New frog species discovery in Indonesia

This video says about itself:

Borneo Eared Frog or Bony Headed Flying Frog – Polypedates otilophus

30 January 2014

This interesting frog species can be found in Borneo, Sumatra and other Indonesian islands. Read more about various frog species here. This frog has interesting shaped legs which give it the ability to glide. The flying frog of Borneo also has bony protrusions behind its eyes which give it the appearance of having ears. It is also sometimes called the File-eared tree frog. In this video I show a few different frogs. This was taken at a chorus of colors exhibit.

From ScienceDaily:

Life in the fast flow: Tadpoles of new species rely on ‘suction cups’ to keep up

The frogs living in the rainforest of Sumatra also represent a new genus

March 12, 2018

Summary: The young of two new species and a genus of frog found to inhabit Sumatra’s rainforests have developed a unique ability to latch onto rocks in the fast-flowing rivers, using bellies crafted by evolution into ‘suction cups’. Herpetologists use their remarkable discovery to highlight the unique biodiversity of the island, which is under imminent threat due to rampant habitat modification and deforestation.

Indonesia, a megadiverse country spanning over 17,000 islands located between Australia and mainland Asia, is home to more than 16% of the world’s known amphibian and reptile species, with almost half of the amphibians found nowhere else in the world. Unsurprisingly, biodiversity scientists have been feverishly discovering and describing fascinating new animals from the exotic island in recent years.

Such is the case of an international team from the University of Hamburg, Germany, University of Texas at Arlington, USA, University of Bern, Switzerland and Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia, who came across a curious tadpole while collecting amphibian larvae from fast-flowing streams as part of an arduous expedition in the remote forests on the island of Sumatra.

To the amazement of the scientists, it turned out that the tadpoles possess a peculiar cup-like structure on their bellies, in addition to the regular oral disk found in typical tadpoles. As a result, the team described two new species and a genus in the open access journal Zoosystematics and Evolution. A previously known, but misplaced in an unsuitable genus, frog was also added to the group, after it was proved that it takes advantage of the same modification.

“This phenomenon where tadpoles display ‘belly suckers’ is known as gastromyzophory and, albeit not unheard of, is a rare adaptation that is only found in certain toads in the Americas and frogs in Asia”, explains lead author Umilaela Arifin.

The abdominal sucker, it is hypothesized, helps these tadpoles to exploit a very special niche — fast-flowing streams — where the water would otherwise be too turbulent and rapid to hang around. Gastromyzophorous species, however, rely on the suction provided by their modified bellies to secure an exclusive access to plentiful food, such as algae, while the less adapted are simply washed away.

When the scientists took a closer look at the peculiar tadpoles and their adult forms, using a powerful combination of molecular and morphological data, they realized that they had not only stumbled upon a rare amphibian trait, but had also discovered two brand new species of frogs in the process.

Moreover, the animals turned out so distinct in their evolutionary makeup, compared to all other frogs, that the scientists had to create a whole new genus to accommodate them. Formally named Sumaterana, the genus is to be commonly referred to as Sumatran Cascade Frogs.

“We decided to call the new genus Sumaterana after Sumatra, to reflect the fact that these new species, with their rare evolutionary adaptation are endemic to Sumatra’s rainforests and, in a sense, are emblematic of the exceptional diversity of animals and plants on the island,” says co-author Dr. Utpal Smart. “Tragically, all of them are in peril today, given the current rate of deforestation.”

The authors agree that much more taxonomic work is still needed to determine and describe Sumatra’s herpetofaunal diversity, some of which they fear, could be irreversibly lost well before biologists have the chance to discover it.


Harlequin frogs freed in Panama

This video says about itself:

Hundreds of Tiny Frogs Released on a Mission to Save Their Species | National Geographic

22 January 2018

Scientists released hundreds of harlequin frogs into the wilds of Panama in hopes of collecting valuable data.

