Jupiter, Mars, Saturn space news

This video says about itself:

Juno Listens to Jupiter’s Auroras

2 September 2016

Thirteen hours of radio emissions from Jupiter’s intense auroras are presented here, both visually and in sound. The data was collected when the spacecraft made its first orbital pass of the gas giant on Aug 27, 2016, with all spacecraft instruments turned on. The frequency range of these signals is from 7 to 140 kilohertz. Radio astronomers call these “kilometric emissions” because their wavelengths are about a kilometer long.

The full story and more images from Juno‘s first pass of Jupiter with all instruments on is here.

From Science News:

Juno spacecraft goes into ‘safe mode’, continues to orbit Jupiter

by Christopher Crockett

6:57pm, October 19, 2016

PASADENA, Calif. — NASA’s Juno spacecraft, in orbit around Jupiter since July 4, is lying low after entering an unexpected “safe mode” early on October 19. A misbehaving valve in the fuel system, not necessarily related to the safe mode, has also led to a delay in a planned engine burn that would have shortened the probe’s orbit.

Juno turned off its science instruments and some other nonessential components this morning at 1:47 a.m. EDT after computers detected some unexpected situation, mission head Scott Bolton reported at an October 19 news conference. The spacecraft was hurtling toward its second close approach to the planet, soaring about 5,000 kilometers from the cloud tops. It has now passed that point and is moving back away from the planet with all science instruments switched off.

The rocket firing was intended to take Juno from a 53.5-day orbit to a 14-day orbit. Juno can stay in its current orbit indefinitely without any impact on the science goals, Bolton said. The goal of the mission — to peer deep beneath Jupiter’s clouds — depends on the close approaches that it makes with every orbit, not how quickly it loops around. “We changed to a 14-day orbit primarily because we wanted the science faster,” he said. “But there’s no requirement to do that.”

For now, mission scientists are trying to figure what happened with the fuel valve and what triggered the safe mode before proceeding with further instructions to the probe.

First peek under clouds reveals Jupiter’s surprising depths. Colorful bands stretch hundreds of kilometers inward, Juno spacecraft data show. By Christopher Crockett, 9:00am, October 21, 2016: here.

Also from Science News:

Mission scientists await signal from Mars lander

ExoMars probe went silent before touchdown

by Christopher Crockett

5:16pm, October 19, 2016

From the European Space Agency:

20 October 2016

Essential data from the ExoMars Schiaparelli lander sent to its mothership Trace Gas Orbiter during the module’s descent to the Red Planet’s surface yesterday has been downlinked to Earth and is currently being analysed by experts.

Early indications from both the radio signals captured by the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), an experimental telescope array located near Pune, India, and from orbit by ESA’s Mars Express, suggested the module had successfully completed most steps of its 6-minute descent through the martian atmosphere. This included the deceleration through the atmosphere, and the parachute and heat shield deployment, for example.

But the signals recorded by both Pune and Mars Express stopped shortly before the module was expected to touchdown on the surface. Discrepancies between the two data sets are being analysed by experts at ESA’s space operations centre in Darmstadt, Germany.

ExoMars mission has both success and failure: here.

Experts don’t agree on age of Saturn’s rings. Data from orbiting Cassini craft may help resolve debate. By Christopher Crockett, 8:53am, October 20, 2016: here.

Possibly cloudy forecast for parts of Pluto. Bright patches in New Horizons images hint at rare atmospheric formation. By Christopher Crockett, 3:05pm, October 19, 2016: here.

WE’RE STILL MOURNING PLUTO’S PLANET DEMOTION But there might just be another ninth planet out there. [NYT]

Saturn’s moon Dione, underground ocean?

This video says about itself:

NASA’s Cassini Finds Hidden Ocean on Saturn’s Moon Dione

3 October 2016

New gravity data from recent Cassini flybys of the giant planet suggest that Dione’s crust floats on an ocean 62 miles below the surface, and may harbor microbial life.

From Science News:

Saturn’s moon Dione might harbor an underground ocean

by Christopher Crockett

2:14pm, October 7, 2016

A Saturnian satellite joins the club of moons with oceans. A subsurface sea might hide beneath the icy crust of Dione, a moon of Saturn, researchers report online September 28 in Geophysical Research Letters. That puts Dione in good company alongside Enceladus (another moon of Saturn), several moons of Jupiter and possibly even Pluto.

