New plant species discovery in Indonesia


This 2015 video from Indonesia says about itself:

On the island of Halmahera, North Moluccas, more than 300 mining permits threaten the existence of priceless tropical forests. Illegal logging is also a problem for indigenous people in the village of Forest Tobelo people in Dodaga village. Deeply concerned with the condition of their forests that they struggle to resist.

Together with Abe Ngingi, an activist from AMAN, indigenous peoples seek to develop a variety of efforts to protect the customary forest in Halmahera.

From Leiden University in the Netherlands, 18 May 2020:

Newly discovered plant species store manganese in leaves

18 May 2020

Leiden scientists have discovered a new plant genus with two new species at a potential nickel mine site in Indonesia. Remarkable characteristic of the plants: they store manganese in their leaves.

At the Weda bay on the island of Halmahera (North Moluccas), entrepreneurs wanted to open a new nickel mine. But before they got their permission, they had to perform an environmental impact assessment. The inventory of the flora and fauna present revealed a surprising discovery.

Brand new plant genus

Leiden researchers did not identify one, but two new species in the plants from the site. They could not classify them into existing plant genera, but did conclude that both new species belong to the same genus. That new genus was given the name Weda. The species are published in the Journal of Systematics and Evolution. First author of the publication is Naturalis researcher and Professor of Biology Peter van Welzen, botanical artist Esmée Winkel, associated with the Leiden Hortus botanicus, made illustrations of the new species.

It’s a rare discovery, says Roderick Bouman, who is a PhD candidate at the Hortus botanicus and co-author of the study. ‘Sometimes an existing group is broken up based on DNA research. But discovering an unknown group, as was the case here, is very rare.’

Not nickel, but manganese

Bouman himself does a lot of genetic kinship research, for example, he is working on reclassifying the genus Phyllantus. For the Weda study, he also helped with the DNA data of the new species.

Other researchers analysed the metals in the leaf material, he says, which resulted in another surprise. The reason for the metal analysis was that the plants were found in an area with heavy metals, in particular nickel. ‘And metal uptake is quite common in the plant family to which they belong. So this was analysed, but then it turned out that the plant stores more manganese and almost no nickel. This has also been independently confirmed by another study. The amount is not enough to use the plants as a commercial source of manganese, though.

Euphorbia family

The new genus was classified in the plant family Euphorbiaceae, commonly called spurge. This family also contains species such as the rubber tree, cassava and poinsettia, which is popular at Christmas time. The biggest distinguishing feature for Weda as a group is the combination of leaves with basal glands, long-stemmed inflorescences that have two bracts under the flowers, says Bouman. The two types can be distinguished on the attachment of petiole to the leaf, flower color and the size of bracts (a type of bracts) with the flowers.

Etymology

The genus name Weda refers to the location of the new species: the Weda Bay. The name of species Weda fragaroides comes from the scientific name for the strawberry, Fragaria, because the flower base of the male flowers resembles that of the strawberry, which later forms a (mock) fruit. The second species owes its name to the colour of its petals: lutea is Latin for yellow. In addition, according to good scientific practice, the species names are completed with the name of the discoverer, so that the full names are: Weda fragaroides Welzen and Weda lutea Welzen.

Swimming with whale sharks


This 19 May 2020 BBC video says about itself:

Swim With The Biggest Fish In The Ocean | VR 360 | Seven Worlds, One Planet

Whale sharks share the fishermen’s catch in the seas of Indonesia. These gentle giants were once hunted and killed, but here their numbers are on the rise thanks to this special relationship. Stay in and explore their underwater world.

Five new bird species discovered in Indonesia


This video series is called Birds of Wallacea.

From the National University of Singapore:

Novel avian species: 10 new bird taxa in islands of Wallacea

January 10, 2020

Summary: A research team found five bird species and five subspecies new to science in three small island groups off Sulawesi, Indonesia. The islands are situated in Indonesia’s Wallacea region, an archipelago at the interface between the Oriental and Australian biogeographical realms, named after Sir Alfred Wallace.

Birds are the best-known class of animals, and since 1999, only five or six new species have been described each year on average. Recently, a joint research team from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) made a quantum leap in the discovery of cryptic avian diversity by uncovering five bird species and five subspecies new to science.

