Film on north Norwegian fjord wildlife

This February 2020 video says about itself, translated:

Fjord (Norway’s Magical Fjords) – trailer

The Norwegian fjords are one of the most impressive regions in Europe. A surprisingly rich underwater world lurks in the deep, cold waters: from vast coral reefs full of luminescent sea creatures to herring-hunting killer whales and humpback whales. Award-winning nature filmmaker Jan Haft reveals the special diversity hidden in the dark water and shows underwater behaviour that has never been seen before. Fjord is an intimate portrait of a unique wilderness.

On 13 June 2020, I went to see this film about northern Norway. Most chairs in the cinema were kept empty, to make spatial distancing against the coronavirus possible.

This beautiful film shows the importance of the billions of herring wintering in the fjords for the food chain. Killer whales attack them: then, dead herring drift upwards as food for herring gulls. Other dead herring sink to the bottom, as food for seastars, crabs, lantern shanks and flatfish.

Apart from humpbacks and orcas, the film mentions a third cetacean species: harbour porpoises. Unfortunately and unnecessarily, the film says, each year 10,000 porpoises die as bycatch in fishing nets in Norway.

In winter, the fjords are mostly frozen, stopping much sunlight from shining underwater. That attracts a deep-sea species which cannot stand much light: Periphylla periphylla, the helmet jellyfish.

The film also pays attention to wildlife in the mountains around the fjords. Like Megabunus diadema, a harvestman species. And bird species: capercaillie, bluethroat and ruff.

Edvard Munch´s The Scream painting threatened

This 2017 video says about itself

Edvard Munch – The Scream (1893)

‘The Scream’ is one of the most iconic paintings in the world, but what is it about?

By watching this video you’ll learn the major facts about ‘The Scream’ by Norwegian painter Edvard Munch (1863-1944). The painting will be visually analyzed (composition, ordonnance, color, technique, style, etc.) and the common interpretations are explained.

From the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility:

Key to preserving The Scream

May 15, 2020

Moisture is the main environmental factor that triggers the degradation of the masterpiece The Scream (1910?) by Edvard Munch, according to the finding of an international team of scientists led by the CNR (Italy), using a combination of in situ non-invasive spectroscopic methods and synchrotron X-ray techniques. After exploiting the capability of the European mobile platform MOLAB in situ and non-invasively at the Munch Museum in Oslo, the researchers came to the ESRF, the European Synchrotron (Grenoble, France), the world’s brightest X-ray source, to carry out non-destructive experiments on micro-flakes originating from one of the most well-known versions of The Scream. The findings could help better preserve this masterpiece, which is seldom exhibited due to its degradation. The study is published in Science Advances.

The Scream is among the most famous paintings of the modern era. The now familiar image is interpreted as the ultimate representation of anxiety and mental anguish. There are a number of versions of The Scream, namely two paintings, two pastels, several lithographic prints and a few drawings and sketches. The two most well-known versions are the paintings that Edvard Munch created in 1893 and 1910. Each version of The Scream is unique. Munch clearly experimented to find the exact colours to represent his personal experience, mixing diverse binding media (tempera, oil and pastel) with brilliant and bold synthetic pigments to make ‘screaming colours’. Unfortunately, the extensive use of these new coloured materials poses a challenge for the long-term preservation of Munch’s artworks.

The version of the Scream (1910?) that belongs to the Munch Museum (Oslo, Norway) clearly exhibits signs of degradation in different areas where cadmium-sulfide-based pigments have been used: cadmium yellow brushstrokes have turned to an off-white colour in the sunset cloudy sky and in the neck area of the central figure. In the lake, a thickly applied opaque cadmium yellow paint is flaking. Throughout its existence, several elements have played a role in the deterioration of the masterpiece: the yellow pigments used, the environmental conditions and a theft in 2004, when the painting disappeared for two years.

Since the recovery of the painting after the theft, the masterpiece has rarely been shown to the public. Instead, it is preserved in a protected storage area in the Munch Museum, in Norway, under controlled conditions of lighting, temperature (about 18°C) and relative humidity (about 50%).

An international collaboration, led by the CNR (Italy), with the University of Perugia (Italy), the University of Antwerp (Belgium), the Bard Graduate Center in New York City (USA), the European Synchrotron (ESRF, France), the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) and the Munch Museum, has studied in detail the nature of the various cadmium-sulfide pigments used by Munch, and how these have degraded over the years.