Dione’s ocean is about 100 kilometers below the surface and is roughly 65 kilometers deep, Mikael Beuthe, a planetary scientist at the Royal Observatory of Belgium in Brussels, and colleagues report. They inferred the ocean’s presence from measurements of Dione’s gravity made by the Cassini spacecraft, which has been in orbit around Saturn since 2004.

Ocean discovery on Saturn’s moon Enceladus

This video from the USA says about itself:

NASA: Saturn‘s Moon Enceladus Has Global Ocean

16 September 2015

New research suggests the ocean underneath Saturn‘s moon Enceladus is global in nature.

Saturn‘s moon Enceladus likely contains a global ocean. Scientists working off of images obtained from the Cassini mission have observed a noticeable wobble in Enceladus that they say only makes sense if its inner core is not directly connected to its outer shell. Using over seven years’ worth of images, researchers were able to accurately determine the magnitude of the wobble and arrive at their conclusion.

Enceladus is home to what scientists call “tiger stripes”—large cracks in the moon’s south pole where ice particles, salts, water vapor and organic molecules are expelled in a thin mist. The geologic spraying activity has been observed for some time and was previously thought to be fed by a simple lens-like reservoir—something much smaller than a global ocean. But data culled from the Cassini mission‘s numerous flybys of the icy moon has supported the idea that the reservoir might be much larger. According to NASA, the latest findings independently confirm the global ocean hypothesis.

By Sebastian Murdock in the USA:

Global Ocean Discovered On Saturn’s Moon Enceladus

Pack your swimsuit! But not really.

09/16/2015 11:50 AM EDT

A sprawling global ocean has been discovered on Saturn’s moon Enceladus.

Scientists made the discovery after sifting through seven years worth of images taken by NASA’s Cassini mission. Although scientists were previously aware of a body of water under the moon’s icy crust, NASA announced Tuesday that the body of water expands across the entire moon.

By mapping the position of craters across hundreds of images, the researchers were able to measure a small wobble in the moon as it orbits Saturn. The wobble indicated the presence of a vast body of water between Enceladus’s icy crust and its rocky core, Gizmodo reported.

“If the surface and core were rigidly connected, the core would provide so much dead weight the wobble would be far smaller than we observe it to be,” Dr. Matthew Tiscareno, a Cassini scientist and co-author of a paper describing the discovery, said in a written statement. “This proves that there must be a global layer of liquid separating the surface from the core.”

The Cassini spacecraft can “‘see’ in wavelengths the human eye can’t and can ‘feel’ things about the magnetic fields and tiny dust particles that no human hand could detect,” according to NASA. The spacecraft was named after famed astronomer Jean-Dominique Cassini, who discovered four of Saturn’s whopping 62 moons.

On Oct. 28, Cassini will make it’s “deepest-ever dive” through the moon’s harsh, icy atmosphere when it passes just 30 miles above the surface.

Cassini Completes Final Close Enceladus Flyby: here.

Saturn’s moon Enceladus, new study

This video says about itself:

Warm Water Spots Found On Saturn’s Icy Moon Enceladus

12 March 2015

Astronomers have detected the first active hydrothermal vents outside of Earth’s seafloor on Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus, indicating conditions that could be hospitable to the initial development of life.

New research suggests the existence of warm spots on the ocean floor of Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus.

They could be the first active hydrothermal vents to be detected outside of Earth’s seafloor, and their conditions may even be similarly hospitable to the initial development of life.

Two studies, one led by the University of Colorado, Boulder and the other by the Southwest Research Institute in Texas, support the possible existence of this hydrothermal activity.

In 2005, the Cassini orbiter captured images of geysers shooting out of the moon’s surface, which led to the discovery of an underground sea believed to be approximately 6 miles deep and under about 25 miles of icy crust.

Scientists discovered particles from the geysers in one of Saturn’s rings and using an instrument onboard Cassini were able to analyze the tiny, uniform dust particles. They found they were rich in silica which is common on Earth but different from the usual ice crystals found in Saturn’s E-ring.