The team, led by Associate Professor Frank Rheindt from the Department of Biological Sciences at NUS Faculty of Science, found the birds in three small island groups off Sulawesi, Indonesia. The islands are situated in Indonesia’s Wallacea region, an archipelago at the interface between the Oriental and Australian biogeographical realms, named after Sir Alfred Wallace, who was the most famous historical collector exploring the area.

The results of the study, which were published in the journal Science on 10 January 2020, provide evidence that our understanding of species diversity of complex areas such as Wallacea remains incomplete even for relatively well-known groups such as birds. The findings also suggest that modern exploration to find undescribed species diversity can be targeted to areas of high promise.

Insights from paleo-climatology and history guided discovery of new taxa

Sea depth is an important and long-neglected factor in determining the distinctness of an island’s terrestrial communities. The Earth undergoes periods of glacial-interglacial cycles, leading to the formation of land bridges between shallow islands during ice ages, allowing fauna of the different islands to interbreed. Deep sea islands, which have always been isolated, and high elevation islands are more likely to harbour endemism due to absence of land connections even during glacial cycles.

Guided by this knowledge, Assoc Prof Rheindt and his team concentrated their research efforts on the islands of Taliabu and Peleng, which are located off the north-eastern coast of Sulawesi, as bathymetric data indicate the presence of deep sea between these islands and Sulawesi.

The research team also examined the accounts of historic collectors such as Sir Alfred Wallace, and sought to focus on parts of Wallacea that had received the least coverage by historic collectors, as these areas would hold the highest promise of harbouring undescribed avian diversity.

The islands that the team targeted were characterised by such incomplete historic coverage: Taliabu and its neighbours, together forming the Sula group, were only briefly visited by eight historic collecting expeditions, all of which remained in coastal areas and failed to penetrate the highlands of the interior because of poor accessibility; and Peleng and the remaining islands of the Banggai group were visited along their coastline by only three historic collectors who never ventured far uphill into the interior.

New taxa found

Assoc Prof Rheindt and his team undertook extensive fieldwork in the three remote islands for six weeks, from November 2013 to January 2014, and collected 10 new, long-overlooked avian forms.

By integrating genomic and phenotypic research methodologies, the team successfully described five new songbird species and five new subspecies:

  • On Taliabu, they found three new species: the Taliabu Grasshopper-Warbler, the Taliabu Myzomela and the Taliabu Leaf-Warbler; as well as three subspecies: the Taliabu Snowy-browed Flycatcher, Taliabu Island Thrush and Sula Mountain Leaftoiler.
  • On Peleng, two new species — the Peleng Fantail and the Peleng Leaf-Warbler — and a new subspecies — the Banggai Mountain Leaftoiler — were discovered.
  • On Togian, a new subspecies — the Togian Jungle-Flycatcher — was found.

“Studying the routes and operations of historic collecting expeditions and identifying gaps has been a fruitful approach to pinpoint focal areas in our case. The description of this many bird species from such a geographically limited area is a rarity,” shared Assoc Prof Rheindt.

He added, “Going forward, the use of earth-history and bathymetric information could also be applied to other terrestrial organisms and regions beyond the Indonesian Archipelago to identify promising islands that potentially harbour new taxa to be uncovered.”

Implications for conservation

During the expedition, the research team found that both Taliabu and Peleng have suffered from rampant forest destruction. There is virtually no primary lowland forest on both islands, and most highland forests have been impacted by some form of logging or forest fires.

“While most of the avifauna we described seems to tolerate some form of habitat degradation and is readily detected in secondary forest and edge, some species or subspecies are doubtless threatened by the immense levels of habitat loss on these islands. As such, urgent, long-lasting conservation action is needed for some of the new forms to survive longer than a couple of decades beyond their date of description,” said Assoc Prof Rheindt.

Poached green turtles set free again


This 11 December 2019 video says about itself:

Indonesia police released more than 20 adult green sea turtles on December 10, 2019, after the animals were reportedly rescued from poachers. The endangered turtles, which are a protected species in Indonesia, were found under the floorboards of a ship during a routine patrol of waters near the country.

