Tyrannosaurus rex welcomed by children


This Dutch 26 August 2016 video is about the arrival on Beestenmarkt square in Leiden city of the fossil Tyrannosaurus rex Trix.

Trix was welcomed there by many children and adults. Then, she continued to Naturalis museum.

Tyrannosaurus rex to Naturalis museum, video


This is a 26 August 2016 Dutch video with English subtitles about bringing a Tyrannosaurus rex fossil from the USA to Naturalis museum in Leiden in the Netherlands.

Tyrannosaurus rex welcomed in Leiden


This 2 June 2016 video is about a Camarasaurus and other dinosaurs at Naturalis museum in Leiden in the Netherlands.

This morning, a Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton, excavated in Montana in the USA, arrived at Schiphol airport in the Netherlands.

From Schiphol, it continued to Naturalis museum, preceded by paleontologists/biologists Anne Schulp and Freek Vonk, cheerleaders, a brass band, police and a flowery Tyrannosaurus on a float.

Tyrannosaurus rex float, 26 August 2016

This photo of the float is a cell phone picture, like the others in this blog post.

Tyrannosaurus rex float, Beestenmarkt, 26 August 2016

They proceeded to a welcome party at Beestenmarkt square in Leiden, where hundreds of school children and others were expecting the tyrannosaur, named Trix.

Tyrannosaurus rex truck, 26 August 2016

People had to move back, as a fence had to be moved, as there was not enough space for the float to pass between the fence and a lamppost.

Tyrannosaurus rex truck, on 26 August 2016

Behind the float was the truck with the fossil Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton.

Tyrannosaurus rex brought to museum this Friday


This is a Dutch June 2016 video, recorded in Montana in the USA. It is about assembling fossil Tyrannosaurus rex Trix for transportation to Naturalis museum in the Netherlands; and about excavating Triceratops fossils not far away.

Dutch NOS TV reports today that on Friday 26 August, a Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton will be brought from Schiphol airport to Naturalis museum in Leiden.

The fossil dinosaur is probably an elderly female. Her name is Trix.

Three years ago, Trix was found in Montana in the USA. This animal will make Naturalis the only museum outside the US with a Tyrannosaurus rex.

On 10 September, Trix will be at a special tyrannosaur exhibition.

From the end of 2018 on, she will be part of the regular Naturalis exhibition.

Tyrannosaurus rex quest on video


This 17 August 2016 Dutch video shows how scientists of Naturalis museum in Leiden went to the USA to look for Tyrannosaurus rex fossils.

Piltdown man hoax perpetrator exposed


This 2014 video is about the Piltdown man fraud.

From daily The Independent in Britain today:

Piltdown hoax: Culprit behind one of history’s greatest ruses finally exposed

Arthur Conan Doyle was even suspected of being the perpetrator

Kate Nelson

The culprit behind one of the greatest scientific hoaxes in history has been found after new forensic techniques revealed his identity.

Between 1912 and 1914, museum palaeontologist Arthur Smith Woodward and solicitor Charles Dawson claimed to have discovered fossils which supposedly showed the link between man and ape.

Known as the Piltdown Man, after the area of Sussex the remains were allegedly found, the discovery fooled even the most eminent scientific minds of the time.

It took more than 40 years to discover the hoax.

The new fossil had an ape-like jaw and brain-case like a modern human.

Mr Dawson claimed to have discovered further evidence at a second site, close to the original, prior to his death in August 1916.

Doubts were immediately raised but many thought the amateur archeologist was incapable of such a sophisticated ruse.

At one point Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, author of Sherlock Holmes, was under suspicion.

Some thought he wanted to mock scientists for ridiculing his spiritualist beliefs.

New research has now revealed that the forgeries were created using a limited number of specimens all constructed using a consistent method – suggesting the perpetrator acted alone.

It is highly likely that an orangutan specimen and at least two human skeletons were used to create the fakes, which are still kept at the Natural History Museum.

The work, which points the finger of suspicion firmly at Mr Dawson, was undertaken by a team led by Liverpool John Moores University and used the latest scientific methods.

Dr Isabelle De Groote, from the university and lead author on the paper which is published in Royal Society Open Science, said: “Although multiple individuals have been accused of producing the fake fossils, our analyses to understand the modus operandi show consistency between all the different specimens and on both sites.

“It is clear from our analysis that this work was likely all carried out by one forger – Charles Dawson.”

DNA analysis found that both the canine tooth planted at the first Piltdown site and the molar from the second probably came from one orangutan.

Holes in the skull bones were filled with dental putty, which was also used to re-set the teeth in the jaw and to reconstruct one of the teeth that fell apart while it was being ground down.

Chris Stringer, human origins expert at the Natural History Museum, said: “Our work shows that a century on, we can add a new chapter to the Piltdown story through new investigative techniques.

“We found surprising evidence that the forger had even removed the molars in order to modify them, and had then replaced them in the jawbone.”

Common ancestor of all wildlife, new research


This video says about itself:

Scientists Reveal LUCA – Common Ancestor Of All Living Things On Earth

26 July 2016

Many scientists believe that all living entities on Earth originated from an ancient organism called Luca which stands for the Last Universal Common Ancestor. Now, a team led by William F. Martin of Heinrich Heine University has released a new study which aims to “reconstruct the microbial ecology of LUCA.”

Many scientists believe that all living entities on Earth originated from an ancient organism called Luca which stands for the Last Universal Common Ancestor. The single-celled being likely lived around 4 billion years ago and is thought to have eventually spawned two distinct groups of uni-celled life–bacteria and archaea.

Now, a team led by William F. Martin of Heinrich Heine University has released a new study which aims to “reconstruct the microbial ecology of LUCA.” For the research, they tested 286,514 protein clusters and found that 355 protein families likely descended from the organism. Based on the attributes of this select group, the scientists theorize that Luca was able to withstand hot temperatures and live on hydrogen and carbon dioxide instead of oxygen; it also needed metals to be in the surrounding environment.

These combined attributes seem to indicate that this so-called universal ancestor lived in a habitat similar to a hot and gassy deep-sea vent. Despite the team’s findings, critics point out that additional information is needed to prove where life began.

From Nature Microbiology:

The physiology and habitat of the last universal common ancestor

Published online: 25 July 2016

Abstract

The concept of a last universal common ancestor of all cells (LUCA, or the progenote) is central to the study of early evolution and life’s origin, yet information about how and where LUCA lived is lacking.

We investigated all clusters and phylogenetic trees for 6.1 million protein coding genes from sequenced prokaryotic genomes in order to reconstruct the microbial ecology of LUCA. Among 286,514 protein clusters, we identified 355 protein families (∼0.1%) that trace to LUCA by phylogenetic criteria. Because these proteins are not universally distributed, they can shed light on LUCA’s physiology.

Their functions, properties and prosthetic groups depict LUCA as anaerobic, CO2-fixing, H2-dependent with a Wood–Ljungdahl pathway, N2-fixing and thermophilic. LUCA’s biochemistry was replete with FeS clusters and radical reaction mechanisms. Its cofactors reveal dependence upon transition metals, flavins, S-adenosyl methionine, coenzyme A, ferredoxin, molybdopterin, corrins and selenium. Its genetic code required nucleoside modifications and S-adenosyl methionine-dependent methylations. The 355 phylogenies identify clostridia and methanogens, whose modern lifestyles resemble that of LUCA, as basal among their respective domains.

LUCA inhabited a geochemically active environment rich in H2, CO2 and iron. The data support the theory of an autotrophic origin of life involving the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway in a hydrothermal setting.

See also here.