New frog species discovered in Ecuador


This video says about itself:

25 May 2017

In the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador, scientists discovered a new glassfrog. Hyalinobatrachium yaku is differentiated from all other species by having small, middorsal, dark green spots on the head and dorsum, a transparent pericardium, and a tonal call that lasts 0.27–0.4 s. H. yaku is closely related to Hyalinobatrachium pellucidum.

From ScienceDaily:

New species of frog from the Neotropics carries its heart on its skin

May 29, 2017

Summary: In the Neotropics, there is a whole group of so-called glassfrogs that amaze with their transparent skin covering their bellies and showing their organs underneath. A recently discovered new species from Amazonian Ecuador, however, goes a step further to fully expose its heart thanks to the transparent skin stretching all over its chest as well as tummy.

In the Neotropics, there is a whole group of so-called glassfrogs that amaze with their transparent skin covering their bellies and showing their organs underneath. A recently discovered new species from Amazonian Ecuador, however, goes a step further to fully expose its heart thanks to the transparent skin stretching all over its chest as well as tummy.

The new amphibian is described by a team of scientists led by Dr. Juan M. Guayasamin, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador, in the open access journal ZooKeys.

It can also be distinguished by the relatively large dark green spots at the back of its head and the foremost part of the body. Additionally, the species has a characteristic long call.

The new frog is named Hyalinobatrachium yaku, where the species name (yaku) translates to ‘water’ in the local language Kichwa. Water and, more specifically, slow-flowing streams are crucial for the reproduction of all known glassfrogs.

The reproductive behaviour is also quite unusual in this species. Males are often reported to call from the underside of leaves and look after the egg clutches.

Having identified individuals of the new species at three localities, the researchers note some behavioural differences between the populations. Two of them, spotted in the riverine vegetation of an intact forest in Kallana, have been calling from the underside of leaves a few metres above slow-flowing, relatively narrow and shallow streams. Another frog of the species has been observed in an area covered by secondary forests in the Ecuadorian village of Ahuano. Similarly, the amphibian was found on the underside of a leaf one metre above a slow-flowing, narrow and shallow stream.

However, at the third locality — a disturbed secondary forest in San José de Payamino — the studied frogs have been perching on leaves of small shrubs, ferns, and grasses some 30 to 150 cm above the ground. Surprisingly, each of them has been at a distance greater than 30 metres from the nearest stream.

The researchers note that, given the geographic distance of approximately 110 km between the localities where the new species has been found, it is likely that the new species has a broader distribution, including areas in neighbouring Peru.

The uncertainty about its distributional range comes from a number of reasons. Firstly, the species’ tiny size of about 2 cm makes it tough to spot from underneath the leaves. Then, even if specimens of the species have been previously collected, they would be almost impossible to identify from museum collection, as many of the characteristic traits, such as the dark green marks, are getting lost after preservation. This is why the conservation status of the species has been listed as Data Deficient, according to the IUCN Red List criteria.

Nevertheless, the scientists identify the major threats to the species, including oil extraction in the region and the related water pollution, road development, habitat degradation and isolation.

“Glassfrogs presumably require continuous tracts of forest to interact with nearby populations, and roads potentially act as barriers to dispersal for transient individuals,” explain the authors.

‘Flying’ frogs video


This video says about itselF:

Gliding Leaf Frogs – Planet Earth – BBC Earth

23 April 2017

Breathtaking slow motion footage of the male Gliding Leaf Frog taking flight. In slowing his descent he uses his extra large webbed feet like a parachute. It is later on when it comes to mating that we learn these feet serve an entirely different purpose.

These frogs live in Central and South America.

Frogs’ fluorescence, why?


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17 March 2017

A group of Argentine and Brazilian researchers has discovered the first case of natural fluorescence in amphibians, in a species of tree frog that is frequently found in South America.

From Science News:

First fluorescent frogs might see each others’ glow

Natural Day-Glo may play a role in amphibian’s fights and flirtations

By Susan Milius

10:00am, April 3, 2017

Could fluorescence matter to a frog? Carlos Taboada wondered. They don’t have bedroom black lights, but their glow may still be about the night moves.

Taboada’s question is new to herpetology. No one had shown fluorescence in amphibians, or in any land vertebrate except parrots, until he and colleagues recently tested South American polka dot tree frogs. Under white light, male and female Hypsiboas punctatus frogs have translucent skin speckled with dark dots. But when the researchers spotlighted the frogs with an ultraviolet flashlight, the animals glowed blue-green. The intensity of the glow was “shocking,” says Taboada of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” in Buenos Aires.

And it is true fluorescence. Compounds in the frogs’ skin and lymph absorb the energy of shorter UV wavelengths and release it in longer wavelengths, the researchers report online March 13 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. But why bother, without a black bulb? Based on what he knows about a related tree frog’s vision, Taboada suggests that faint nocturnal light is enough to make the frogs more visible to their own kind. When twilight or moonlight reflects from their skin, the fluorescence accounts for 18 to 30 percent of light emanating from the frog, the researchers calculate.

Polka dot frogs, common in the Amazon Basin, have plenty to see in the tangled greenery where they breed. Males stake out multilevel territories in vast floating tangles of water hyacinths and other aquatic plants. When a territory holder spots a poaching male, frog grappling and wrestling ensues. Taboada can identify a distinctive short treble bleat “like the cry of a baby,” he says, indicating a frog fight.

Males discovering a female give a different call, which Taboada could not be coaxed to imitate over Skype. The polka dot frogs’ courtship is “complex and beautiful,” he says. For instance, a male has two kinds of secretion glands on the head and throat. During an embrace, he nudges and presses his alluring throat close to a female’s nose. If she breaks off the encounter, he goes back to clambering in rough figure eights among his hyacinths, patrolling for perhaps the blue-green ghost of another chance.

Glass frogs’ parental care, new research


This video says about itself:

Just a few hours of motherly attention help glass frog eggs survive | Science News

31 March 2017

Guarding her eggs, a glass frog stays with the brood despite annoying finger prods from scientists. This species provides the only prolonged maternal care yet found among glass frogs, but even short-term moms stayed on duty when researchers poked at them. Read more here.

Credit: Jesse Delia/Boston University

Moor frogs’ mating season


This 31 March 2017 video from the Netherlands is about the moor frogsmating season. Then, male moor frogs get a blue colour.

World’s first fluorescent frog discovered in Argentina


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14 March 2017

World’s first fluorescent frog that glows bright green is found in Argentina

Under normal light the polka-dot tree frog is a dull green/brown colour.

But scientists stumbled upon the species’ rare ability under their UV torches.

It is rare for land animals to have fluorescent skin pigments.

The pigments absorb light and re-emit it at longer wavelengths.

Read more here.

See also here.

Scientific description of this new discovery about Hypsiboas punctatus frogs: here.