The findings provide relevant hints about the deterioration mechanism of cadmium-sulfide-based paints, with significant implication for the preventive conservation of The Scream.

“The synchrotron micro-analyses allowed us to pinpoint the main reason that made the painting decline, which is moisture. We also found that the impact of light in the paint is minor. I am very pleased that our study could contribute to preserve this famous masterpiece,” explains Letizia Monico, one of the corresponding authors of the study.

Hitting the right formula for preservation

Monico and her colleagues studied selected cadmium-sulfide-based areas of The Scream (1910?), as well as a corresponding micro-sample, using a series of non-invasive in-situ spectroscopic analyses with portable equipment of the European MOLAB platform in combination with the techniques of micro X-ray diffraction, X-ray micro fluorescence and micro X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy mainly at the ESRF, the European Synchrotron, in France, the world’s most powerful synchrotron. The study of the painting was integrated with investigations of artificially aged mock-ups. The latter were prepared using a historical cadmium yellow pigment powder and a cadmium yellow oil paint tube that belonged to Munch. Both mock-ups had a similar composition to the lake in the painting. “Our goal was to compare the data from all these different pigments, in order to extrapolate the causes that can lead to deterioration,” says Monico.

The study shows that the original cadmium sulfide turns into cadmium sulfate in the presence of chloride-compounds in high-moisture conditions (relative humidity, or RH ?95%). This happens even if there is no light.

“The right formula to preserve and display the main version of The Scream on a permanent basis should include the mitigation of the degradation of the cadmium yellow pigment by minimising the exposure of the painting to excessively high moisture levels (trying to reach 45% RH or lower), while keeping the lighting at standard values foreseen for lightfast painting materials. The results of this study provide new knowledge, which may lead to practical adjustments to the Museum’s conservation strategy,” explains Irina C. A. Sandu, conservation scientist at the Munch Museum.

“Today the Munch Museum stores and exhibits Edvard Munch’s artworks at a relative humidity of about 50% and at a temperature of around 20 °C. These environmental conditions will also apply to the new Munch Museum to be opened in Spring 2020. That said, the Museum will now look into how this study may affect the current regime. Part of such a review will be to consider how other materials in the collection will respond to possible adjustments,” adds Eva Storevik Tveit, paintings conservator at the Munch Museum.

Cadmium-sulfide-based yellows are not only present in Munch’s artwork but also in the work of other artists contemporary to him, such as Henri Matisse, Vincent van Gogh and James Ensor.

“The integration of non-invasive in-situ investigations at the macro-scale level with synchrotron micro-analyses proved its worth in helping us to understand complex alteration processes. It can be profitably exploited for interrogating masterpieces that could suffer from the same weakness,” reports Costanza Miliani, coordinator of the mobile platform MOLAB (operating in Europe under the IPERION CH project) and second corresponding author of this study.

Monico and colleagues, especially Koen Janssens (University of Antwerp), have a long-standing collaboration with the ESRF, the European Synchrotron, and in particular with the scientist Marine Cotte, to investigate these pigments and the best way to preserve the original masterpieces.

“At the ESRF, ID21 is one of the very few beamlines in the world where we can perform imaging X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of the entire sample, at low energy and with sub-micrometer spatial resolution,” explains Janssens.

“EBS, the new Extremely Brilliant Source, the first-of-a-kind high-energy synchrotron, which is under commissioning at the moment at the ESRF, will further improve the capabilities of our instruments for the benefit of world heritage science. We will be able to perform microanalyses with increased sensitivity, and a greater level of detail. Considering the complexity of these artistic materials, such instrumental developments will highly benefit the analysis of our cultural heritage,” adds Cotte, ESRF scientist and CNRS researcher director.

“This kind of work shows that art and science are intrinsically linked and that science can help preserve pieces of art so that the world can continue admiring them for years to come,” concludes Miliani, coordinator of MOLAB.

Young European eels, new research

This 3 April 2018 video from Germany is called Glass eel restocking in Hamburg.

