Griffon vultures depend on sun to fly


This video says about itself:

Griffon Vultures Depend on the Sun to Fly. Why?

The Griffon vulture is one of the largest vulture species. Because of its giant stature, it uses an immense amount of energy to take off. Luckily, these birds have found a way to use the rising currents of hot air to their advantage. From: DAVID ATTENBOROUGH‘S CONQUEST OF THE SKIES: Triumph.

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Vultures of the Americas, all species


This 2017 video says about itself:

New World Vultures – All Vultures – Species List

Black vulture : (Coragyps atratus)
Turkey vulture : (Cathartes aura)
Lesser yellow-headed vulture : (Cathartes burrovianus)
Greater yellow-headed vulture : (Cathartes melambrotus)
California condor : (Gymnogyps californianus)
Andean condor : (Vultur gryphus)
King vulture : (Sarcoramphus papa)

Egyptian vulture migration, new research


This video from Bulgaria is called The life of the Egyptian vulture.

From the University of Utah in the USA:

Vultures reveal critical Old World flyways

April 30, 2018

Summary: Identifying bottlenecks — i.e. places where birds concentrate on migration — helps bird conservationists know what areas to focus on and get the most bang for their buck, since a large percentage of a species’ population can pass through these small areas.

It’s not easy to catch an Egyptian vulture. Evan Buechley knows. He’s hunkered down near garbage dumps from Ethiopia to Armenia, waiting for the highly intelligent birds to trigger a harmless trap. But no matter how well he and other researchers hid the traps, he says, “somehow the birds could always sense that something was up.”

Eventually Buechley, a postdoctoral scholar at the University of Utah and HawkWatch International, and his colleagues caught and tagged a total of 45 vultures from 2012-2016. The Egyptian Vulture is an endangered species, and by tracking them Buechley and colleagues were able to learn more about where they eat, breed and migrate.

These vultures migrated along the Red Sea Flyway — a large area connecting the summer and winter ranges of birds in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa — and their travel routes revealed migratory bird corridors and bottlenecks. Identifying bottlenecks — i.e. places where birds concentrate on migration — helps bird conservationists know what areas to focus on and get the most bang for their buck, since a large percentage of a species’ population can pass through these small areas.

“The Red Sea Flyway connects birds from Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East — all those birds that migrate into Africa”, Buechley says. “But because of political instability in some countries and harsh desert environs throughout, it’s minimally studied. There’s not a lot of conservation happening. It’s a big research gap.”

Buechley and his international colleagues … published their results in two papers, one appearing in Biodiversity and Conservation on March 19, 2018, and another appearing in the Journal of Avian Biology today.

Migration routes

The data shows that the vultures traveled as far as 7,500 miles (12,000 kilometers) in a single migration, at up to around 223 miles (360 km) per day. “They’re traveling far and traveling fast,” Buechley says.

The vultures are just one species out of around 35 large soaring bird species that migrate along the Red Sea Flyway. There are dozens more small birds that migrate here, as well. It’s the second-largest migratory flyway in the world, behind only the Americas Flyway, which connects North and South America.

On some flyways, migratory birds are funneled into narrow passageways over land due to geographic features, Buechley says. Large birds like Egyptian vultures need to glide to conserve energy. They use rising columns of thermal air to keep soaring without needing to constantly flap their 5.6 foot-wingspan (1.7 m) — a kind of avian cruise control. These thermals rarely exist over the ocean, so birds tend to hug coasts and mountain ridges.

That’s borne out in the flight paths Buechley and his colleagues reported. The main bottlenecks are the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait for southern-bound birds and the Suez Canal zone for northern-bound birds. The former is where the birds enter Africa from the Arabian Peninsula, by hopping over the narrow strait at the southern end of the Red Sea.

