Computer game on evolution of bird flight


This video from the USA says about itself:

Flap to the Future – American Robin

7 February 2017

HELFUL TIP: I play through the level twice. Skip to 3:02 for former personal best time.

Wowza, wowza! A bird game! Of course I’m going to play it longer than I should.

Cornell Lab of Ornithology sent out an email today about this game, so I tried it out and maybe got somewhat good at the American Robin stage. It’s a super easy stage assuming you have a good path routed and can pull off a few tight maneuvers. Though my time is very beatable, I’ll leave it as is since it seems that my new best times aren’t being posted on the leaderboards for some reason. I could always go back and restart my file to have a new best time posted, but I really don’t want to lose the random generated name I currently have on my account. I’ll just have to deal with my initial 05:30.17 minute clear time on the leaderboards.

EDIT: The leaderboards are now functional beyond the initial completion of a level! However, I accidentally reset my game like an idiot, and as such, Lilac-feathered Friendly Heron will forever be displayed with mediocre completion times.

My current mobile name is now Agile Tourmaline-backed Heron, and my current PC name is Least-bearded Fluffheron.

From the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in the USA:

Video Game Lets You Scamper, Glide, and Flap Through the Evolution of Flight

Skip through time and explore how birds mastered the skies with our new video game. Start as an earthbound dinosaur and then feel the thrill of feathered wings and flapping flight. Then jump ahead 100 million years from now to imagine the future of flight. The game is free, mobile-friendly, and runs in a web browser. There’s no app download necessary—just an interest in dinosaurs, flight, or video games. Visit Bird Academy to play (and—bonus—find out your very own fanciful bird name).

Dinosaur-age reptile live birth discovery


This video says about itself:

9 September 2015

“Tanystropheus” was a 6 metre long reptile that dated from the Middle Triassic period. It is recognizable by its extremely elongated neck, which measured 3 metres long – longer than its body and tail combined. The neck was composed of 12–13 extremely elongate vertebrae. Fossils have been found in Europe, the Middle East and China. Complete skeletons of juvenile individuals are most abundant in the Besano Formation of Italy, dating to 232 million years ago during the middle Triassic period.

“Tribelesodon”, originally considered to be a pterosaur by Francesco Bassani in 1886, is now recognized as a junior synonym to “Tanystropheus“. The best-known species is “Tanystropheus longobardicus“. Other currently recognized species include “T. conspicuus” and “T. meridensis”.

Another junior synonym of “Tanystropheus” is “Procerosaurus”. Two specimens were initially identified as “Procerosaurus”: The first was described as “P. cruralis” by von Huene in 1902. The second was described by Antonin Fritsch in 1878 as a species of “Iguanodon“, and is a highly doubtful dinosaurian-like bit of bone from the Cenomanian of the Czech Republic. He reassigned the species to “Procerosaurus” in 1905 intending to erect it as a new genus, unaware that the genus name was already in use. George Olshevsky in 2000 substituted “Ponerosteus” for this species.

In 2002, fossils of a related genus, “Dinocephalosaurus“, were collected in marine Triassic deposits in southwestern China. This new creature was 2.7 metres long, 1.7 metres of which was its neck and head. The specimen was described in 2004.

From Discover magazine:

Mamma Mia! Fossil Is First Hint Of Live Birth In Ancient Reptile

By Gemma Tarlach | February 14, 2017 10:00 am

Here’s some egg-citing news: for the first time in the fossil record, researchers have discovered a specific type of marine reptile that was carrying an advanced embryo at time of death. Why is that interesting? Because the specimen is an archosauromorph, an early member of the same gang of vertebrates that includes dinosaurs as well as pterosaurs, birds and crocodiles, all of which we thought, based on previous evidence, were exclusively egg-layers. Today that changes.

Some 245 million years ago, Dinocephalosaurus was a marine reptile swimming around what’s now southwest China. Paleontologists have found other examples of this ridiculously long-necked animal, but this one in particular met her maker with a developmentally advanced embryo in her abdominal cavity — providing science with the first example of viviparity in an archosauromorph.

Viva Viviparity!

Aside from being a great weapon to have in your arsenal when playing Scrabble, viviparity just means giving birth to live young rather than oviparity (egg-laying).

Viviparity has evolved a number of times among vertebrates, from lizards to mammals, but has never before been seen in the archosauromorphs, a rather large group of animals that emerged about 260 million years ago and eventually evolved into archosaurs, more famously known as things like dinosaurs and pterosaurs, the great and diverse flying reptiles.

Birds and the various crocodilians (crocodiles, alligators, caimans, etc.) are the only archosaurs still wandering about, and all are oviparous.