We hope these harlequin frogs in Panama are able to create safe, fungus-free areas and revive their species!

Frogs and Dutch song music video

This 25 December 2017 video is about frog species living in the Netherlands. Mainly edible frogs; also a tree frog and an European toad.

The piano music in this video is the tune of the old Dutch children’s song Er zaten zeven kikkertjes al in een boerensloot (There were seven little frogs in a farmer’s ditch). The ditch in the song is frozen, the frogs half dead.

According to Dutch Wikipedia, the song is from 1843.

However, it may be even older. I remember a version of the song with as final lines:

En er kwam een vent uit Pruisen
met honderdduizend man.
Die nam de zeven kikkertjes
en braadde ze in de pan.


A guy from Prussia came
with a hundred thousand men.
He took the seven little frogs
and fried them in the pan.

This may mean that the song is from shortly after 1787. Then, the king of Prussia had one of his generals invade the Dutch republic. Not with 100,000 soldiers; with 26,000 soldiers, but it was enough for victory. The aim of the Prussian invasion was to restore the power of Prince William V of the Orange dynasty, who had been driven away from the capital The Hague by the republican Patriot party.

The song may have been meant originally by the pro-Orange dynasty party to mock their Patriot opponents as powerless frogs.

Common frog and frog spawn video

This video, made in May 2017 in the Netherlands, shows common frogs during their mating season and the resulting frog spawn.

Stanley Quarré made this video.

The harp music is by Anne Vanschothorst.

‘Prehistoric frog ate dinosaurs’

This 2014 video about Beelzebufo ampinga is called Prehistoric News : Devil Frog had Spikes and Armor.


Giant Prehistoric Frogs Ate Small Dinosaurs, Claim Scientists

Sep 20, 2017

Exceptionally large individuals of Beelzebufo ampinga, an extinct species of frog that lived in Madagascar during the Late Cretaceous epoch, about 68 million years ago, were capable of eating small dinosaurs, according to an international research team led by California State Polytechnic University scientists.

This conclusion comes from a study of the bite force of extant South American horned frogs (genus Ceratophrys).

“Unlike the vast majority of frogs which have weak jaws and typically consume small prey, horned frogs ambush animals as large as themselves — including other frogs, snakes, and rodents,” explained co-author Dr. Marc Jones, from the University of Adelaide and the South Australian Museum.

“And their powerful jaws play a critical role in grabbing and subduing the prey.”

Dr. Jones and co-authors from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia found that small horned frogs, with head width of about 1.8 inches (4.5 cm), can bite with a force of 30 newtons (N), or about 3 kg/6.6 lbs.

A scaling experiment, comparing bite force with head and body size, calculated that large horned frogs that are found in the tropical and subtropical moist lowland forests of South America, with a head width of up to 4 inches (10 cm), would have a bite force of almost 500 N. This is comparable to reptiles and mammals with a similar head size.

“This would feel like having 50 liters of water balanced on your fingertip,” explained lead author Professor Kristopher Lappin, of California State Polytechnic University.

“Many people find horned frogs hilarious because of their big heads and fat, round bodies,” said co-author Sean Wilcox, a PhD candidate at the University of California, Riverside.

“Yet, these predators have given us a rare opportunity to learn something more about the biology of a huge extinct frog.”

The team estimated the bite force of the extinct frog Beelzebufo ampinga may have had a bite up to 2,200 N, comparable to formidable mammalian predators such as wolves and female tigers.

“At this bite force, Beelzebufo ampinga would have been capable of subduing the small and juvenile dinosaurs that shared its environment,” Dr. Jones said.

“This is the first time bite force has been measured in a frog,” Professor Lappin said.

“And, speaking from experience, horned frogs have quite an impressive bite, and they tend not to let go.”

“The bite of a large Beelzebufo ampinga would have been remarkable, definitely not something I would want to experience firsthand.”

The study appears today in the journal Scientific Reports.