Because silica has such well-known properties, the only way they could create similar particles in the lab was using slightly alkaline, low-in-salinity water at temperatures of at least 194 degrees Fahrenheit.

Despite the ultra-cold environment, the moon’s high core temperature is thought to come from an effect called tidal heating where Saturn’s gravitational pull on the moon generates heat.

From the International Business Times:

On Saturn’s Moon Enceladus, Water Vapor Erupts In Giant Curtains: Study

By Avaneesh Pandey

May 08 2015 8:35 AM EDT

In 2005, NASA’s Cassini-Huygens spacecraft found evidence of an icy spray issuing from the southern polar region of Saturn’s sixth-largest moon, Enceladus. Now, just two months after scientists confirmed the presence of hydrothermal activity on the moon, researchers have claimed that the eruption of water vapor on its surface might be in the form of broad, curtain-like sheets, rather than discrete jets.

“We think most of the observed activity represents curtain eruptions from the ‘tiger stripe’ fractures, rather than intermittent geysers along them,” Joseph Spitale, a Cassini mission participating scientist and senior scientist at the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona, said, in a statement, referring to prominent wavy fractures along the moon’s surface. “Some prominent jets likely are what they appear to be, but most of the activity seen in the images can be explained without discrete jets.”

According to a study published Thursday in the journal Nature, these “phantom jets” seen in simulated images produced by scientists line up perfectly with some of the features seen in real Cassini images. This means that the discrete geysers that scientists have observed on Enceladus are, in fact, an optical illusion created in places where these curtains fold against one another. This illusion is also responsible for creating regions of phantom brightness when viewers are looking through the folds of watery curtains.

“The viewing direction plays an important role in where the phantom jets appear,” Spitale said, in the statement. “If you rotate your perspective around Enceladus’ South Pole, such jets would seem to appear and disappear.”

On Earth, these curtain eruptions occur in regions of volcanic activity such as Hawaii, Iceland and the Galapagos Islands. However, unlike Enceladus’ watery curtains, these are curtains of fire.

Enceladus is believed to be covered with a layer of ice about 19 miles to 25 miles thick. Evidence strongly suggests that the moon harbors a six-mile-deep ocean, with temperatures reaching up to 194 degrees Fahrenheit below its thick, icy surface, making it a prime location to look for extraterrestrial life.

Polar aurora lights on planet Saturn

This video says about itself:

Dance of Saturn’s Auroras

11 Feb 2014

Ultraviolet and infrared images from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft and Hubble Space Telescope show active and quiet auroras at Saturn‘s north and south poles.

Saturn’s auroras glow when energetic electrons dive into the planet’s atmosphere and collide with hydrogen molecules. Sometimes a blast of fast solar wind, composed of mostly electrons and protons, creates an active aurora at Saturn, as occurred on April 5 and May 20, 2013.

The first set of images, as seen in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum by Hubble, shows an active aurora dancing around Saturn’s north pole on April 5. The movie then shows a relatively quiet time between April 19 to 22 and between May 18 and 19. The aurora flares up again in Hubble images from May 20. This version, shown in false-color, has been processed to show the auroras more clearly.

A second set of ultraviolet images shows a closer view of an active north polar aurora in white. This set comes from Cassini ultraviolet imaging spectrograph observations on May 20 and 21.

The last set of images, in the infrared, shows a quiet southern aurora (in green) in observations from Cassini‘s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer on May 17. Saturn’s inner heat glows in red, with dark areas showing where high clouds block the heat.

Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Colorado/Central Arizona College and NASA/ESA/University of Leicester and NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/Lancaster University.

From Sci-News.com:

Hubble, Cassini See Auroras on Saturn

Feb 15, 2014

Detailed images of auroras at Saturn’s north and south poles have been captured by astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and Cassini spacecraft.

Saturn’s auroras glow when energetic electrons dive into the planet’s atmosphere and collide with hydrogen molecules.

Sometimes a blast of fast solar wind, composed of mostly electrons and protons, creates an active aurora at the sixth planet from the Sun.