Baby On Board…or Breakfast?

I can hear a few of my more cynical readers grumbling over their keyboards “how do we know this is an embryo and not just a cannibalistic snack?” Right back atcha with findings from the paper, which ruled out both cannibalism and superposition (the possibility the two were separate individuals that died at the same time and were fossilized one atop the other).

The case against superposition: The fossilized embryo is completely enclosed by the fossilized adult, which means it must have been inside Mom when she died.

The case against cannibalism is a little more complex, but stay with me. The embryo is oriented with its neck pointing forward. For these marine reptiles, however, prey is typically swallowed and digested head-first, or neck pointing backward. In fact, the researchers did find a partially digested fish in the same mama fossil, in her abdominal cavity (not the Reptowomb location of Junior’s fossil), that had been swallowed and was moving along her digestive system head-first.

Want more evidence? Okay. The embryosaurus was curled in the typical fetal position, there was no evidence of eggshell anywhere around the fossil, and its baby bones were well ossified, which means it was in an advanced developmental stage; egg-laying animals drop baby bombs in significantly earlier stages of development.

Babymaking, Reptile Style

Today’s study, published in Nature Communications, is the earliest evidence we’ve got of the whole babymaking process for archosauromoprhs by about 50 million years. And understanding the reproductive biology of these animals, including dinosaurs, furthers our knowledge of how they lived, and maybe even why they went extinct.

Researchers thought for a long time, given what they were seeing in the fossil record, that dinosaurs, birds and crocodilians laid eggs because there was something in their archosauromorph biology that prohibited live births.

(Fun fact about crocodilians in particular: it’s after the egg is laid, and based on the ambient temperature as it incubates, that the sex of the babycroc is determined. Obviously that’s different than in viviparous Dinocephalosaurus. Since its offspring developed at body temperature, the sex of an individual Dino-c must have been determined genetically as it is for humans and other viviparous sorts.)

Because we now know at least one species of archosauromorph gave birth to live offspring, it suggests the lack of viviparity in later archosaurs was an adaptation to their environment, or provided some advantage not yet identified. Or maybe the fossil of a viviparous archosaur is somewhere out there, just waiting to be found.

See also here.

Dinosaur discoveries in China


This video says about itself:

Zhejiang Museum of Natural History – Hangzhou – Zhejiang – China

06.07.2014

From the Daily Star in Britain:

Real life Jurassic Park uncovered as scientists find DINOSAUR fossils hidden underground

A REAL life Jurassic Park once home to six species of dinosaur has been uncovered after researchers found almost 100 fossil sites.

By Jess Bell / Published 12th February 2017

A team of experts carrying out a six-year survey in east China’s Zhejiang Province have shared their incredible findings.

They found 82 fossil sites and 25 types of eggs during the excavation between 2006 and 2013.

Scientists from the Zhejiang Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology and the Zhejiang Museum of Natural History worked together on the research.

They used a range of techniques from geology and paleobiology to chronostratigraphy which identifies the deposition of rocks.

Experts also combined site inspections and excavations to scour the site in minute detail.

The survey covered a vast area of 11,000 square kilometres [around] the province’s capital Hangzhou.

Jin Xingsheng, deputy curator of the Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, said: “It has been proved that a large quantity of dinosaurs lived in Zhejiang during the Cretaceous period, about 65 million to 145 million years ago.

“Compared with other southeastern provinces, Zhejiang has the largest amount of dinosaur fossils.”

The researchers’ new findings also provide evidence that a comet or asteroid was responsible for wiping out the dinosaurs.

Scientists discovered the sedimentary rocks, where most of the fossils were discovered, were encased by layers of volcanic rocks. Experts studying the volcanic Deccan Traps recently revealed new details of a double disaster which could have been responsible for the dinosaur extinction.

Their findings show two plumes of magma could have combined with a devastating asteroid hit to ravage the Earth 65 million years ago.

South African boy discovers dinosaur tooth


This video from South Africa says about itself:

Dinosaur find in Knysna

6 February 2017

Ben Ingel, a learner at Oakhill School, found the tooth of a 120 million year-old dinosaur.

Video Elaine King, Knysna-Plettt Herald.

Read more here.

From eNCA.com in South Africa:

Grade 8 pupil discovers tooth of dinosaur in Knysna

Wednesday 8 February 2017 – 5:33am

JOHANNESBURG – Knysna has landed itself prominently on the archaeological map.

Thirteen-year-old Grade 8 pupil, Benjamin Ingel discovered a tooth there — and it very likely comes from a dinosaur.