With the key bottlenecks identified, the researchers then looked at how well protected these areas were. Unfortunately, none of the areas within the most important bird bottlenecks receive any federal protection from the nations in which they sit, the analyses show. However, Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) — places recognized for their international importance for conservation — do overlap some of these areas and future work could focus at these sites. Steffen Oppel, a scientist who works in the global network of BirdLife International which is responsible for designating IBAs, says that recognizing the importance of such bottlenecks is vital to influence developments that may harm birds on migration. The Migratory Soaring Bird Sensitivity Tool allows developers of wind farms, for example, to assess how likely it is that their turbines may affect migrating birds.

Wind turbines are just one of the major hazards that vultures face along their journeys. Illegal shooting and poisoning is a concern throughout their ranges, Buechley says. Also, the birds rest on power distribution structures, which present the risk of collision and electrocution.

How we can help

Although the report seems dire, Buechley says there’s hope. The Africa side of the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait sits in the nation of Djibouti. “It’s bordered by Yemen and Somalia, but Djibouti is a safe and stable country,” he says. “And that’s where the bottleneck is. The most important place for the birds is actually a place where researchers and conservationists can work.”

Buechley and his colleagues hope to begin monitoring raptor migration at the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait to gain a better understanding of how many birds, apart from vultures, use that flyway. “It’s a transition from identifying these places to researching in depth, and ultimately working to protect, the most critical ones,” Buechley says. Bird conservationists have their sights set on Turkey, Armenia and Ethiopia as well.

Black vulture in Florida, USA


This video from Florida in the USA says about itself:

16 February 2018

Hanging out with a Vulture Hiking Buddy! A friendly Black Vulture walks with me on a marsh hike for over half a mile! Breaking trail is Vulture’s thing – I had no idea they were such great walkers.

Early dinosaurs, gay vultures, other recent science


This video says about itself:

18 April 2018

The early dinosaurs seem to owe much of their success to an extinction event, a new study finds, and a gay griffon vulture couple have successfully raised a chick that has now been released. All this and more in this week’s 7 Days of Science.

Same-sex vulture couple’s youngster freed in Sardinia


This 16 April 2018 video shows how two young griffon vultures, raised in Artis zoo in Amsterdam in the Netherlands, are freed in Sardinia in Italy.

The young griffon vulture, raised in Artis zoo by same-sex parents, photo by Artis

Translated from Dutch NOS TV:

Artis frees two young griffon vultures in Sardinia

Today, 15:09

Artis Zoo has freed two young griffon vultures this weekend in Sardinia. One of the vultures became well-known last year because it was hatched and raised by an all-male same-sex couple. The other vulture is the chick of two vultures which were injured in the wild in Spain and could no longer be released.

The Amsterdam zoo is participating in a project that reintroduces griffon vultures into Sardinia. Their number there has declined since the 1970s because farmers put poisoned carcasses on their land to kill predators. As scavengers the griffon vultures also became victims of this.

Conservation

Meanwhile, the griffon vultures are doing better, but protection remains important. The birds now have to deal with new threats, such as roadkill when eating cadavers on roads or injuries caused by power lines.

Within the ‘Life Under Griffon Wings‘ nature project, a total of 60 griffon vultures will be released, including last weekend the two Artis youngsters. At the same time as the Amsterdam birds, ten other griffon vultures from zoos in Europe were released. …

The all-male griffon vulture couple in Artis could breed last year by chance. “We found an egg in the aviary, that happens more often, but because we did not know which couple’s it was and they did their best, we gave them the chance to breed. Both male and female griffon vultures breed and feed youngsters, so that was no problem.”

See also here.

California condor, from egg to fledging


The Cornell Lab of Ornithology in the USA writes about this video:

Surviving Devils Gate: 2017 California Condor Cam Highlights

5 February 2018

Peer into the lives of one of the worlds most majestic endangered species on the California Condor cam, and relive the events of a harrowing breeding season from the rocky ridges of the Devils Gate nest.

Watch condor chick #871 grow out of her natal down, survive sweeping wildfires, and become the first ever successful fledgling on the California Condor cam.