Common frog and caterpillar, video

In this video from the Netherlands, a large white butterfly caterpillar licks the skin of a common frog. What will happen?

Threatened toads and English literature

This video from Italy says about itself:

Rospo comune / Common toad (Bufo bufo) * ENGLISH SUBS *

By Peter Frost in Britain:

Alert as the common toad appears to be on its last legs

Friday 7th October 2016

The toad’s bright eyes led to the belief that inside its head was a valuable jewel hence their slaughter – today’s threats are more complex but equally calamitous, says PETER FROST

I love toads. I shared a garden once with one — he lived for years in an upturned flowerpot in a damp and shady corner and helped in my constant battle against slugs and other garden pests.

I always called him Mr Toad. He was much better pest control than a whole shed full of chemicals.

George Orwell shared my love of the common toad (Bufo bufo). In the year I was born — 1946 — Orwell wrote an essay for the socialist paper Tribune in praise of the humble creature.

Orwell loved nature and occasionally wrote nature notes instead of the hard left-wing politics his Tribune readers expected. Some wrote to complain and suggest he got back to writing about serious politics and world affairs.

John Betjeman on the other hand wrote to say: “I have always thought you were one of the best living writers of prose,” and telling Orwell he had “enjoyed and echoed every sentiment” of his thoughts on the common toad.

Orwell pointed out that the pleasures of simple natural things are available to everybody and cost nothing and he argued that retaining a childhood love of nature makes a peaceful and decent future more likely.

He finished his toad essay thus: “How many times have I stood watching the toads mating, or a pair of hares having a boxing match in the young corn, and thought of all the important persons who would stop me enjoying this if they could.

But luckily they can’t…

The atom bombs are piling up in the factories, the police are prowling through the cities, the lies are streaming from the loudspeakers, but the earth is still going round the sun, and neither the dictators nor the bureaucrats, deeply as they disapprove of the process, are able to prevent it.”

Sadly, today my and Orwell’s toad is making headlines for all the wrong reasons. Britain’s toad population has plummeted by nearly 70 per cent over the past 30 years and is now in such peril that the once common species is close to qualifying as endangered.

A combination of new intensive profit-driven farming techniques, which have entailed the loss of ponds and the death of prey from pesticides, as well as increasing urbanisation has reduced toad populations by thousands.

Tidy, hard-surfaced domestic gardens are another peril as is the massive increase in road traffic. This is despite widespread schemes to help toads safely migrate to their breeding ponds by carrying them across busy roads. You have probably seen the many quaint roadsigns indicating toad crossings.

Climate change is another cause of the population decline because of the disruption this causes to hibernation cycles by milder winters.

South-east England has suffered the worst decline in toad numbers recently but populations are falling all over the country.

Toads are extremely adaptable and can live in many places ranging from farmland and woodland to suburban gardens, where they play an important role as pest controllers, eating slugs, snails and insects and are food themselves for many of our most likeable mammals such as otters.

Toads and frogs are easily distinguished by the fact that frogs have smooth, moist skin while toads have drier, “warty” skin. Frogs have longer legs so that they can jump whereas toads have shorter legs which they use to crawl.

You are more likely to see them on mild nights as they hide during the day. In the winter, they hibernate in hollows or at the bases of hedgerows.

They like ponds with fish. This is because their tadpoles are poisonous to fish which gives them a greater chance of out-competing frog tadpoles.

They continue to be able to secrete toxins as adults and therefore have few predators. However, they will be taken by herons, members of the crow family and grass snakes.

You may notice the noxious secretions they have if you pick them up.

They usually hibernate between October and March and then breed from March onwards when tiny toadlets emerge from ponds during August.

There is no doubt that although popular and friendly toads are ugly, squat and warty. Their remarkable large bright eyes led to the belief that inside a toad’s head was a valuable jewel which led to the destruction of many toads by ignorant people until relatively recently.

They occupy a fond place in the British imagination. Mr Toad in Kenneth Grahame’s 1908 novel The Wind in the Willows, is a selfish and reckless character but is nevertheless well loved.

Perhaps that is why every year thousands of volunteers take part in Toads on Roads patrols to help carry nearly a million of the amphibians in safety to their breeding waters.

Britain has another even rarer and more threatened species of toad. This is the natterjack toad — Bufo calamita.

It can be distinguished from common toads by a yellow line down the middle of the back and shorter legs that gives them a distinctive walking gait.

Natterjacks have a very loud and distinctive mating call so their name literally means the chattering toad — the jack (or toad) that natters. In the sand dunes around Liverpool they call them the Formby nightingale.

