart or the content of my preaching. Neither before, nor since, that event in 1980 have I ever advocated the stoning of sinners,” he added.

BJ Unity Executive Director Jeffrey Hoffman told WSPA that the apology was shocking.

“It is never too late to say you’re sorry,” Hoffman said. “Most people are just shocked. We never expected to see an apology.”

But he pointed out that the apology was only a first step because LGBT people were still struggling for equality in South Carolina, where Bob Jones University is located.

“It’s been the Gays versus the Christians, which ignores and erases a large number of Gay Christians who live in the upstate of South Carolina,” Hoffman explained. “We think that this is the time to start to talk about how to make Bob Jones University safer for its LGBT students.”