This 15 June 2018 video says about itself:
The Argentina-Iceland World Cup match in Russia is today.
This 15 June 2018 video says about itself:
The Argentina-Iceland World Cup match in Russia is today.
This 6 May 2018 video is called Earthquakes And Eruptions On Hawaii’s Big Island.
How long will Kilauea’s eruption last? A volcanologist tackles that and other burning questions about the Hawaii volcano. By Carolyn Gramling, 5:16pm, May 8, 2018.
When Kilauea Volcano erupted in 2018, it injected millions of cubic feet of molten lava into the nutrient-poor waters off the Big Island of Hawai’i. The lava-impacted seawater contained high concentrations of nutrients that stimulated phytoplankton growth, resulting in an extensive plume of microbes that was detectable by satellite: here.
Located near Eldgjá in central Iceland. Until the early 1990s a natural bridge spanned the falls, but it collapsed from natural causes. Pronunciation “oe-fai-ru-foss”.
a href=”https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180319090740.htm”>From the University of Cambridge in England:
Volcanic eruption influenced Iceland’s conversion to Christianity
March 19, 2018
Memories of the largest lava flood in the history of Iceland, recorded in an apocalyptic medieval poem, were used to drive the island’s conversion to Christianity, new research suggests.
A team of scientists and medieval historians, led by the University of Cambridge, has used information contained within ice cores and tree rings to accurately date a massive volcanic eruption, which took place soon after the island was first settled.
Having dated the eruption, the researchers found that Iceland’s most celebrated medieval poem, which describes the end of the pagan gods and the coming of a new, singular god, describes the eruption and uses memories of it to stimulate the Christianisation of Iceland. The results are reported in the journal Climatic Change.
The eruption of the Eldgjá in the tenth century is known as a lava flood: a rare type of prolonged volcanic eruption in which huge flows of lava engulf the landscape, accompanied by a haze of sulphurous gases. Iceland specialises in this type of eruption — the last example occurred in 2015, and it affected air quality 1400 kilometres away in Ireland.
The Eldgjá lava flood affected southern Iceland within a century of the island’s settlement by Vikings and Celts around 874, but until now the date of the eruption has been uncertain, hindering investigation of its likely impacts. It was a colossal event with around 20 cubic kilometres of lava erupted — enough to cover all of England up to the ankles.
The Cambridge-led team pinpointed the date of the eruption using ice core records from Greenland that preserve the volcanic fallout from Eldgjá. Using the clues contained within the ice cores, the researchers found that the eruption began around the spring of 939 and continued at least through the autumn of 940.
“This places the eruption squarely within the experience of the first two or three generations of Iceland’s settlers”, said first author Dr Clive Oppenheimer of Cambridge’s Department of Geography. “Some of the first wave of migrants to Iceland, brought over as children, may well have witnessed the eruption.”
Once they had a date for the Eldgjá eruption, the team then investigated its consequences. First, a haze of sulphurous dust spread across Europe, recorded as sightings of an exceptionally blood-red and weakened sun in Irish, German and Italian chronicles from the same period.
Then the climate cooled as the dust layer reduced the amount of sunlight reaching the surface, which is evident from tree rings from across the Northern Hemisphere. The evidence contained in the tree rings suggests the eruption triggered one of the coolest summers of the last 1500 years. “In 940, summer cooling was most pronounced in Central Europe, Scandinavia, the Canadian Rockies, Alaska and Central Asia, with summer average temperatures 2°C lower”, said co-author Professor Markus Stoffel from the University of Geneva’s Department of Earth Sciences.
The team then looked at medieval chronicles to see how the cooling climate impacted society. “It was a massive eruption, but we were still amazed just how abundant the historical evidence is for the eruption’s consequences”, said co-author Dr Tim Newfield, from Georgetown University’s Departments of History and Biology. “Human suffering in the wake of Eldgjá was widespread. From northern Europe to northern China, people experienced long, hard winters and severe spring-summer drought. Locust infestations and livestock mortalities occurred. Famine did not set in everywhere, but in the early 940s we read of starvation and vast mortality in parts of Germany, Iraq and China.”