In England, the natterjack lives in very few locations mostly among coastal sand dunes along the Mersey estuary. But never, sadly, anywhere near Wigan Pier.

Fossil prehistoric amphibians died young

This 2011 video is called 360 Million Year Old Tetrapod Acanthostega.

From Science News:

Preteen tetrapods identified by bone scans

Improved technique suggests large four-limbed Acanthostega were still juveniles

By Susan Milius

1:00pm, September 7, 2016

Better bone scanning of fossils offers a glimpse of preteen life some 360 million years ago.

Improved radiation scanning techniques reveal accumulating growth zones in chunks of four fossil upper forelimb bones from salamander-shaped beasts called Acanthostega, scientists report online September 7 in Nature. Vertebrate bones typically show annual growth zones diminishing in size around the time of sexual maturity. But there’s no sign of that slowdown in these four individuals from East Greenland’s mass burial of Acanthostega, says study coauthor Sophie Sanchez of Uppsala University in Sweden. They were still juveniles.

The bones came from tropical Greenland of the Devonian Period. Aquatic vertebrates were developing four limbs, which would serve tetrapods well when vertebrates eventually conquered land. This mass die-off doomed at least 20 individuals, presumably when a dry spell after a flood trapped them all in a big, vanishing puddle.

This find makes the strongest case yet for identifying genuine youngsters among ancient tetrapods, Sanchez says. She suspects other individuals trapped could have been juveniles too.

Not many other species were found in the mass burial. So young tetrapods may have stuck together much as today’s young fish schools, Sanchez speculates. The limb shape clearly indicates that the youngsters took a long time to start adding hard bone to the initial soft cartilage, she says. So these early tetrapods were at least 6-year-olds and probably 10 years old or more.

For identifying stages of life, the improved technique “allows greater resolution and rigor, so in that regard it is a plus,” says Neil Shubin of the University of Chicago, who studies a fossil fish with some tetrapod-like features called Tiktaalik. There are Tiktaalik preteens, too, he notes.

What interests Nadia Fröbisch of Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin is that some of Acanthostega individuals were different sizes but had reached the same stage of bone development. She muses that they might even have been developing along different trajectories of growth, a flexibility that would be useful in a changeable environment.

Dragonfly couple escapes from death

In this video, a dragonfly couple, after mating, still hold on to each other until the female will have deposited her eggs under water.

An edible frog tries to eat them, but just misses.

Geertje in the Netherlands made this 6 September 2016 video.

European bison benefit natterjack toads

This 2016 video is called Re-wilding Europe, One Bison at a Time.

Translated from ARK Natuurontwikkeling in the Netherlands:

Natterjack toads benefit of bison in Maashorst

21 August 2016 – In the North Brabant province nature reserve Maashorst nature is in full swing. Recently European bison were introduced there. Along with Exmoor ponies and Tauros cattle they graze the grasslands, heaths and forests of the Maashorst. With their grazing and digging they provide spaces for other species such as the natterjack toad.

This 2014 Dutch video is about Tauros cattle: an attempt to breed the extinct aurochs back.

New frog species discovery in Peru

Sleeping beauty rain frog, photo Germán Chávez

From Science, Space & Robots:

Newly Discovered Rain Frog Named After Sleeping Beauty Mountains

Posted on August 11, 2016

A new species of rain frog has been discovered in the premontane forests of the Peruvian central Andes. The frog has been named after the Sleeping Beauty mountains. This is the local name for the mountains where the frog lives. The Bella Durmiente (Sleeping beauty) mountain chain … is named for its resemblance to a sleeping woman.

The frog’s scientific name is Pristimantis pulchridormientes. “Pulcher” is Latin for beautiful and “dormientes” means sleeping. The common name for the new frog species is Sleeping beauty rain frog.

The frog has bright-red groins, shanks and thighs. It has a yellowish-brown body. The frog was discovered and described by Drs German Chavez, Centro de Ornitología y Biodiversidad (CORBIDI), and Alessandro Catenazzi, affiliated with both CORBIDI and Southern Illinois University.

Dr. Chavez says in the announcement, “When we heard the chorus of males, first thought was: such a strange call! When we saw this amazing frog, we knew that it is a new species. No other frog has that bright red colour on rear limbs!”

A research paper on the newly discovered frog species can be found here in the journal ZooKeys.

Polecat eats frog, video

This video shows a polecat with a frog, at the Kaaistoep nature reserve in Tilburg, the Netherlands.

Martijn de Boer made this video.