From the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science in the USA:

New study uncovers ‘magnetic’ memory of European glass eels

Researchers find first evidence of a fish capable of forming and retaining a magnetic memory of water currents

October 17, 2019

A new study led by researchers at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and at the Institute of Marine Research in Norway found that European glass eels use their magnetic sense to “imprint” a memory of the direction of water currents in the estuary where they become juveniles. This is the first direct evidence that a species of fish uses its internal magnetic compass to form a memory of current direction.

“It’s an important step forward in understanding the migratory behavior of the commercially important European eel and in expanding our knowledge of the orientation mechanisms that fish use to migrate,” said Alessandro Cresci, a Ph.D. student at the UM Rosenstiel School and first author of the paper. “This research should provide awareness that tiny young eels can accomplish incredible tasks to migrate.”

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a migratory species that crosses the Atlantic Ocean twice during its life. After hatching in the Sargasso Sea, eel larvae move more than 5,000 kilometers with the Gulf Stream until reaching the continental slope of Europe. There, they metamorphose into the post-larval transparent glass eel and continue the migration across the continental shelf to the coast. After reaching the coast, glass eels enter estuaries, where some of them continue their migration upstream into freshwater until later in life (up to 50 years), when as silver eels, they navigate back to the Sargasso Sea to spawn and die.

The research team collected over 200 glass eels from various estuaries in the archipelago of Austevoll, Norway flowing in different directions: north, south, southeast or northwest. The fish were then placed in a magnetic laboratory, the “MagLab”, where magnetic north was rotated to observe their magnetic orientation. In each case the eels oriented towards the magnetic direction of the prevailing tidal current occurring at their recruitment estuary at the time of the tests.

The findings show that glass eels use their magnetic compass to memorize the magnetic direction of tidal flows in their recruitment estuary, which may help them orient in moving water during migration.

“Surprisingly, fish early life behavior can be goal oriented.” said Claire Paris, professor of ocean sciences at the UM Rosenstiel School. “This study complements previous findings showing innate magnetic sense in glass eels and highlights the importance of understanding the complexities of larval behavior. There is a lot we need to learn.”

The European eel is a commercially important species that is critically endangered according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Eel populations have declined precipitously since the 1980.

Good adult Dutch eel news: here.

Diving seabirds pay attention to each other

This 2012 video from Norway is called European Shag, Phalacrocorax aristotelis.

From the University of Exeter in England:

Diving birds follow each other when fishing

September 23, 2019

Diving seabirds watch each other to work out when to dive, new research shows.

Scientists studied European shags and found they were twice as likely to dive after seeing a fellow bird go underwater.

The study is the first to investigate why large groups (known as “rafts”) of shags dive together at sea.

University of Exeter scientists filmed the birds off the Isles of Scilly to examine their behaviour.

“Our results suggest these birds aren’t just reacting to underwater cues when deciding where and when to dive,” said Dr Julian Evans, who led the study as part of his PhD at the University of Exeter.

“They respond to social cues by watching their fellow birds and copying their behaviour.

“They’re essentially using other flock members as sources of information, helping them choose the best place to find fish.”

This behaviour might bring various benefits, and more research is needed to fully understand it.

“Watching other birds could help shags save energy by reducing the need for uninformed sample dives,” said Dr Evans.

“Diving in the same area as another bird might also be beneficial because the prey might be disorganised, pushed into certain areas or fatigued by previous divers.”

Dr Evans said it was important to understand the behaviour of European shags because they — like most seabird species — are under “great pressure” due to declining fish stocks, climate change and habitat loss.

Norwegian mosque gunman news update

This 11 August 2019 United States TV video from Norway says about itself:

Norway mosque worshipper recounts encounter with gunman

A worshipper recounted on Sunday (August 11) how he wrestled with a gunman who fired shots into a mosque in Baerum, Norway on Saturday (August 10), in what is now being treated as a potential terrorist attack.

Translated from Dutch NOS TV today:

The 21-year-old man suspected of committing an attack on a mosque in Norway claims he is innocent. He also denies having murdered his 17-year-old step-sister.

The lifeless body of the young woman was found in the man’s house after the attack. Furthermore, the man refuses to talk to police, his lawyer said.

Later today he will be in court. That session takes place behind closed doors.

Safety precautions

On Saturday a terrorist with shotguns entered the Al-Noor mosque in Bærum, near Oslo. He fired four shots. A person was slightly injured … The suspect was quickly overpowered, eg, by a 65-year-old mosque visitor.

