Medicinal leech swimming, video


This video about a swimming medicinal leech is by diver Jos van Zijl from the Netherlands.

He filmed it at the start of a dive. As Jos returned, the leech bit him and sucked blood. Jos van Zijl’s hand kept bleeding for two days.

New worm species discovery in the Netherlands


Cirriformia tentaculata in New Zealand

Translated from the Dutch marine biologists of Stichting ANEMOON:

Sunday, October 26, 2014

A new marine worm species, new for the Netherlands, has recently been discovered. Recreational divers found Cirriformia tentaculata in the central Oosterschelde estuary, and published their findings in ‘Het Zeepaardje’, the bimonthly magazine of the Strandwerkgemeenschap. It is not known whether the species has only just appeared on the Dutch coast, or that it had already been present for a long time but had never been discovered before because of its unobtrusive way of life.

Much sea life is hardly visible to the eyes of sport divers. At least 300 species of worms are known from our coastal waters. Many species live hidden in the sand and mud bottoms.

So, probably many worm species in the Netherlands have not been discovered yet.

The origin of annelids: here.

North Sea coral discovery


This video from Britain says about itself:

26 May 2014

Join us on a simulated journey through the undersea landscapes of the south west of England from Ilfracombe to delicate pink sea fans in Lyme Bay via Chesil Beach and Berry Head. Common cuttlefish, hermit crab, bootlace seaweed and long snouted sea horse can be found here. Watch plaice send a hermit crab packing before approaching The Lizard’s thick carpets of jewel anenomes, dead man’s fingers and Devonshire cup coral. As we reach the Atlantic we come across sun fish, lion’s mane jellyfish, basking sharks and bottle-nosed dolphins before surfacing at Ilfracombe in Devon. Grey seals swim along corkwing wrasse, ballan wrasse and swimming crabs all searching for food amongst sponges.

Translated from Ecomare museum on Texel island in the Netherlands, 16 September 2014:

During a 10-day diving expedition in the North Sea there were a number of discoveries in ancient sunken ships. The rare polychaete worm Sabellaria [spinulosa] was found for example. But the most remarkable find was a piece of Devonshire cup-coral. Although this species lives occasionally near the English east coast, it was the first time that hard coral was found in the middle of the North Sea.

Tapeworm discovery in prehistoric domestic dog


Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm

From the Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 50, October 2014, Pages 51–62:

Multicomponent analyses of a hydatid cyst from an Early Neolithic hunter–fisher–gatherer from Lake Baikal, Siberia

Highlights:

Echinococcus granulosus infection in an 8000-year-old forager from Siberia.

Differential diagnosis of egg-like, multi-chambered ovoid calcifications.

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of a parasitic hydatid cyst.

Abstract:

Calcified biological objects are occasionally found at archaeological sites and can be challenging to identify. This paper undertakes the differential diagnosis of what we suggest is an Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst from an 8000-year-old mortuary site called Shamanka II in the Lake Baikal region of Siberia. Echinococcus is a parasitic tapeworm that needs two hosts to complete its life cycle: herbivores and humans are intermediate hosts, and carnivores such as dogs, wolves, and foxes are definitive hosts.

In the intermediate host the Echinococcus egg hatches in the digestive system, penetrates the intestine, and is carried via the bloodstream to an organ, where it settles and turns into an ovoid calcified structure called a hydatid cyst. For this object, identification was based on macroscopic, radiographic, and stable isotope analysis. High-resolution computed tomography scanning was used to visualize the interior structure of the object, which is morphologically consistent with the E. granulosus species (called cystic Echinococcus).

Stable isotope analysis of the extracted mineral and protein components of the object narrowed down the range of species from which it could come. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of the object’s protein, and stable carbon isotope ratio of the mineral, closely match those of the likely human host. Additionally, the δ13C protein-to-mineral spacing is very low, which fits expectations for a parasitic organism. To our knowledge this is the first isotopic characterization of a hydatid cyst and this method may be useful for future studies. The hydatid cyst most likely came from a probable female adult. Two additional hydatid cysts were found in a young adult female from a contemporaneous mortuary site in the same region, Lokomotiv. This manuscript ends with a brief discussion [of] the importance of domesticated dogs in the disease’s occurrence and the health implication of echinococcal infection for these Early Neolithic hunter–fisher–gatherers.