Oldest storytelling art discovery in Indonesia


This part of a newly described ancient hunting scene includes a miniature buffalo, or anoa (right), facing five faint human-animal figures wielding spears or ropes, a study finds. M. Aubert et al/Nature 2019, R. Sardi

By Bruce Bower, 11 December 2019:

A nearly 44,000-year-old hunting scene is the oldest known storytelling art

The panel was found in an island cave in Indonesia

An Indonesian cave painting that shows wild animals encountering otherworldly hunters represents the oldest known example of art depicting lifelike figures as well as of visual storytelling, researchers say.

Discovered in December 2017 on the island of Sulawesi, this roughly 4.5-meter-wide hunting scene was painted at least 43,900 years ago, says a team led by archaeologists Maxim Aubert and Adam Brumm, both of Griffith University in Gold Coast, Australia. Part-human, part-animal hunters depicted in the mural indicate that people at the time believed in supernatural beings, the scientists report December 11 in Nature.

“We assume these ancient artists were Homo sapiens and that spirituality and religious thinking were part of early human culture in Indonesia,” Brumm says.

Two pigs and four miniature buffalo called anoas, which still inhabit Sulawesi forests, range across the cave art scene. Eight small, humanlike figures with animal characteristics appear to be hunting the painted pigs and anoas with spears or ropes. One hybrid creature sports a tail. Another has a beaklike snout.

Mythical human-animal hybrids, also known as therianthropes, often appear in folklore and in fiction of modern societies. Many religions regard therianthropes as gods, spirits or ancestral beings. Figurines of a lion-headed person (SN: 5/19/09) and a woman with exaggerated features previously found in a German cave date to as early as 40,000 years ago, as do flutes made of bone and mammoth tusks found in the same cave (SN: 6/24/09). A drawing of a man with a bird’s head inside France’s Lascaux cave dates to between around 14,000 and 21,000 years ago.

Abstract cave art generally attributed to H. sapiens dates to at least 40,800 years ago in Europe (SN: 6/14/12). In other Sulawesi caves studied by Aubert and Brumm, wall stencils that Stone Age people made by blowing or spraying pigment around outstretched hands date to around 40,000 years ago (SN: 10/8/14). Researchers had reported evidence of European Neandertals creating abstract cave art at least 65,000 years ago, but those reports have come under fire (SN: 10/28/19).

Measures of radioactive uranium’s decay in mineral layers that formed over parts of the Sulawesi hunting depiction provided minimum age estimates ranging from 35,100 to 43,900 years. The oldest mineral layer comes closest to the painting’s actual age, the researchers say.

If confirmed in further research, that age estimate makes sense, says archaeologist Nicholas Conard of the University of Tübingen in Germany. Art, music, religion and language characterize modern human groups worldwide, and the same would have held for Stone Age groups, asserts Conard, who directed excavations of the ancient figurines and flutes in Germany. …

Figurative paintings in several other Sulawesi caves have been found but not yet dated, Brumm says. Nearly all these artworks, including the hunting scene, have deteriorated substantially. “We urgently need to determine why this art is disappearing and what to do about it.”

This 3 December 2019 video is about the new discovery.

Indonesian coral reefs video


This 12 November 2019 video says about itself:

Indonesia’s Coral Reefs

In the second installment of National Geographic’s “Into Water” 360 series, dive into the crystal clear waters of Indonesia with marine social ecologist and National Geographic Explorer Shannon Switzer Swanson. More than a quarter of the world’s aquarium fish population comes from Indonesia. Shannon works with local communities, documenting fishing practices. She is hoping to learn why some fishing families have developed sustainable practices while others have not. “Into Water: Indonesia” is the second stop on an around the world 360 tour that documents the work of female Explorers who’ve dedicated their careers to water-related issues.

While many conservation plans focus on only environmental indicators for success, a new coral reef program is trying a relatively new approach: focusing on both social and ecological processes and outcomes to ensure a long-term future for coral reef systems: here.

Boeing profits before aircraft passengers’ lives, update


This 16 April 2019 video says about itself:

Lion Air’s founder hits out at Boeing

The co-founder of Indonesia’s Lion Air, one of two airlines that lost passengers and crew in recent crashes involving the 737 MAX, has lashed out at Boeing’s handling of the accidents as the potential business fallout from the jet’s grounding intensifies.