“The auroras at Saturn are some of the planet’s most glamorous features – and there was no escaping NASA’s paparazzi-like attention,” said Dr Marcia Burton from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

“Saturn’s auroras can be fickle – you may see fireworks, you may see nothing,” said team leader Dr Jonathan Nichols from the University of Leicester, UK.

Dr Nichols and his colleagues used Hubble telescope to observe the northern auroras in ultraviolet wavelengths and NASA’s Cassini spacecraft to capture images of the north and south in infrared, visible-light and ultraviolet wavelengths.

While the curtain-like auroras we see at Earth are green at the bottom and red at the top, NASA's Cassini spacecraft has shown astronomers similar auroras at Saturn that are red at the bottom and purple at the top. Image credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / SSI

The Hubble and Cassini images help shed light on an unsolved mystery about the atmospheres of giant outer planets.

“Scientists have wondered why the high atmospheres of Saturn and other gas giants are heated far beyond what might normally be expected given their distance from the Sun,” said Dr Sarah Badman from Lancaster University.

“We know there must be other energy interactions going on to cause this heating, but we can’t yet say for sure what they are.”

“From the Earth, we can only see part of the picture, but by looking at these amazing new movies from the vantage points of both Cassini and the Hubble Space Telescope, we can see exactly where the aurora is heating Saturn’s atmosphere and for how long.”

“Being able to track the aurora all around Saturn’s poles is vital if we are to discover how its atmosphere is heated.”

The new images also help astronomers figure out the colors of Saturn’s auroras.

While the curtain-like auroras we see at Earth are green at the bottom and red at the top, Cassini’s imaging cameras have shown us similar curtain-like auroras at Saturn that are red at the bottom and purple at the top

The color difference occurs because auroras on our planet are dominated by excited nitrogen and oxygen molecules, and Saturn’s auroras are dominated by excited hydrogen molecules.

“While we expected to see some red in Saturn’s aurora because hydrogen emits some red light when it gets excited, we also knew there could be color variations depending on the energies of the charged particles bombarding the atmosphere and the density of the atmosphere. We were thrilled to learn about this colorful display that no one had seen before,” explained team member Dr Ulyana Dyudina from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California.

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Planet earth photographed by spacecraft

Planet earth photographed from space. Two Views of Home: These images show views of Earth and the moon from NASA's Cassini (left) and MESSENGER spacecraft (right) from July 19, 2013. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute and NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington)

From ScienceDaily:

NASA Releases Images of Earth by Two Interplanetary Spacecraft

July 22, 2013 — Color and black-and-white images of Earth taken by two NASA interplanetary spacecraft on July 19 show our planet and its moon as bright beacons from millions of miles away in space.

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft captured the color images of Earth and the moon from its perch in the Saturn system nearly 900 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) away. MESSENGER, the first probe to orbit Mercury, took a black-and-white image from a distance of 61 million miles (98 million kilometers) as part of a campaign to search for natural satellites of the planet.

In the Cassini images Earth and the moon appear as mere dots — Earth a pale blue and the moon a stark white, visible between Saturn’s rings. It was the first time Cassini’s highest-resolution camera captured Earth and its moon as two distinct objects.

It also marked the first time people on Earth had advance notice their planet’s portrait was being taken from interplanetary distances. NASA invited the public to celebrate by finding Saturn in their part of the sky, waving at the ringed planet and sharing pictures over the Internet. More than 20,000 people around the world participated.

“We can’t see individual continents or people in this portrait of Earth, but this pale blue dot is a succinct summary of who we were on July 19,” said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist, at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. “Cassini’s picture reminds us how tiny our home planet is in the vastness of space, and also testifies to the ingenuity of the citizens of this tiny planet to send a robotic spacecraft so far away from home to study Saturn and take a look-back photo of Earth.”

Pictures of Earth from the outer solar system are rare because from that distance, Earth appears very close to our sun. A camera’s sensitive detectors can be damaged by looking directly at the sun, just as a human being can damage his or her retina by doing the same. Cassini was able to take this image because the sun had temporarily moved behind Saturn from the spacecraft’s point of view and most of the light was blocked.

A wide-angle image of Earth will become part of a multi-image picture, or mosaic, of Saturn’s rings, which scientists are assembling. This image is not expected to be available for several weeks because of the time-consuming challenges involved in blending images taken in changing geometry and at vastly different light levels, with faint and extraordinarily bright targets side by side.