Ingel reportedly found the tooth while walking near Knysna lagoon. He brought it home to show his family.

Ingel’s grandfather, Vernon Rice, approached some experts to verify the authenticity of the find. Geologists Rob Muir and Roger Schoon agreed to come to his house to have a look.

Rice said: “They took one look and I could see from their faces we had something.”

Palaeontologist Robert Gess at the Albany Museum in Grahamstown invited Ben and his grandfather to the museum to allow palaeontologists to examine the specimen more closely.

Wits University palaeontologist Jonah Choiniere, who has seen photographs of the tooth, believes that it is about 140 million years old and belonged to a carnivorous theropod.

Choiniere believes the dinosaur weighed between 500kg and a ton.

“This was a meat-eater of considerable size; his head would bump on the ceiling of my house,” said palaeontologist Dr Billy de Klerk, who has also seen the tooth.

“These teeth are so rare that in a span of 30 years I have only seen 15 decent teeth,” De Klerk added.

Ingel is prepared to donate the tooth to a museum after he shows it to his friends at school.

Probably, the teeth belongerd to an individual of the Allosaurus family.

Earliest deuterostome fossils discovery in China


This 31 January 2017 video is about mankind’s earliest ancestor: Saccorhytus coronarius,.

From Science News:

Pinhead-sized sea creature was a bag with a mouth

Anus may have been absent in odd new fossils from 540 million years ago

By Meghan Rosen

2:00pm, February 3, 2017

A roughly 540-million-year-old creature that may have once skimmed shorelines was a real oddball.

Dozens of peculiar, roundish fossils discovered in what is now South China represent the earliest known deuterostomes, a gigantic category of creatures that includes everything from humans to sea cucumbers.

No bigger than a pinhead, the fossils have wrinkly, baglike bodies and gaping mouths that are pleated around the edges like an accordion, researchers report January 30 in Nature. Unlike most other deuterostomes, the animals don’t seem to have an anus. Instead, the ancient oddities, named Saccorhytus coronarius, may have leaked waste (and other bodily fluids like mucus and sex cells) out of tiny holes lining their sides. These holes may have later evolved into gill slits.

A tough, flexible skin would have protected Saccorhytus as it wriggled through grains of dirt, the authors suggest. The find supports previous suggestions that the earliest deuterostomes were actually a kind of water-dwelling worm.

Dinosaur soft tissue discovery


This video from the USA says about itself:

7 March 2016

Mary Higby Schweitzer is a paleontologist at North Carolina State University, who is known for leading the groups that discovered the remains of blood cells in dinosaur fossils and later discovered soft tissue remains in a Tyrannosaurus rex specimen.

From AFP news agency:

Dino rib yields evidence of oldest soft tissue remains

January 31, 2017

The rib of a long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur that lived 195 million years ago has yielded what may be the oldest remains of soft tissue ever recovered, scientists said Tuesday.

The find promises a chance to extract rare clues about the biology and evolution of long-extinct animals, a team wrote in the journal Nature Communications.

Such information is mostly missing from preserved hard skeletons, which form the bulk of the fossil record.

“We have shown the presence of protein preserved in a 195 million-year-old dinosaur, at least 120 million years older than any other similar discovery,” study co-author Robert Reisz of the University of Toronto Mississauga, told AFP.

“These proteins are the building blocks of animal soft tissues, and it’s exciting to understand how they have been preserved,” he added.

Reisz and a team scanned a rib bone of Lufengosaurus, a common dinosaur in the Early Jurassic period. Fully grown, these lizards

Dinosaurs are not really closely related to lizards.

measured about eight metres (26 feet).

The researchers used a photon beam at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan to examine the insides of the bone, specifically its chemical contents.

They found evidence of collagen proteins within tiny canals in the rib and concluded they were “probably remnants of the blood vessels that supplied blood to the bone cells in the living dinosaur.”

Most previous studies had extracted organic remains by dissolving away other parts of the fossil, the team said.

With the synchrotron method, this is not necessary, and even older remains may be uncovered without damaging dinosaur bones in future.

Does it bring us any closer to recovering DNA from which dinosaurs may one day be cloned?

“No, that is still fantasy,” said Reisz.

The previous oldest find of suspected and collagen fibres was reported in 2013, in that lived about 75 million years ago.

Proteins and other organic remains usually decay soon after an animal dies. During fossilisation, the space they occupied within bone is filled by mineral deposits carried by groundwater.

Finding fossilised soft tissue is very rare indeed.

Fossils in Dutch Utrecht


This 20 January 2017 Dutch video is about fossils in stones in the inner city of Utrecht. Including brachiopods, sponges and coral.