Rwandan mountain gorillas’ food, new study

This 2017 video says about itself:

Mountain Gorilla: A Shattered Kingdom [Full Documentary] | Wild Things

A unique study of family life in the world of nature’s gentle giants – and of the impact of man’s turbulent politics on that peaceful world. This extraordinary portrait of a group of wild gorillas is a family saga rich in the grand themes of any human drama – death, adolescent rebellion, jealousy and parenthood.

From ScienceDaily:

Foraging of mountain gorillas for sodium-rich foods

September 19, 2018

A new Biotropica study examines mountain gorillas in Rwanda and their foraging for sodium-rich food in both national park areas and lands managed by local communities.

Obtaining sodium likely creates an incentive for the gorillas to leave park areas and make forays into high-altitude habitat. Both locations are not without risks: exiting their natural habitat and feeding on crops may increase human-wildlife conflict and visiting high-altitude areas may increase the risk of hypothermia.

The results may advance the discussion of how to adapt local human land use to effectively curb human-wildlife conflict.

“When gorillas raid eucalyptus stands outside the national park, they come in contact with local inhabitants, which puts both ape and human at risk. To discourage the gorillas from crossing into farmlands near the forest, agricultural practices may need to be reconsidered”, said lead author Dr. Cyril Grueter, of The University of Western Australia, in Perth. “Ideally one would want to favor plant species that are nutritionally unattractive to the gorillas.”

MOUNTAIN GORILLAS GET MUCH-NEEDED BOOST The world’s longest-running gorilla study was started in 1967 by famed American primatologist Dian Fossey. Fossey, alarmed by poaching and deforestation, predicted the species could be extinct by 2000. But a sustained conservation campaign has averted the worst. [AP]

Mountain gorillas in Rwanda

This video says about itself:

25 September 2017

Follow along as National Geographic photographer Ronan Donovan hikes through Volcanoes National Park in northwestern Rwanda in search of Dian Fossey’s famed [mountain] gorillas.

Fuel efficient stoves reduce tree cutting in Rwanda forest: here.

Lions back in Rwanda after fifteen years

This video says about itself:

2 July 2015

Rwanda reintroduced lions, flown in from South Africa, to its Akagera National Park after the last indigenous animal was spotted in 2006. Five females and two males were flown in from two small South African parks.

Akagera used to be home to lions, but the last ones were poisoned by cattle owners, who had resettled in the park after the 1994 genocide.

This video takes you through the whole journey of the Big Cats from start to finish, and eventually their relocation in Akagera National Park.

Camera(video): Mutijima Abu Bernard
Photos: Rwanda Development Board (RDB)
Script & Editing: Richard Kwizera

Executive Producer: Kigali Today Ltd

From Wildlife Extra:

Lions released into the wild in Rwanda

While the news for lions in Zimbabwe this week was not good, in another part of Africa there was a good news story.

African Parks, in partnership with the Rwanda Development Board, has released seven translocated lions into Akagera National Park.

The five females, from &Beyond Phinda Private Game Reserve, and two males, from Tembe Elephant Park, both in the South African province of KwaZulu Natal, were brought to Rwanda at the end of June in a ground-breaking conservation effort for the country, reported by Wildlife Extra.

On the day of release the gates of the quarantine boma were opened to allow the lions to exit their temporary enclosure. A waterbuck carcass was placed outside the gates to encourage them to step out into their new home.

The first female poked her nose out of the gates within a few minutes, closely followed by three other females, who looked around curiously for a while, unconvinced about their new found freedom, before the lure of the carcass proved too great.

The youngest lioness was last of the females to emerge and nervously kept her distance in nearby bushes. The two males were much more cautious and did not emerge from the boma while the park and press vehicles were there.

These are the first lions to roam Akagera National Park, and Rwanda, for almost 15 years and tourists will now have the opportunity to see the lions in the wilderness, as previously viewing was restricted to park personnel who had been monitoring the lions in the boma.

The time in quarantine has allowed the lions to adjust to their new surroundings, bond with each other, and recover from what was likely the longest wild lion translocation in conservation history, taking over 45 hours.

The lions have come from different prides; among the females are a 10-year-old mother and her one-year-old daughter, a single five-year-old female and two three-year-old sisters. The males are three and four years old and are unrelated.

The lions have been fed every two-to-three days, mainly on impala carcasses, but will now hunt for their own food.

All seven animals are fitted with satellite collars, which will allow the park management to track their movements following their release, and see whether they stay together as a pride or split up as they explore their new surroundings.

Update May 2017: the number of lions in Rwanda has increased from 7 to 14. Rhinos have been reintroduced as well.

BirdLife opens new office in Rwanda: here.

Lions back to Rwanda after fifteen years

This video is called Wild Botswana: Lion Brotherhood HD Documentary.

From daily The Guardian in Britain:

Lions to be reintroduced to Rwanda after 15-year absence following genocide

Seven big cats will be taken from South Africa to Akagera national park, where lion population was wiped out, in major conservation project

David Smith in Johannesburg

Sunday 28 June 2015 16.00 BST

Seven lions in South Africa are to be tranquillised, placed in steel crates and loaded on to a charter flight to Rwanda on Monday, restoring the predator to the east African country after a 15-year absence.

