See also here.
By Hilary Hanson in the USA:
It’s part of a group of butterflies that typically have special traits to help them survive the extreme cold.
03/17/2016 03:00 pm ET
A newly discovered butterfly species may be the only type of butterfly that can be found solely in Alaska.
The Tanana Arctic butterfly (Oeneis tanana), named after Alaska’s Tanana-Yukon River Basin, where the insect lives, has actually been present in a collection at the Florida Museum of Natural History for more than 60 years, according to a University of Florida press release. There, a specimen of the butterfly was categorized as the Chryxus Arctic (Oeneis chryxus), a similar-looking close relative.
But recently, Andrew “Lord of the Butterflies” Warren, a lepidopterist (that’s a scientist who studies butterflies and moths), was sorting through collections when he noticed that one butterfly labeled as Oenies chryxus didn’t look quite right, Smithsonian Mag reported.
This specimen — which came from Alaska — was bigger and darker, and had more white specks on its wings that make it look as if it was covered in frost. On top of that, researchers found that the butterfly had a unique DNA sequence.
Warren and his team started collecting more specimens in Alaska like that one, and their work was published in The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera on Tuesday.
Warren believes the Tanana Arctic could be a hybrid species, the result of breeding between the Chryxus Arctic and another species, the White-Veined Arctic (Oeneis bore). Those species — which are also found in the Yukon Territory and places like Russia and Siberia, in addition to Alaska — are specially adapted to extremely cold climates, producing a natural antifreeze to deal with the temperatures.
“Once we sequence the genome, we’ll be able to say whether any special traits helped the butterfly survive in harsh environments,” Warren said in a statement. “This study is just the first of what will undoubtedly be many on this cool butterfly.”
Researchers don’t know yet whether the Tanana Arctic exists outside of Alaska, but are planning more field work to find out.
Genetic study of museum specimens shows how fragmented habitats impact butterfly evolution: here.
This video says about itself:
Metamorphosis: The Beauty & Design of Butterflies
Throughout history, butterflies have fascinated artists and philosophers, scientists and schoolchildren with their profound mystery and beauty. In Metamorphosis you will explore their remarkable world as few ever have before.
By Peter Frost in Britain:
Threatened butterflies given a fighting chance
Friday 26th February 2016
Agricultural intensification, the loss of wildflower-rich grassland and changing woodland management have threatened these colourful insects — but help is at hand, writes PETER FROST
Lepidopterists, butterfly spotters, have been rubbing their eyes and checking their calendars in what is proving to be a remarkably early spring this year. In my native Northamptonshire, a Small Tortoiseshell was out and about on New Year’s Day.
I love butterflies, the first sight of a buttery pale yellow Brimstone is usually the first indication that winter is past.
It is the pale hue of the Brimstone that is the origin of the word butterfly.
It is always a welcome sight on summer boating days.
The clouds of the palest blue butterflies fly up in clouds disturbed by walkers on high-chalk grasslands. They always seem to be most numerous around the chalk figures and horses cut into the hillside.
Flying high in the woods near my Northamptonshire home you may spot the most spectacular rare, exotic and curious Purple Emperor. No wonder poet John Clare, who knew those woods so well, called all butterflies “Queen of all the insect race.”
Now, despite an early start to the year, those wonderful, fragile, colourful species are in trouble. More than three-quarters of Britain’s butterflies have declined in the past 40 years, according to a report by the charity Butterfly Conservation.
The study drew on local observations and surveys by thousands of volunteers lepidopterists and butterfly-spotters.
Agricultural intensification, the loss of wildflower rich grassland and changing woodland management are believed to be the main causes.
More recently the use of neonicotinoids — so harmful to bees and other flying insects — has also had a drastic effect on butterfly numbers. Climate change and pesticide use are further factors in the widespread decline.
The report found that a number of species such as the Wall, Essex Skipper and Small Heath now rank among the most severely declining butterflies in Britain.
Not all the news is bad. While the main conclusions suggest a bleak outlook for these beautiful creatures, some rare species were benefiting from targeted conservation.