“The effects of the Eldgjá eruption must have been devastating for the young colony on Iceland — very likely, land was abandoned and famine severe”, said co-author Professor Andy Orchard from the University of Oxford’s Faculty of English. “However, there are no surviving texts from Iceland itself during this time that provide us with direct accounts of the eruption.”
But Iceland’s most celebrated medieval poem, Voluspá (‘The prophecy of the seeress’) does appear to give an impression of what the eruption was like. The poem, which can be dated as far back as 961, foretells the end of Iceland’s pagan gods and the coming of a new, singular god: in other words, the conversion of Iceland to Christianity, which was formalised around the turn of the eleventh century.
Part of the poem describes a terrible eruption with fiery explosions lighting up the sky, and the Sun obscured by thick clouds of ash and steam:
“The sun starts to turn black, land sinks into sea; the bright stars scatter from the sky. Steam spurts up with what nourishes life, flame flies high against heaven itself.”
The poem also depicts cold summers that would be expected after a massive eruption, and the researchers link these descriptions to the spectacle and impacts of the Eldgjá eruption, the largest in Iceland since its settlement.
The poem’s apocalyptic imagery marks the fiery end to the world of the old gods. The researchers suggest that these lines in the poem may have been intended to rekindle harrowing memories of the eruption to stimulate the massive religious and cultural shift taking place in Iceland in the last decades of the tenth century.
“With a firm date for the eruption, many entries in medieval chronicles snap into place as likely consequences — sightings in Europe of an extraordinary atmospheric haze; severe winters; and cold summers, poor harvests; and food shortages”, said Oppenheimer. “But most striking is the almost eyewitness style in which the eruption is depicted in Voluspá. The poem’s interpretation as a prophecy of the end of the pagan gods and their replacement by the one, singular god, suggests that memories of this terrible volcanic eruption were purposefully provoked to stimulate the Christianisation of Iceland.”
This video says about itself:
Alaska’s Erupting Bogoslof Volcano Triggers Highest Aviation Alert
30 May 2017
The eruption of the state’s most active volcano lasted for 55 minutes Sunday and sent a massive plume of ash up to 45,000 feet into the atmosphere.
Planes flying between North America and Asia use the route above the volcano that’s in the Aleutian Islands chain as a key flight path, though there were no reports of problems with aircraft following this eruption.
Seismic activity on the island has been low since Sunday, but another eruption could occur at any time without warning, noted monitors at the Alaska Volcano Observatory.
“Bogoslof Volcano remains at a heightened state of unrest and in an unpredictable condition,” said a statement from the observatory. “Activity may ramp back up with additional explosions producing high-altitude volcanic clouds with little precursory activity.”
Monitors were tracking a cloud of white-gray ash from Sunday’s eruption that was drifting north. Authorities lowered the alert level later that day from red to orange.
Aircraft engines can suck in volcanic ash, which can melt and coat the mechanisms, ultimately leading to engine failure. A major eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland in April 2010 caused Europe’s largest air-traffic shutdown since World War II.
This current sequence of seismic activity of frequent eruptions and volcanic lightning started on Bogoslof in December 2016. There were 36 eruptions from January to March on the island, which is less than a half mile wide.
See also here.
This 28 February 2017 video says about itself:
Etna: the volcano in Italy
The current stratovolcano located on the Eastern coast of Sicily, near the cities of Messina and Catania. It is the highest point of Europe outside of the Caucasus mountains, the Alps and the Pyrenees, and the highest active volcano in Europe. Now the height of mount Etna is 3329 m above sea level. It often varies from eruption to eruption. So, now the volcano is 21.6 m lower than it was in 1865.
This video from Hawaii says about itself:
31 January 2017
Kilauea Volcano lava stream at the Kamokuna ocean entry between 25 – 29 January 2017. According to USGS, “Kīlauea Volcano continues to erupt at its summit and East Rift Zone. Lava continues to enter the ocean at Kamokuna and surface flows remain active within 2.4 km (1.5 mi) of the vent at Puʻu ʻŌʻō.”