Translated from Dutch NOS TV today:

Mechanical problems and design errors contributed to the crash of a Boeing 737 MAX 8 of airline Lion Air in October last year. Indonesian researchers shared those conclusions with the relatives of the 189 victims of the air disaster. The findings of the study will be presented later this week.

The flight from Jakarta to Pangkal Pinang on the island of Bangka crashed into the sea last year. All people on board were killed.

The research revealed, eg, that the new MCAS system was vulnerable because it was based on only one sensor. The sensor was set incorrectly after a previous repair. Other technical aspects of the aircraft were also not in order.

Furthermore, manuals about the systems were missing on board, eg, about the system that warns pilots if the aircraft loses altitude. …

A total of 55 lawsuits were brought against the US American corporation in Indonesia.

All Boeings 737 MAX types have been grounded since March this year after another aircraft crashed, this time in Ethiopia.

Certification investigation

Immediately after the crash in Ethiopia, the US Department of Justice launched a criminal investigation into the way in which the aircraft were inspected by Boeing. The role of the American aviation authority FAA is also being investigated. Earlier, the Seattle Times reported that Boeing, which has its headquarters in Seattle, was given too much room to inspect systems itself. The FAA is said to have put pressure on its own engineers to have Boeing carry out that inspection.

Final report into Boeing crash shows bosses ignored warnings: here.

Bat faeces and biodiversity in Indonesia


This 2015 video says about itself:

Bat Man of Borneo | Expedition Raw

Braving guano, urine, and infectious diseases is all in a day’s work for bat ecologist Donald McFarlane, who descends into the depths of Borneo’s Gomantong Caves [in Malaysia] to study the bats that live there.

From James Cook University in Australia:

Holy Pleistocene Batman, the answer’s in the cave

Let’s say you wanted to solve a 20,000-year-old mystery, where would you start?

April 25, 2019

Summary: Examining a 3-meter stack of bat feces has shed light on the landscape of the ancient continent of Sundaland. The research could help explain the biodiversity of present-day Borneo, Sumatra, and Java. It could also add to our understanding of how people moved through the region.

Let’s say you wanted to solve a 20,000-year-old mystery, where would you start? Perhaps archaeology and geology come to mind. Or, you could sift through a 3-metre pile of bat faeces.

Researchers from James Cook University in Cairns, Australia, chose the bat poo in their quest to answer to a long-standing question: why is there some much biodiversity on the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and Java, when not so long ago (geologically speaking) they were all part of one vast continent?

One theory has been that the former continent (Sundaland) was dissected by a savanna corridor. “That might explain why Sumatra and Borneo each have their own species of orang-utan, even though they were linked by land for millions of years,” Dr Chris Wurster said. “The corridor would have divided the two separate rainforest refuges, as the sea does now.”

The corridor theory has been boosted by millions of insect-eating bats, which have gathered evidence about the landscape over millennia and deposited it in layers in their caves.

“Bat poo is highly informative, and especially so in the tropics, where the climate can make some of the more traditional modes of investigation less available,” Dr Wurster said.

A three-metre pile of bat faeces at Salah Cave in Borneo gave the researchers a 40,000-year-old record composed of insect skeletons.

“We can’t tell what insects the bats were eating throughout that time, because they’re in tiny fragments, but we can read the chemistry,” Dr Wurster said.

“Eating insects that have been feeding on tropical grasses results in faeces with a characteristic chemical imprint. It’s quite different from the result you’d get from eating insects that fed on tropical trees.”

According to the bat record the landscape around Saleh Cave (now featuring lush rainforest) was once dominated by tropical grasses.

“Combined with other cave studies in the region, this leads us to support the corridor theory, and also gives us some confidence as to the extent of the corridor,” Dr Wurster said.

The corridor could also shed light on human pre-history.

“A savanna corridor, which would be much more easily traversed than rainforest, might help to explain how people moved relatively quickly through this region and on to Australia and New Guinea.”