The report reveals that intensive conservation efforts have started to turn around the fortunes of some of the most endangered butterflies.
According to Richard Fox, author of the report, this was as a result of landscape-scale projects — protecting and restoring threatened habitats such as managed wildflower-rich grasslands and heath land.
The threatened Duke of Burgundy butterfly, for example, has seen a recent increase in abundance of 67 per cent, following years of decline, thanks to grassland restoration, while the Pearl-bordered Fritillary has experienced a 45 per cent rise.
Numbers of Britain’s most threatened butterfly, the High Brown Fritillary, has also been boosted, particularly by conservation work in Exmoor National Park. Dingy Skipper and Silver-studded Blue have shown 21 per cent and 19 per cent increases respectively.
Other species continue to struggle. The long-term decline of the Wood White, White Admiral and Marsh Fritillary show few signs of halting.
The report reveals a north-south divide among butterflies with species in England declining and those in Scotland holding their own.
The report also reveals that more butterflies are migrating to Britain from overseas. Since the 1970s, visits from the three common migrant species — Clouded Yellow, Red Admiral and Painted Lady — have all increased dramatically.
Fox, head of recording at the charity Butterfly Conservation, told us: “Thanks to tens of thousands of people who help to count butterflies in Britain each year, we have a clear picture of the changing fortunes of these captivating insects.
“Overall the situation is stark. Most butterflies have decreased since the 1970s and an alarming number of common species have declined severely.
“On the other hand, trends over the past decade provide grounds for optimism and show that our approach to conserving threatened butterflies can stem and even reverse declines.
“It’s about protecting these sites from being destroyed,” Fox continued: “Co-ordinated management of a landscape in a whole series of sites — that gives the butterflies a fighting chance.”
The charity’s vice-president and broadcaster Chris Packham told the Morning Star: “This report reveals that UK butterflies are in real trouble. Yet again we are presented with sobering evidence that our much-cherished wildlife is in dire straits.
“As a society we are guilty of standing idly by as once common species, never mind the rarities, suffer staggering declines. This is a situation that should shame us all.
“The future of the UK’s butterflies does not have to be bleak. This report shows conservation work can and does turn around the fortunes of our most threatened butterflies.”
Let’s hope that all those early sightings are a harbinger of a really bright and colourful butterfly summer.
This video from Surrey Hills nature reserve in England says about itself:
17 February 2016
Male Chalkhill Blue butterflies look beautiful but have some unusual feeding habits.
In carnival in the Netherlands this year, there is not only participation by Syrian refugees.
Translated from the Dutch Vlinderstichting entomologists:
Feb 4, 2016 – This weekend the time has come: carnival. Many people look forward to it, others can not wait until it’s over. This year it is a very special carnival because the scarce large blue butterflies join! To make the nature restoration project ‘Blues in the Marshes’ known to people there will be in the big parade in Den Bosch on Monday, February 8th a real scarce large blue butterfly float.
In 2018 there will be after completion of the LIFE + project ‘Blues in the Marshes’ in Den Bosch around 170 hectares of new nature. In the Vlijmens Ven and the Honderdmorgen there are created on an area as large as 340 football grounds humid arid grasslands, including Cirsio dissecti-Molinietum grasslands. One of the target species is the extremely rare scarce large blue butterfly, but all of nature will benefit strongly and the scenery is becoming more beautiful and more enjoyable.
However, today, 8 February 2016, is a stormy weather day. Because of that, many carnival parades in the Netherlands, and in Germany, have been canceled. Including the one in Den Bosch. The Den Bosch carnival association says they now want to have the parade on 6 March, Laetare Sunday. Until then, the scarce large butterfly float and the other floats will have to wait.
On 6 March, the weather may be better for human carnival parade participants dressed up like scarce large blue butterflies …
This Dutch November 2015 video is from the film ‘Holland – natuur in de delta’. It was recorded near Den Bosch.
It says about itself:
How to film Maculinea teleius, Scarce Large Blue?