This video from New Zealand is called Mt Ruapehu Crater Climb (February, 2016).
From the New Zealand Herald:
Ruapehu on alert after 20C rise
Wednesday, 11 May 2016
By Chris Schulz
Mt Ruapehu’s risk of eruption may have increased, but GNS volcanologists say nearby residents should not feel concerned.
GNS today announced the mountain’s crater lake temperature had doubled in the past few weeks, rising from 25C to between 45C and 46C over the past couple of days.
Duty volcanologist Geoff Kilgour says scientists made two visits to Ruapehu yesterday, one flight to measure the gas output and other to sample the crater lake water and make additional ground-based gas measurements.
“Volcanic gas measurements indicate an increase in the amount of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) output … Seismic activity at Mt Ruapehu is usually dominated by volcanic tremor. Since the volcanic earthquakes in late April the seismicity has been dominated by volcanic tremor at varying levels. The level of tremor has increased but is not exceptional in terms of the last few years.”
Volcanologist Brad Scott has quashed a few “urban myths” about why there is currently an increasing level of activity in the volcano.
“It’s got nothing to do with weather. And White Island, they’re [volcanoes] all independent of each other.”
Mr Scott says the activity is caused by molten lava getting trapped inside the volcano itself.
“When that new pulsar heat and hot rock comes into the volcano it’s whether or not it can flow through the volcano and get out of it and if the holes in the volcano aren’t big enough to let the gas through it just over pressurises and pops.”
And for those in surrounding towns worried that a lahar will swamp them, Mr Scott says debris is unlikely to travel more than a few kilometres from the volcano itself.
“One of the biggest eruptions, in 1995, only a few blots got past the 3km or 4km mark and that was really rare. Being away from the volcano is very safe and even the standard places you can go. Different story if you go and climb the thing and you’re camping at the crater lake or something.”
As for where it travels, Mr Scott says the majority head out towards the Desert Rd but there have been some eruptions producing lahar on the northern side.
“If you’re at the ski lodges, they’re safe as. Ruapehu only affects within about 3km of the lake and the nearest part of the ski fields are about 4km or 5km away so it does make it a fairly safe environment and the rest, once off you’re off the bottom of the volcano, nothing can touch you.”
Mr Scott says Ruapehu Alpine Lifts has shifted all of its infrastructure – ski tows, towers, cafes – out of the valleys in case it did head in that direction.
As for how the volcanic unrest occurs? “That’s the $64,000 science question of volcanologists all over the world.”
The Department of Conservation also issued a warning to climbers and trampers on the mountain, to not enter the Summit Hazard Zone on Mt Ruapehu until further notice.
The Summit Hazard Zone is the area within 2km of the centre of the crater lake.
It encompasses all the peaks in the summit area, with Te Heuheu Peak at the north end of the summit area at the edge of the zone, and the upper Turoa skifield at the south.
Climbers and trekkers should refer to the Summit Hazard Zone map or use their map and GPS reading skills, to determine when they are approaching the zone.
“We recommend climbers, trampers and walkers do not enter the zone,” said Paul Carr, DoC‘s operations manager for Tongariro.
“Guiding companies should also heed the advice and not take people into the zone.”
NEW ZEALAND VOLCANO EXPLOSION LEAVES AT LEAST 5 DEAD A volcano erupted on New Zealand’s White Island on Monday afternoon, killing at least five people and injuring as many as 20. Several tourists visiting the site remained unaccounted for. [HuffPost]
USA: Mount St. Helens is a cold-hearted volcano. Scientists are still searching for the source of volcano’s heat. By Beth Geiger, 12:00pm, November 1, 2016: here.
Some of the clearest, most comprehensive images of the top several miles of the Earth’s crust have helped scientists solve the mystery of why Mount St. Helens is located outside the main line of the Cascade Arc of volcanoes: here.
This video says about itself:
31 January 2016
Scientists on board the CSIRO research vessel Investigator have taken rare video footage of an eruption of the Big Ben volcano on remote sub-Antarctic Heard Island during an IMAS voyage to the Kerguelen Plateau.