According to correspondent Dirk Evers, that was no coincidence. The mosque had taken measures since the racist attack on two mosques in the New Zealand city of Christchurch, where 51 people died. …

Inspired by other terrorists

Yesterday it was announced that the Norwegian police suspect the man of attempted terror. He has right-wing extremist ideas and is said to have announced his attack on the small online forum Endchan.

He may have been inspired by the Christchurch terrorist. He placed his extreme right-wing manifesto on the controversial forum 8chan. The perpetrator of the racist attack in El Paso last weekend (22 dead) also placed a similar manifesto on 8chan.

The suspect is believed to be Philip Manshaus; an admirer of World War II Norwegian nazi leader Vidkun Quisling. Quisling helped the German occupiers to deport Norwegian Jews (and Norwegian Sami, whom Quisling also considered to be an ‘inferior race’) to death camps.

POLICE INVESTIGATING NORWAY MOSQUE SHOOTING AS TERROR An attack by a gunman at a Norwegian mosque on Saturday will be investigated as a possible act of terrorism. The suspected shooter at the al-Noor Islamic Centre near the Norwegian capital had expressed far-right, anti-immigrant views online, assistant chief of police Rune Skjold said. [Reuters]

While only three people were present at the time of the attack, more than a dozen had been praying in the mosque for the Eid al-Adha Islamic holiday only 10 minutes earlier. Had Manshaus struck a short time before, a large number of people may have been killed. Manshaus is also suspected of murdering his 17-year-old adopted Chinese stepsister, whose body was found at the family home on Saturday. … Both Tarrant and Manshaus cited Breivik as a role model. Manshaus’ Instagram account contains three pictures: two of himself, and one of Breivik performing the Nazi salute in court: here.

Norway Warns Of Possible Far-Right Terror Attack In The Next Year. The country’s domestic security agency says there’s a risk that extremists have been emboldened to act after a series of far-right terror attacks earlier this year.

USA: White Supremacists Committed At Least 73 Murders Since Charlottesville: ADL: here.

MAN ARRESTED FOR THREATENING TO SHOOT UP WALMART Police said they’ve arrested a 26-year-old Florida man suspected of being a white supremacist for allegedly threatening to shoot up a Walmart right after a gunman killed nearly two dozen people at one of the superstores in El Paso, Texas. [HuffPost]

Norwegian mosque gunman is a neo-nazi

This 11 August 2019 video says about itself:

Norway: ‘There’s blood everywhere,’ says head of mosque after shooting

A worshipper at a mosque in Norway overpowered a black-clad gunman wearing a bulletproof vest, says Irfan Mushtaq, the director of the al-Noor Islamic Centre in Baerum. One person was injured in the attack, police said. Images of police and paramedics on scene, near Oslo.

Translated from Dutch NOS TV:

Perpetrator of attack on Norwegian mosque posted his nazi sympathies online

The Norwegian police are investigating the attack on a mosque yesterday as an act of terror. The 20-year-old attacker has right-wing extremist ideas. According to the police, he expressed his sympathy online for Vidkun Quisling, the nazi prime minister of Norway during the Second World War.

Yesterday afternoon, just after four o’clock, the man invaded the Al-Noor mosque in Bærum, near Oslo. He fired four shots. A man was slightly injured. … The shooter was overpowered by 65-year-old mosque goer Mohamed Rafiq, writes the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten.

This picture shows Mohamed Rafiq.

After the attack, a dead woman was found in the suspect’s apartment. The police did not want to say who the woman is and what happened. The woman was, however, a “close acquaintance” of the suspect. The police suspect the man of murder. He has not been questioned yet.


Before the attack, the man is said to have have announced his act on the small online forum Endchan. He also wanted the attack to be streamed live on Facebook, but that didn’t work. The man said he was inspired by the perpetrator of the racist attack on two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, where 51 people died. He placed his extreme right-wing manifesto on the similar forum 8chan, known as a “cradle of hatred”.

The perpetrator of the racist attack in El Paso last weekend (22 dead) also placed his extreme right-wing manifesto on 8chan. That site then went offline, because the companies that kept the site up no longer wanted to cooperate with it. It was expected that users would go to other, comparable platforms. Endchan is now also offline.