‘Savanna in equatorial Borneo during the late Pleistocene’ is published in the latest edition of Scientific Reports.

Dr Chris Wurster is a Senior Research Associate at James Cook University, specialising in stable isotope geochemistry.

Wallace’s giant bee rediscovered


This 21 February 2019 video says about itself:

Watch the world’s biggest bee in action | Science News

After searching Indonesia’s forests for days for Wallace’s giant bee, scientists found and captured a single female and observed her flying within a net tent. They then released her and watched as she flew home to her nest in a termite mound.

By Jeremy Rehm, 2:31pm, February 21, 2019:

The world’s largest bee has been rediscovered after 38 years

The walnut-sized female bee was found on an island in Indonesia

Everything about Wallace’s giant bee is goliath: It reaches an average body length of around 4 centimeters — about the size of a walnut — and has a wingspan of over 7.5 centimeters. Yet despite its eye-popping size, it’s been nearly 40 years since the world’s largest bee (Megachile pluto) was officially sighted in the wild.

So when Eli Wyman, an entomologist at Princeton University, had an opportunity to hunt for the elusive bee, he jumped at the chance. He and two other scientists, along with photographer Clay Bolt, set off in January for a two-week expedition to forests on two of only three Indonesian islands where the bee has ever been found.

It’s thought that the females build a home by using their formidable jaws to burrow into termite nests and line the tunnels with resin to ward off termites. So while trekking in the oppressive jungle heat, the team stopped at every termite nest spotted on the trunk of a tree and watched for 20 minutes for a telltale bore hole or a bee emerging.

“After several days of searching and looking at a lot of these termite nests and not seeing anything, I think we all kind of internally just accepted that we weren’t going to be successful,” Wyman says.

As the search was ending, the team decided to check one last nest only about 2.4 meters off the ground — and found the signature hole. Wyman, standing on a small platform, glanced inside and tapped the hole a few times with a stiff blade of grass. Moments later, a lone female Wallace’s giant bee emerged.

“We were just all over the moon,” Wyman says. “It was a great relief and incredibly exciting.”

The team captured the female and put her inside a tented enclosure to observe her before releasing her back to her nest. She buzzed and opened and closed her enormous jaws. And yes, she had a stinger to match her goliath size, one she presumably uses, though Wyman wasn’t willing to find that out firsthand. “She was the most precious thing on the planet to us,” Wyman says.

The nonprofit organization Global Wildlife Conservation, which included Wallace’s giant bee on its 25 Most Wanted lost species list, announced the bee’s rediscovery February 21. While there are no set plans to look for more bees, the team hopes the rediscovery sparks efforts to protect the habitat from deforestation. In a blogpost, Bolt noted: “Just knowing that this bee’s giant wings go thrumming through this ancient Indonesian forest helps me feel that, in a world of so much loss, hope and wonder still do exist.”

GOLIATH OF BEES A honeybee’s size pales in comparison to that of a the recently rediscovered Wallace’s giant bee, as seen in this composite image by Clay Bolt

New leaf-warbler species discovery in Indonesia


This 23 October 2018 video says about itself:

A new bird species, Rote Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus rotiensis) from Rote, Indonesia was recently described by a team of researchers from National University of Singapore and the Indonesian Institute of Science.

From Birdguides.com:

27/12/2018

Rote learning: a unique leaf-warbler discovered in Indonesia

By Dominic Mitchell

An unusual warbler discovered on a small Indonesian island as recently as 2004 has just been described as a new species of leaf warbler. Named Rote Leaf Warbler after the island in the Lesser Sundas where it was found, Phylloscopus rotiensis differs from all other species in the genus by its relatively long, tailorbird-like bill and distinctive coloration.

Although many islands in the region harbour breeding populations of leaf warblers, Rote Island – which lies south-west of Timor – was historically not known to have any. However, while birding on the Tapuafu peninsula in December 2004, Dr Colin Trainor from Australia’s Charles Darwin University observed several warblers which were “frequent in woodlands and tropical dry forest” and uttered a “breezy, rising and falling whistle” not unlike that of Timor Leaf Warbler on the adjacent larger island of Timor.