Big Ben, which includes the 2,745 m tall Mawson Peak, the highest mountain on Australian territory north of Antarctica, is known to have erupted at least three other times since 2000.
But the remoteness of Heard Island and the neighbouring McDonald Islands, also an active volcano, means eruptions are rarely glimpsed by people and usually only recognised from sparse satellite images.
RV Investigator is circling the islands on the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Plateau as part of an IMAS-led voyage to study the link between active volcanoes on the seafloor and the mobilisation of iron which enriches and supports life in the Southern Ocean.
Voyage Chief Scientist, IMAS’s Professor Mike Coffin, and PhD candidate Jodi Fox comment on the eruption.
From Brown University in the USA:
Study suggests active volcanism on Venus
16 hours ago by Kevin Stacey
An international team of scientists has found some of the best evidence yet that Venus, Earth’s nearest neighbor, is volcanically active.
In combing through data from the European Space Agency’s Venus Express mission, the scientists found transient spikes in temperature at several spots on the planet’s surface. The hotspots, which were found to flash and fade over the course of just a few days, appear to be generated by active flows of lava on the surface.
“We were able to show strong evidence that Venus is volcanically, and thus internally, active today,” said James W. Head, a geologist at Brown University and co-author of a paper describing the new research. “This is a major finding that helps us understand the evolution of planets like our own.”
The research is published online in Geophysical Research Letters.
The hotspots turned up in thermal imaging taken by the Venus Express spacecraft’s Venus Monitoring Camera. The data showed spikes in temperature of several hundred degrees Fahrenheit in spots ranging in size from 1 square kilometer to over 200 kilometers.
The spots were clustered in a large rift zone called Ganiki Chasma. Rift zones are formed by stretching of the crust by internal forces and hot magma that rises toward the surface. Head and Russian colleague Mikhail Ivanov had previously mapped the region as part of a global geologic map of Venus generated from the Soviet Venera missions in the 1980s and U.S. Magellan mission in the 1990s. The mapping work had shown that Ganiki Chasma was quite young, geologically speaking, but just how young wasn’t clear until now.
“We knew that Ganiki Chasma was the result of volcanism that had occurred fairly recently in geological terms, but we didn’t know if it formed yesterday or was a billion years old,” Head said. “The active anomalies detected by Venus Express fall exactly where we had mapped these relatively young deposits and suggest ongoing activity.”
The latest finding is consistent with other data from Venus Express that have hinted at very recent volcanic activity. In 2010, infrared imaging from several volcanoes seemed to indicate lava flows from thousands to a few million years old. A few years later, scientists reported transient spikes in sulfur dioxide in Venus’ upper atmosphere, another potential signal of active volcanism.
The observation of hotspots by Venus Express, combined with the geologic mapping from Venera and Magellan, make a strong case for a volcanically active Venus, Head says.
“This discovery fits nicely with the emerging picture of very recent activity in Venus’ geologic history,” he said. “These remarkable findings were the result of collaborations spanning many years and many political borders. They underscore the importance of international collaboration in exploring our solar system and understanding how it evolves.”
Explore further: Learn about Venus, the hothouse planet near Earth
More information: “Active Volcanism on Venus in the Ganiki Chasma Rift Zone,” E. V. Shalygin, Geophysical Research Letters, 2015. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015GL064088/full
This 3 June 2015 video says about itself:
Volcano News!! Galapagos Island Volcano Spews River of Lava
From 3 News in New Zealand:
Lava continues to flow from Wolf Volcano
Wednesday 3 June 2015 11:15 p.m.
Tourists in the Galapagos Islands have been given a spectacular view of lava flowing into the ocean as the Wolf Volcano continues erupting.
The volcano began spewing flames, smoke and lava last Monday.
Authorities say the lava is flowing away from the world’s only population of pink iguanas, which live on the island’s northwest tip.
Scientists from Trinity College Dublin have just discovered how to prise volcanic secrets from magma crystals, which means they are better able to piece together the history of global geography and to predict future eruptions of active volcanoes: here.