Chipmunk in the USA, video


This video from the USA says about itself:

13 October 2017

Chipmunk takes on a cup of sunflower seeds on a perfect Fall morning. While we admire the changing leaves he is thinking ahead to winter!

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Cows cross river, video


This 19 October 2017 video is about cows crossing the Tongelreep river in North Brabant province in the Netherlands.

Jac Schepens made this video.

Saber-toothed cat evolution, new research


This 2017 video from the USA is called Prehistoric Predators – Sabertooth.

From ScienceDaily:

Ancient DNA offers new view on saber-toothed cats‘ past

October 19, 2017

Researchers who’ve analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from ancient samples representing two species of saber-toothed cats have a new take on the animals’ history over the last 50,000 years. The data suggest that the saber-toothed cats shared a common ancestor with all living cat-like species about 20 million years ago. The two saber-toothed cat species under study diverged from each other about 18 million years ago.

“It’s quite crazy that, in terms of their mitochondrial DNA, these two saber-toothed cats are more distant from each other than tigers are from house cats,” says Johanna Paijmans at the University of Potsdam in Germany.

Paijmans and colleagues reconstructed the mitochondrial genomes from ancient-DNA samples representing three Homotherium from Europe and North America and one Smilodon specimen from South America. One of the Homotherium specimens under investigation is a unique fossil: a 28,000-year-old mandible recovered from the North Sea.

“This find was so special because Homotherium is generally believed to have gone extinct in Europe around 300,000 years ago, so [this specimen is] over 200,000 years younger than the next-to-youngest Homotherium find in Europe,” Paijmans explains.

The new DNA evidence confirmed that this surprisingly young specimen did indeed belong to a Homotherium. The discovery suggests that the saber-toothed cats continued to live in Europe much more recently than scientists previously thought.

“When the first anatomically modern humans migrated to Europe, there may have been a saber-toothed cat waiting for them,” Paijmans says.

The finding raises new questions about how and why the saber-toothed cats went extinct. Paijmans says they are now interested in studying DNA from other samples of saber-toothed cats. Although it will be technically challenging, they also hope to recover and analyze DNA from much older Homotherium specimens.

This project received funding from the European Research Council, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development, and demonstration and the Lundbeck Foundation.

Whales’, dolphins’ ‘human-like’ cultures


This video says about itself:

BBC Planet Earth / Blue Planet – Cetaceans

Some clips of whales and dolphins from the BBC’s phenomenal series. Music is Forgive by Burial.

From the University of Manchester in England:

Whales and dolphins have rich ‘human-like’ cultures and societies

October 16, 2017

Whales and dolphins (Cetaceans) live in tightly-knit social groups, have complex relationships, talk to each other and even have regional dialects — much like human societies.

A major new study, published today in Nature Ecology & Evolution (Monday 16th October), has linked the complexity of Cetacean culture and behaviour to the size of their brains.

The research was a collaboration between scientists at The University of Manchester, The University of British Columbia, Canada, The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) and Stanford University, United States.

The study is first of its kind to create a large dataset of cetacean brain size and social behaviours. The team compiled information on 90 different species of dolphins, whales, and porpoises. It found overwhelming evidence that Cetaceans have sophisticated social and cooperative behaviour traits, similar to many found in human culture.

The study demonstrates that these societal and cultural characteristics are linked with brain size and brain expansion — also known as encephalisation.

The long list of behavioural similarities includes many traits shared with humans and other primates such as:

  • complex alliance relationships — working together for mutual benefit
  • social transfer of hunting techniques — teaching how to hunt and using tools
  • cooperative hunting
  • complex vocalizations, including regional group dialects — ‘talking’ to each other
  • vocal mimicry and ‘signature whistles’ unique to individuals — using ‘name’ recognition
  • interspecific cooperation with humans and other species — working with different species
  • alloparenting — looking after youngsters that aren’t their own
  • social play

Dr Susanne Shultz, an evolutionary biologist in Manchester’s School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, said: “As humans, our ability to socially interact and cultivate relationships has allowed us to colonise almost every ecosystem and environment on the planet. We know whales and dolphins also have exceptionally large and anatomically sophisticated brains and, therefore, have created a similar marine based culture.