Endchan claims the site will return.

Gunman attacks Norwegian mosque

This video says about itself:

Terrorist attack at Masjid in Norway

Assalamo Alaikom, unfortunately a white terrorist attacked with firearms into a masjid in Oslo (Bærum), Norway around 16:00, Saturday 10th. August 2019.

A brave 70 years old man grabbed the terrorist and held him to the ground and one or two others helped him to bind him till police came.

Translated from Dutch NOS TV:

In a shooting incident in a mosque in Bærum, near Oslo, a person was injured, reports the Norwegian police on Twitter. The perpetrator was arrested. The state of the victim is unknown.

The shooter has been overpowered by one or more people in the mosque. …

The shooting incident took place at the al-Noor mosque. The shooter is a white man in his twenties. He acted alone, according to the police. There is an investigation into his background and his activities on the internet.

Norwegian media report, based on eyewitnesses, that the man was wearing a uniform and helmet. Multiple weapons are said to have been found.

An Islamophobic copycat of mass murderer Breivik? We don’t know everything yet.

Talking about Breivik: Utoya memorial defaced with swastika on anniversary of attack: here.

By David Nikel in Norway — August 10, 2019:

Police say the suspect is a Norwegian citizen with a Norwegian background and lives locally. …

Other members say the victim is believed to be a 75-year-old member of the mosque.

British Conservative government interference in Norway

This 31 December 2018 video says about itself:

The Duran’s Alex Christoforou and Editor-in-Chief Alexander Mercouris discuss the shady and secretive UK propaganda outfits dubbed ‘The Integrity Initiative’ and ‘the Institute for Statecraft’, which have been working underground and out of sight, to smear Jeremy Corbyn and spread anti-Russian, pro-war propaganda through an massive “network of networks” consisting of journalists, politicians and society influencers.

The information war of lies driven by these clandestine UK ‘think tanks’ is funded by the UK government, as well as by prominent neocon donors, NATO, and even Facebook.

After the self-styled British ‘Integrity Initiative’, paid with millions of British taxpayers’ money by the Conservative government, smeared the Labour party opposition … and interfered in United States politics against Bernie Sanders … now this.

By Bjørn Halvorsen in Norway:

Integrity Initiative: UK interference in Norway

5 February 2019

Hacked Integrity Initiative (II) documents have exposed the scale of the UK’s anti-Russia foreign interference activities in northern Europe. Norway has been targeted, with the II operating a secret “cluster”, whose stated aim is to overturn the views of the Norwegian public that are deemed “soft” on Russia.

The Integrity Initiative is a network of UK military and intelligence operatives, academics and journalists spreading anti-Russia propaganda and fake news. It includes “specialist Army Reserve units” linking to “very senior civilian experts” including “hedge fund managers” and “senior bankers” who have volunteered as “patriots”. The group’s existence was made public by the Anonymous hacking collective in November.

Among a fourth trove of documents leaked by Anonymous last month is a memo by Chris Donnelly, who co-ordinates II’s activities from a basement office at 2 Temple Place in London. He details sinister operations in Norway, including psy-ops targeting the Norwegian public. The II is financed by the UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

In August 2016, Donnelly visited Oslo and outlined the “current situation” in Norway: “The Norwegian public are generally inclined to be soft on Russia as a near neighbor in the North (where there is a tradition of freindship [sic] and a good working relationship). Although the public can be hard-nosed about Putin and Moscow’s policies, their scepticism of US/western politics can lead to their being less critical of Russia’s position at times.” This problematic public attitude to Russia was expressed in a 2017 Sentio poll, which found that 76 percent of north Norwegians think authorities should do more to improve Norway’s relationship with Russia.

The leaked memo included Donnelly’s packed itinerary. He attended meetings with Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Justice and Police officials. At a workshop on “Fighting the Information War” chaired by the Defence Research Institute’s Henning-Andre Sogaard, they discussed how “the project” could be “generated in Norway nationally, across Nordic states, and internationally. Building the cooperation between the classified and unclassified world, keeping in mind that one of the main targets is the hearts and minds of the public.”

The Anonymous leaks expose an anti-democratic conspiracy aimed at subverting public discourse and shifting the political climate in a right-wing militarist direction.