Hoopoe eats worm, video


In this video from the Netherlands, a hoopoe eats a worm.

Saskia Verberne made this video.

Hoopoe in Katwijk, photos here.

Antarctica’s First Whale Skeleton Discovered


This video from Antarctica is about a minke whale playing with a zodiac.

From ScienceDaily:

Antarctica’s First Whale Skeleton Found With Nine New Deep-Sea Species

Mar. 18, 2013 — Marine biologists have, for the first time, found a whale skeleton on the ocean floor near Antarctica, giving new insights into life in the sea depths. The discovery was made almost a mile below the surface in an undersea crater and includes the find of at least nine new species of deep-sea organisms thriving on the bones.

The research, involving the University of Southampton, Natural History Museum, British Antarctic Survey, National Oceanography Centre (NOC) and Oxford University, is published today in Deep-Sea Research II: Topical Studies in Oceanography.

The planet’s largest animals are also a part of the ecology of the very deep ocean, providing a rich habitat of food and shelter for deep sea animals for many years after their death,” says Diva Amon, lead author of the paper based at University of Southampton Ocean and Earth Science (which is based at NOC) and the Natural History Museum. “Examining the remains of this southern Minke whale gives insight into how nutrients are recycled in the ocean, which may be a globally important process in our oceans.”

Worldwide, only six natural whale skeletons have ever been found on the seafloor. Scientists have previously studied whale carcasses, known as a ‘whale fall‘, by sinking bones and whole carcasses. Despite large populations of whales in the Antarctic, whale falls have not been studied in this region until now.

“At the moment, the only way to find a whale fall is to navigate right over one with an underwater vehicle,” says co-author Dr Jon Copley of University of Southampton Ocean and Earth Science. Exploring an undersea crater near the South Sandwich Islands gave scientists just that chance encounter. “We were just finishing a dive with the UK’s remotely operated vehicle, Isis, when we glimpsed a row of pale-coloured blocks in the distance, which turned out to be whale vertebrae on the seabed,” continues Dr Copley.

When a whale dies and sinks to the ocean floor, scavengers quickly strip its flesh. Over time, other organisms then colonise the skeleton and gradually use up its remaining nutrients. Bacteria break down the fats stored in whale bones, for example, and in turn provide food for other marine life. Other animals commonly known as zombie worms can also digest whale bone.

“One of the great remaining mysteries of deep ocean biology is how these tiny invertebrates can spread between the isolated habitats these whale carcasses provide on the seafloor,” says co-author Dr Adrian Glover at the Natural History Museum. ‘Our discovery fills important gaps in this knowledge.’

The team surveyed the whale skeleton using high-definition cameras to examine the deep-sea animals living on the bones and collected samples to analyse ashore. Researchers think that the skeleton may have been on the seafloor for several decades. Samples also revealed several new species of deep-sea creatures thriving on the whale’s remains, including a ‘bone-eating zombie worm‘ known as Osedax burrowing into the bones and a new species of isopod crustacean, similar to woodlice, crawling over the skeleton. There were also limpets identical to those living at nearby deep-sea volcanic vents.

New Species of Naked Bone-Eating Worms in Antarctica: here.

An American Shutdown Reaches the Earth’s End & damages years of work on Antartica, while ice melts evidence away: here.

It’s official: The coldest place on Earth is a high ridge on the East Antarctic Plateau: here.

Worm species discovery, new for Europe


Limnodrilus tortilipenis

Limnodrilus tortilipenis is a segmented worm species from North America.

In 2006, this freshwater worm was found for the first time in Europe: in the Netherlands. In 2011, three more individuals were discovered, also in the Netherlands.

There has been a publication on this: Munts, R. & D.M. Soes, 2012. Limnodrilus tortilipenis Wetzel, 1987 (Oligochaeta), a new alien species for the Netherlands. Lauterbornia 75: 43-47.