Purple frog new species discovery in India

External morphology of tadpoles of the Bhupathy’s purple frog (Nasikabatrachus bhupathi). Image credit: S. Jegath Janani et al.

By Natali Anderson:

Bizarre New Species of Frog Discovered in India: Nasikabatrachus bhupathi

Aug 28, 2017

Herpetologists are claiming they have discovered a new species of purple frog living in the Western Ghats, India.

In a paper published in the Alytes, the International Journal of Batrachology, the researchers describe the new frog species that they call Nasikabatrachus bhupathi.

The proposed English name is the Bhupathy’s purple frog.

The new species was described by Dr. S. Jegath Janani from the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CSIR-CCMB) in Hyderabad, India, and his colleagues from the American Museum of Natural History the CSIR-CCMB, and the Nature Environment and Wildlife Society.

“The name of this species, bhupathi, commemorates Dr. S. Bhupathy, a noted scientist and a field herpetologist,” the authors explain.

They say Nasikabatrachus bhupathi is just the second member of the genus Nasikabatrachus.

The frog is morphologically, acoustically and genetically distinct from the only previously known species, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis (common names: purple frog, Indian purple frog, pignose frog).

Nasikabatrachus bhupathi measures between 1.8 and 2 inches (4.5-5 cm) in length.

“The abdominal skin of the species is smooth, grayish-white with faint marbling in coloration. The skin on dorsum is smooth, thick, and dark brown from vent to shoulder. The head is lighter brown; no dorso-lateral or transverse skin folds,” Dr. Janani and co-authors say.

“The body is globular; the head is not externally distinct from body, the snout is acutely pointed with a lighter colored fleshy protuberance and a hard knob-like projection at the tip.”

“The mouth is small, subterminal, ventral, and posterior to snout tip; the tongue is small with entire rounded tip.”

According to the team, Nasikabatrachus bhupathi lives on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.

“The currently known distribution of Nasikabatrachus bhupathi is restricted to three highly seasonal second order streams,” they say.

“The type locality is on the leeward side of the Western Ghats, which receives less rainfall than the western slopes of these mountains during southwest monsoon.”

Both Nasikabatrachus bhupathi and N. sahyadrensis are highly adapted for fossoriality (burrowing).

Nasikabatrachus frogs live and feed underground, therefore hard, dry soil and rock (from mountain uplift) is expected to present an insurmountable barrier to burrowing and feeding, preventing them from dispersing far,” the researchers say.

Three small frog species discovered in Peru

This video says about itself:

7 March 2017

In the Pui Pui Protected Forest, Peruvian Andes, researchers discovered a new species of terrestrial-breeding frog. The species was named Pristimantis attenboroughi, Attenborough’s Rubber Frog, in honour of Sir David Attenborough.

And now, more relatives of this frog have been discovered in that area.

From the University of Michigan in the USA:

Three species of tiny frogs discovered in Peruvian Andes

July 27, 2017

A University of Michigan ecologist and his colleagues have discovered three more frog species in the Peruvian Andes, raising to five the total number of new frog species the group has found in a remote protected forest since 2012.

The three newly found species live in the mountain forests and Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru. They are described in a study to be published online July 27 in the journal Zootaxa. All three species measure an inch or less in length, from snout to vent.

“Our team has now described five new species of frogs from this region, with several more to come in the near future,” said Rudolf von May, a postdoctoral researcher in the Rabosky Lab at the U-M Museum of Zoology and the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. Other team members are in Illinois, the Czech Republic and Peru.

“These discoveries demonstrate the need for further scientific exploration of such Andean habitats,” he said. “While the Pui Pui Protected Forest was established in 1985, virtually no biological surveys were conducted in the park for nearly three decades, and the potential for additional discoveries is enormous.”

The three new frog species belong to the genus Pristimantis, the most diverse genus of frogs in the tropical Andes. With nearly 500 species, they are part of the family Craugastoridae, commonly known as land-breeding or terrestrial-breeding frogs.