Five years later Philippe Verbelen and Veerle Dossche visited Rote Island to observe and study the birds, and succeeded in making detailed observations and obtaining a series of photographs. Philippe noticed that the leaf warblers looked substantially distinct from any other Asian, African or European species with which he was familiar: “Alarm bells went off when we realised how strikingly different the bill shape and the coloration of the Rote bird were compared to all other leaf warblers.” The long bill had a yellow-orange lower mandible, and additionally the undescribed warbler showed a broader and more yellow supercilium than in Timor Leaf Warbler, a more prominent yellow crown stripe, warmer yellow sides of the head and underparts, and an olive-green rather than olive-grey crown.

In 2015, as part of an expedition to study this new taxon, ornithologists visited two sites on Rote Island – one south of the central region within Seda forest, which is one of the few small mature forest patches still remaining on the island, and the other on the Tapuafu peninsula, where the warblers were first discovered. Using playback, they were able to observe the birds’ movements and behaviour, and a holotype specimen was collected. The researchers say they do not believe that collection of this single individual had a negative impact on the survival of the taxon, and emphasise that all fieldwork was conducted according to the government guidelines of the Republic of Indonesia and the Republic of Singapore.

The specimen made detailed morphological and biometric comparison possible with Timor Leaf Warbler, with which the leaf warblers from Rote were initially mooted to be conspecific based on geographical proximity. DNA was also extracted from the Rote specimen and compared with leaf warbler samples from Timor and Peleng, while the genome of the closely related Greenish Warbler P trochiloides viridanus (mapped to the complete Zebra Finch Taeniopygia guttata genome) was used as the reference genome. “This may well be the first time – to the best of our knowledge – that a new bird species has been described partly on the basis of genome-wide DNA data,” commented Elize Ng, a researcher with the Avian Evolution Lab (AEL) under the National University of Singapore (NUS) Department of Biological Sciences, and one of the co-authors of the paper describing the species.

The genomic analysis indicated that Rote Leaf Warbler diverged from Timor Leaf Warbler approximately 1.7 million years ago, corresponding well with divergence time estimates for the entire Indo-Malayan leaf warbler clade, which is estimated to have occurred about 2.0-2.5 million years ago. Rote and Timor Leaf Warblers were also shown to be sister to all the other South-East Asian Phylloscopus species included in the researchers’ analysis.

“The new species is part of a large group of Asian warblers but is unique among them due to its unusually long bill,” said Dr Nathaniel Ng, who was also involved in the description of the bird during his PhD candidature at the Department of Biological Sciences at the NUS Faculty of Science. He added: “This odd bill shape is likely an adaptation to Rote’s dry landscapes, given that most other Asian leaf warblers live in humid forest.”

Despite deep genomic and morphological differentiation setting Rote Leaf Warbler apart from its relatives, however, exhaustive bioacoustic analyses did not reveal vocal differentiation between the different island taxa.

Little is currently known about the behaviour and ecology of the new species, which is found in intact primary deciduous forest as well as secondary forest. Due to Rote’s long history of intensive agricultural use, there is little forest habitat remaining on the island with the exception of the Tapuafu Peninsula and the Seda forest areas – together they comprise just 19 per cent of the island’s total land area of 1,284 square kilometres. An IUCN Red List categorisation of Vulnerable has been proposed, but given that the new leaf warbler does not seem to occur at high population densities, it may even merit Endangered status.

Avian endemism on Rote Island has long been underestimated, the researchers note, and it hosts many species-level endemics as well as an additional number of threatened, range-restricted species including Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Timor Green Pigeon and Jonquil Parrot. Amazingly, Rote Leaf Warbler is the second new bird species to be described from the island in just 12 months, following the formal description of Rote Myzomela Myzomela irianawidodoae (Treubia 44: 77-100), highlighting Rote’s significant conservation value and the need to establish significant protected areas to conserve its avian heritage.

Reference

Ng, N S R, Prawiradilaga, D M, Ng, E Y X, Suparno, Ashari, H, Trainor, C, Verbelen, P, and Rheindt, F E. 2018. A striking new species of leaf warbler from the Lesser Sundas as uncovered through morphology and genomics. Sci Rep. 2018 Oct 23; 8 (1): 15646. Doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34101-7.