This 2011 video is about the Pachacamac Idol.
Chemical analysis of the statue reveals its age and original polychromatic design
January 15, 2020
The Pachacamac Idol of ancient Peru was a multicolored and emblematic sacred icon worshipped for almost 700 hundred years before Spanish conquest, according to a study published January 15, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Marcela Sepúlveda of the University of Tarapacá, Chile and colleagues.
The Pachacamac Idol is a symbolically carved wooden statue known from the Pachacamac archaeological complex, the principal coastal Inca sanctuary 31 km south of Lima, Peru during the 15th-16th centuries. The idol was reportedly damaged in 1533 during Spanish conquest of the region, and details of its originality and antiquity have been unclear. Also unexplored has been the question of whether the idol was symbolically colored, a common practice in Old World Antiquity.
In this study, Sepúlveda and colleagues obtained a wood sample from the Pachacamac Idol for chemical analysis. Through carbon-dating, they were able to determine that the wood was cut and likely carved approximately 760-876 AD, during the Middle Horizon, suggesting the statue was worshipped for almost 700 years before Spanish conquest. Their analysis also identified chemical traces of three pigments that would have conferred red, yellow, and white coloration to the idol.
This nondestructive analysis not only confirms that the idol was painted, but also that it was polychromatic, displaying at least three colors and perhaps others not detected in this study. The fact that the red pigment used was cinnabar, a material not found in the local region, demonstrates economic and symbolic implications for the coloration of the statue. The authors point out that coloration is a rarely discussed factor in the symbolic, economic, and experiential importance of religious symbols of the pre-Columbian periods, and that more studies on the subject could illuminate unknown details of cultural practices of the Andean past in South America.
The authors add: “Here, polychromy of the so-called Pachacamac Idol is demonstrated, including the presence of cinnabar.”
It was made about 170-180 AD, and was found in the 19th century in Piraeus in Greece.
The relief, 86 x 87 x 16 centimetre, probably once was part of a sarcophagus.
It shows a fight between a Greek foot soldier and an Amazon horsewoman.
In Greek mythology, there was a war between the Greeks and the Amazon horsewomen nation. The war, the myths say, was because Greek demigod Heracles had stolen the precious girdle of Amazon Queen Hippolyta.
This 2 January 2019 video from Canada says about itself:
Calvin Nicholls takes cutting and pasting to a new level with sculptures made from hundreds of pieces of paper.
When you think of using paper as an art medium, you might think first of origami or kids’ crafts. But when Calvin Nicholls uses paper, it turns into something else altogether. Nicholls’s pieces featuring animals are all made of tiny hand-cut pieces of paper, layered and glued in a painstaking and intricate act.
The result? Incredibly accurate depictions of wildlife with a magical effect. Nicholls has been a lover of nature ever since he can remember. And that love is evident in his artwork.
He explains: “My inclination is to dig deeper and appreciate differences like: how are the primary features different on the vulture from the robin? That’s what seems to add to the effect, or to the moment or the authenticity of these gorgeous creatures.”
Paper is a tricky material to work with, which means Nicholls’s larger pieces can take up to four months to create. But paper also offers a quality and depth that’s distinct from painting, which is why he’s chosen it as his medium. “When people look at my artwork, they love to be surprised. ‘What is that material? Is that bone? Is that clay?’ At a distance it’s not clear.” In this video, get inside Nicholls’s appreciation for detail as you watch the process unfold.
From the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in the USA, March 2019, about Canada:
These Amazingly Detailed Bird Sculptures Are Made Out of Paper
Calvin Nicholls’s breathtaking paper sculptures use light, shadow, and shape to create fantastically detailed birds that leap, lean, and fly straight out of their frames. From a flamboyant bird-of-paradise to a humble upside-down nuthatch, prepare to be awed at Nicholls’s exquisite detail and talent—all made from paper.
This 12 December 2017 says about itself:
Japan has expressed regret following the Philippines‘ recent unveiling of a statue representing the so-called “comfort women”.
In a press briefing Tuesday, Japan’s Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said that Japan regrets any country installing a comfort woman statue, adding that it will decide how to react to through communication with the Philippine government.
On Friday, the League of Filipino Women and the National Historical Commission of the Philippines jointly unveiled the two-meter tall statue to honor some 1,000 Filipino victims who were forced into sexual slavery by Japanese soldiers during World War Two. The Philippine government said it would not take any position on the comfort women issue, hoping that the statue would not affect Manila-Tokyo relations.
From daily The Independent in Britain today:
Anger after Philippines removes sex slave statue
‘We kneeled down to the Japanese, that’s why it’s shameful, so shameful’
A statue honouring women who were forced to work in Japanese military brothels during the Second World War was quietly removed from a busy seaside promenade in the Philippine capital, angering women’s groups.
Manila City Hall said in a statement that the bronze statue of a blindfolded Filipina, unveiled alongside Manila Bay in December, will be returned once drainage work is completed. It gave no time frame for the project, alarming activists who suspect that the Japanese government pressured the Philippines to take the monument down.
“What happened is that we kneeled down to the Japanese. … That’s why it’s shameful, so shameful,” said Teresita Ang See, co-founding president of a Chinese Filipino group.
Michael Charleston “Xiao” Chua, a professor at the De La Salle University Manila, called on the public to fight to get back the statue as a symbol of national dignity.
The monument was removed Friday night.
Japan’s Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications Seiko Noda had expressed regret over the construction of the monument in January. According to Kyodo News service quoting the Japanese Embassy in Manila, the Philippine government had notified the embassy of its intention to remove the statue.
The emotional issue of “comfort women” has provided a dilemma for the Philippines’ relations with Tokyo, a major provider of aid and financing to Manila.
A National Historical Commission marker says the monument memorialises Filipinas who suffered abuses during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines from 1942 to 1945. It was built with donations from Chinese-Filipino groups and individuals.
Historians say 20,000 to 200,000 women from across Asia, many of them Koreans, were forced to provide sex to Japan’s front-line soldiers. Japanese nationalists contend that the so-called “comfort women” in wartime brothels were voluntary prostitutes, not sex slaves, and that Japan has been unfairly criticized for a practice they say is common in any country at war.
In 1995, Japan provided through a private fund 2 million yen ($18,000) each to about 280 women in the Philippines, Taiwan and South Korea, and funded nursing homes and medical assistance for Indonesian and former Dutch sex slaves. However, many women in South Korea and the Philippines have demanded a full apology accompanied by official government compensation.
Last year, Osaka terminated its 60-year sister-city ties with San Francisco to protest a statue commemorating Asian sex slaves that was erected by California’s Korean, Chinese and Filipino communities.