While most frogs lay eggs in water, terrestrial-breeding frogs use a specialized reproductive mode called direct development: A clutch of embryos hatches directly into froglets; there are no free-living tadpoles. This allows the group to exploit a wide variety of habitats, as long as those locations contain sufficient moisture.

Terrestrial-breeding frogs appear to have undergone an evolutionary radiation at high elevations in Peru, as many species resemble one another and have similar life histories. A so-called adaptive radiation occurs when a single ancestral group produces many descendant species adapted to different habitats and ways of life.

The Zootaxa paper names and describes the three newly discovered frog species and presents supporting morphological and phylogenetic evidence. The first author of the paper is Edgar Lehr of Illinois Wesleyan University.

The frog species bear the name of the Pui Pui park, the mountain-forest habitat in the park, and a naturalist-explorer. They are:

The Pui Pui Rubber Frog, Pristimantis puipui, known from a single site near Laguna Sinchón, which marks the approximate center of the Pui Pui Protected Forest, at an elevation of 12,762 feet above sea level. The species name is derived from the Quechua words “pui pui” meaning “eyes of water,” a reference to the many lakes of the Pui Pui Protected Forest.

The Hill Dweller Rubber Frog, Pristimantis bounides, known from two sites at elevations of 10,991 feet and 11,362 feet. The species name “bounides” is derived from the Greek noun “bounos,” which means “dweller of the hills” and refers to the habitat of the mountain forests where this frog was found.

The Humboldt’s Rubber Frog, Pristimantis humboldti, known from a single site at 10,886 feet. The species name is the patronym of the German naturalist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt, who traveled the New World between 1799 and 1804 and whose ideas changed our understanding of the world.

Earlier this year, the researchers described two other new species of Peruvian frogs, Pristimantis ashaninka and Pristimantis attenboroughi. The first was named after the Ashaninka, a group of indigenous people from the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon, some of whom live near Pui Pui. The second species was named after BBC naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough.

Future papers by the group will describe five more newly discovered species from Pui Pui: three frogs and two lizards.

The Pui Pui Protected Forest covers 150,000 acres and includes dozens of lakes and streams that feed several rivers in the upper Amazon River watershed. About 70 percent of the protected forest is covered by Andean grasslands, and about 30 percent is cloud forest.

“Our findings suggest that the Pui Pui Protected Forest houses unique biological communities containing species found nowhere else,” Lehr said. “One reason for this is that the area has a steep topographic gradient including a broad array of habitats and local microclimates that contribute to high amphibian species diversity.”

Von May and Lehr first discussed the possibility of exploring the Pui Pui in 2003. In early 2012, Lehr received funding from the National Geographic Society to survey the area, and they carried out the first expeditions that year.

Two other herpetologists joined subsequent trips: Jiri Moravec of the National History Museum in Prague, Czech Republic and Juan Carlos Cusi of the Museum of Natural History of Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Lima, Peru.

Altogether, the team spent nearly three months in the field between 2012 and 2014, in a region where mountains taller than 13,000 feet are common.

“Our team worked with local guides and park rangers,” von May said. “The equipment, food and camping supplies used in the expeditions were carried by horses and mules.”

Most of the frogs were discovered by searching through moss and grass and under rocks, small bushes and other vegetation. In some cases, the researchers found frogs after hearing the males calling during light afternoon or evening rains.

Given that the newly discovered frog species live in the Pui Pui Protected Forest, much of their habitat is formally protected. However, amphibians worldwide face multiple threats — including habitat loss, the deadly chytrid skin fungus and climate change — and Andean amphibians are no exception.

In the Peruvian Andes, habitat loss is currently the main threat. Of special concern are forest clearcuttings and humanmade fires used to expand agricultural crops and grazing areas for livestock.

Worldwide, the number of known amphibian species continues to rise due to new discoveries and now stands at nearly 7,700.