“That means the apparent co-evolution of brains, social structure, and behavioural richness of marine mammals provides a unique and striking parallel to the large brains and hyper-sociality of humans and other primates on land. Unfortunately, they won’t ever mimic our great metropolises and technologies because they didn’t evolve opposable thumbs.”

The team used the dataset to test the social brain hypothesis (SBH) and cultural brain hypothesis (CBH). The SBH and CBH are evolutionary theories originally developed to explain large brains in primates and land mammals.

They argue that large brains are an evolutionary response to complex and information-rich social environments. However, this is the first time these hypotheses have been applied to ‘intelligent’ marine mammals on such a large scale.

Dr Michael Muthukrishna, Assistant Professor of Economic Psychology at LSE, added: “This research isn’t just about looking at the intelligence of whales and dolphins, it also has important anthropological ramifications as well. In order to move toward a more general theory of human behaviour, we need to understand what makes humans so different from other animals. And to do this, we need a control group. Compared to primates, cetaceans are a more “alien” control group.”

Dr Kieran Fox, a neuroscientist at Stanford University, added: “Cetaceans have many complex social behaviours that are similar to humans and other primates. They, however, have different brain structures from us, leading some researchers to argue that whales and dolphins could not achieve higher cognitive and social skills. I think our research shows that this is clearly not the case. Instead, a new question emerges: How can very diverse patterns of brain structure in very different species nonetheless give rise to highly similar cognitive and social behaviours?”

Extinct fanged kangaroos, new research


This video says about itself:

The Fossil Record and Evolution of Kangaroos

28 February 2016

I would first like to give visual credit to BBC Earth, which they have some epic shots on kangaroos.

From the University of Queensland in Australia:

Fanged kangaroo research could shed light on extinction

October 16, 2017

Fanged kangaroos — an extinct family of small fanged Australian kangaroos — might have survived at least five million years longer than previously thought.

A University of Queensland-led study has found the species might have competed for resources with ancestors of modern kangaroos.

Research into species diversity, body size and the timing of extinction found that fanged kangaroos, previously thought to have become extinct about 15 million years ago, persisted to at least 10 million years ago.

The fanged kangaroos, including the species Balbaroo fangaroo, were about the size of a small wallaby.

UQ School of Earth and Environmental Sciences PhD student Kaylene Butler said the research involved Queensland Museum holdings of ancient fossil deposits from the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, where kangaroo fossil evidence goes back as far as 25 million years.

“Fanged kangaroos and the potential ancestors of modern kangaroos are both browsers — meaning they ate leaves — and they scurried, but did not hop,” Ms Butler said.

“Northern Queensland was predominantly covered in rainforest when these fanged kangaroos first appear in the fossil record.

“There is a lot of research to be done before we can be sure what their canine teeth were used for but some have suggested they were used to attract potential mates. We do know that despite their large canines they were herbivorous (plant eaters).

“We found that fanged kangaroos increased in body size right up until their extinction.”

Ms Butler said the research aimed to fill significant gaps in the understanding of kangaroo evolution, and new fossil finds were helping to bring ancient lineages into focus.

“Currently 21 macropod species are listed as vulnerable or endangered on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species,” she said.

She said understanding when and why kangaroos went extinct in the past could help with understanding what drove extinction of such animals.

“Currently, we can only hypothesise as to why balbarids became extinct — the original hypothesis related to events during a change in climate 15 million years ago but the balbarids persisted past that,” she said.

“This new finding of their persistence until 10 million years ago means something else must have been at play, such as being outcompeted by other species.”

Ms Butler last year discovered two new ancient species of kangaroo, Cookeroo bulwidarri and Cookeroo hortusensis.

She has worked on fossil material as part of her PhD research supervised by former UQ Robert Day Fellow Dr Kenny Travouillon, now of the Western Australian Museum, and UQ’s Dr Gilbert Price.