“It thrills me to no end that people all over the world took a break from their normal activities to go outside and celebrate the interplanetary salute between robot and maker that these images represent,” said Carolyn Porco, Cassini imaging team lead at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo. “The whole event underscores for me our ‘coming of age’ as planetary explorers.”

In the MESSENGER image, Earth and the moon are less than a pixel, but appear very large because they are overexposed. Long exposures are required to capture as much light as possible from potentially dim objects. Consequently, bright objects in the field of view become saturated and appear artificially large.

“That images of our planet have been acquired on a single day from two distant solar system outposts reminds us of this nation’s stunning technical accomplishments in planetary exploration,” said MESSENGER Principal Investigator Sean Solomon of Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, N.Y. “And because Mercury and Saturn are such different outcomes of planetary formation and evolution, these two images also highlight what is special about Earth. There’s no place like home.”

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md., designed and built MESSENGER, a spacecraft developed under NASA’s Discovery Program. NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the program for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. JPL and APL manage their respective missions for NASA. The California Institute of Technology in Pasadena manages JPL for NASA.

More information about the picture and the Wave at Saturn campaign is available at: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/waveatsaturn.

To view the MESSENGER images, visit: http://go.nasa.gov/16Vnt5G.

Fundamentalists abuse Hurricane Sandy for gay-bashing

This video from the USA is called Hurricane Sandy Superstorm Update 11pm Advisory.

Hurricane Sandy, the largest tropical system recorded in the Atlantic, strengthened as it began making the transition to a superstorm that may push a wall of water ashore in the Northeast and lash the East with wind, rain and snow: here.

You think Sandy’s bad? Saturn had a storm that was bigger than Earth: here.

Hurricane Sandy Eyes DC, Baltimore, Philadelphia And New York (PHOTOS, LIVE UPDATES): here.

From ThinkProgress in the USA:

Anti-Gay Preacher Blames Hurricane Sandy On Homosexuality And Marriage Equality

By Zack Ford on Oct 29, 2012 at 10:50 am

John McTernan

A Christian religious leader has already claimed that Hurricane Sandy is further proof that “God is systematically destroying America” as political judgment for the “homosexual agenda.” John McTernan previously made similar allusions about Hurricanes Katrina (2005) and Isaac (2012), which he reiterated in his urgent call to prayer posted Sunday evening (via Gay Star News):

Just last August, Hurricane Isaac hit New Orleans seven years later, on the exact day of Hurricane Katrina. Both hit during the week of the homosexual event called Southern Decadence in New Orleans!

McTernan believes that it is noteworthy that Hurricane Sandy is hitting 21 years after the “Perfect Storm,” because 3 is a “significant number with God”:

Twenty-one years breaks down to 7 x 3, which is a significant number with God. Three is perfection as the Godhead is three in one while seven is perfection.

It appears that God gave America 21 years to repent of interfering with His prophetic plan for Israel; however, it has gotten worse under all the presidents and especially Obama. Obama is 100 percent behind the Muslim Brotherhood which has vowed to destroy Israel and take Jerusalem. Both candidates are pro-homosexual and are behind the homosexual agenda. America is under political judgment and the church does not know it!

Religious spokespeople have frequently tried to draw bizarre connections between natural disasters and the LGBT community. Last year, the American Family Association’s Buster Wilson similarly claimed that Hurricane Isaac was punishment for the Southern Decadence LGBT festival. Rick Joyner had the same to say about Hurricane Katrina, claiming that “[God]‘s not gonna put up with perversion anymore.” Pat Robertson has long believed that acceptance of homosexuality could result in hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, terrorist bombs, and “possibly a meteor.”

It’s likely that McTernan will not be the only religious figure to draw such allusions from this devastating storm.

Rabbi blames Hurricane Sandy on New York’s equal marriage law: here.

Hurricane Sandy is God’s October Surprise, Says Conservative Christian Author of Apocalyptic Novels: here.

Mitt Romney In GOP Debate: Shut Down Federal Disaster Agency, Send Responsibility To The States: here.

Axe FEMA, Romney Says – as Hurricane Sandy Looms: here.