Despite evidence of such top-level intrigue, Norway’s mainstream media and political parties have been virtually silent on the matter. The online newspaper ABC Nyheter was alone in publishing an article, in which the named Norwegian cluster members denied involvement (echoing the response of those contacted in the UK). The Norwegian left-radical news blog, having probed more deeply, was able to establish the likely involvement of those named.

Such diplomatic silence contrasts markedly with the media frenzy that followed unsubstantiated allegations of Russian interference in Norway. In February 2017, Norway’s Police Security Services (PST) claimed Russia was behind an attempt to hack the Norwegian Labour Party, the Defence and Foreign ministries and the PST itself. Its allegations mirrored the FBI’s equally bogus claims of Russian hacking of the US Democratic National Committee. Norway’s biggest media outlets published the PST’s allegations without question, with screaming headlines about a “Russian Hacker Attack against Norway” (national broadcaster NRK).

The PST’s allegations fueled an ongoing media barrage. Just days before, Aftenposten, Norway’s largest circulation daily newspaper, was warning that “Russian hackers—with the support of the Kremlin—are in the process of influencing the major, important elections in Europe.”

The Integrity Initiative leaks follow last year’s “The Kremlin’s Trojan Horses 3” report by the Atlantic Council, a US-backed partner to the II. The report alleged “Russian Influence in Denmark, The Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden” and denounced Kremlin “allies” among politicians, journalists and public servants. “[T]he Kremlin’s tentacles do not stop in Ukraine, Georgia, or East Central Europe”, the Atlantic Council claimed. “They reach far and deep in the core of western societies.” The report targeted three Norwegian parliamentary parties—the Socialist Left, the Red Party and the far-right Progress Party—whose representatives had questioned aspects of US/NATO policy or were insufficiently hostile to Russia.

Norway was a founding member of NATO in 1949, but it prohibited foreign troops from being stationed in the country. Norway’s post-war Labour governments cultivated an image of semi-neutrality, aligning with the United States during the Cold War, while eschewing overtly aggressive measures along its 106-kilometre north-eastern border with the Soviet Union. But the dissolution of the USSR in December 1991 and the eruption of US military efforts to encircle and confront Russia produced a fundamental shift. Norway is integrating ever more openly with US-UK provocations against Russia:

In 2016, Norway announced 300 US marines would be stationed at Vaernes military base in central Norway. This number has since doubled.

In 2017, Norway announced plans to join the US-NATO Missile Defence System (MDS) aimed at Russia. A global network of missile launchers, control centres, radars, airbases and sea-based missiles, the MDS is at the centre of US-NATO plans for a “winnable” nuclear war.

In 2018, Norway hosted Exercise Trident Juncture, NATO’s biggest military exercise since the cold war, a display of force involving 40,000 soldiers and 10,000 vehicles.

Last year, Conservative Party Prime Minister Erna Solberg’s government cut all funding to peace organisations, while boosting its defence spending commitment to NATO. For this she was awarded a “Global Citizen Award” by the Atlantic Council. The opposition Labour Party has backed Norway’s militarist trajectory, criticising the government for not spending enough on defence. Norway is one of the highest per-capita defence spenders in the world.

The actions of Norway’s political establishment are sharply opposed to the anti-war views of the public. Fully 80 percent opposed the Iraq war, with mass protests in Oslo in February 2003 the largest ever held in the country. Public opposition saw Norway’s government refrain from openly supporting the invasion. But Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik’s Conservative Party government sent 150 troops in July 2003 as engineers and mine clearers operating under British command. A smaller number of Norwegian troops remained until 2006, and in 2015 Norway again sent troops as part of the international coalition “to counter ISIL”.

… The Labour Party has been the staunchest supporter of Norway’s military alliance with the US, exemplified by the seamless transition of its party leader of 12 years, Jens Stoltenberg, to become secretary general of NATO in 2014. …

The public’s well-founded “scepticism” in Norway towards “US/western politics” has nothing whatsoever to do with “Russian interference.” It is fueled by the bloody reality of US-led wars and regime change operations from North Africa to Ukraine. It is these sentiments that the UK’s Integrity Initiative and the CIA-backed Atlantic Council have targeted as their chief obstacle to securing Norway as a frontline state in the West’s offensive against Russia.