Cattle herders poisoned Rwanda’s last remaining lions after parks were left unmanaged and occupied by displaced people in the wake of the 1994 genocide, according to the conservation group African Parks, which is organising the repopulation drive.

It said two parks in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province with “relatively small, confined reserves where it is necessary to remove surplus lions” are donating the big cats to Rwanda. The seven – five females and two males – were chosen based on future reproductive potential and their ability to contribute to social cohesion, including a mix of ages and genetic makeup.

From Monday they will be transferred to Akagera national park in north-east Rwanda by truck and plane in a journey lasting about 26 hours. African Parks said: “They will be continually monitored by a veterinary team with experience in translocations. They will be kept tranquillised to reduce any stress and will have access to fresh water throughout their journey.”

Upon arrival at the 112,000-hectare park, which borders Tanzania, the lions will be kept in quarantine in a specially-erected 1,000m² enclosure with an electrified fence for at least two weeks before they are released into the wild.

The park is fenced, but the lions will be equipped with satellite collars to reduce the risk of them straying into inhabited areas. African Parks said: “The collars have a two-year life, by which time the park team will have evaluated the pride dynamics and only the dominant individuals in each pride will be re-collared.”

As a wildlife tourist destination, Rwanda is best known for its gorilla tracking safaris. But Akagera, a two-hour drive from the capital, Kigali, is home to various antelope species, buffaloes, giraffes and zebras, as well as elephants and leopards. It attracted 28,000 visitors in 2014.

Last year, as part of the preparations for the reintroduction, the Akagera team ran a sensitisation programme in communities surrounding the park to promote harmonious co-existence with lions.

Yamina Karitanyi, the head of tourism at the Rwanda Development Board, said: “It is a breakthrough in the rehabilitation of the park … Their return will encourage the natural balance of the ecosystem and enhance the tourism product to further contribute to Rwanda’s status as an all-in-one safari destination.”

The International Union for Conservation of Nature listed the lion as vulnerable in an update this month of its red list of species facing survival threats. It noted lion conservation successes in southern Africa, but said lions in west Africa were critically endangered and rapid population declines were also being recorded in east Africa.

African Parks cited human encroachment on lion habitats and a decline in lion prey as reasons for the population drop. It identified a trade in lion bones and other body parts for traditional medicine in Africa, as well as Asia, as a growing threat.

Peter Fearnhead, the chief executive of African Parks, which manages Akagera and seven other national parks on the continent, said: “The return of lions to Akagera is a conservation milestone for the park and the country.”

Apparently Rwanda plans to reintroduce black rhino as well as lions to Akagera NP this year, to have the “big five”: here.

KILLER OF CECIL THE LION IDENTIFIED “An American dentist with an affinity for killing rare wildlife using a bow and arrow has been identified as the man who shot and killed Zimbabwe’s most famous lion earlier this month, local officials claim.” The Internet backlash has been swift. [HuffPost]

WHAT JANE GOODALL THINKS OF CECIL THE LION’S DEATH “Only one good thing comes out of this — thousands of people have read the story and have also been shocked. Their eyes opened to the dark side of human nature. Surely they will now be more prepared to fight for the protection of wild animals and the wild places where they live.” [The Dodo]

Wild gorilla using tools, new discovery

This video from Uganda is called Touched by a Wild Mountain Gorilla (HD Version).

From the BBC:

Wild gorilla creates a food tool in ‘eureka’ moment

For the first time, a wild gorilla is seen using a tool to eat food

It’s a scene that would grace the opening of any Planet of the Apes movie.

But rather than being fiction, this is fact, and one that is new to science.

For the first time, a gorilla in the wild has been seen using a tool to acquire and eat food.

The young female gorilla watched another older male attempt to collect ants from a hole in the ground, only to see the ants bite his arm, scaring him away.

The female gorilla tried to put her own arm in the hole, and she too was bitten.

But instead of giving up, the young ape then had her very own ‘eureka’ moment.

She looked around for a suitable implement, and selected a piece of wood approximately 20 cm long, tapering from 2 cm wide at one end to 1 cm long at the other.

She then inserted the stick into the hole, withdrew it, and licked off ants clambering over it, avoiding being stung.

Other great apes have been seen to use tools in the wild, and captive gorillas have been known to fashion and use a range of tools in their enclosures.

But the incident is surprising because wild gorillas were, until now, rarely known to have created and used tools.

The only known examples are when a western lowland gorilla was documented using a stick to gauge the depth of water before crossing a waterway. Another was been seen using bamboo as a ladder for her young infant to climb up.

But until now wild gorillas have never been seen using implements to eat with.

Lisanga, a very clever ape

The use of the stick was witnessed by Dr Jean-Felix Kinani, the head veterinarian with Gorilla Doctors, an organisation of vets that works with wildlife authorities to monitor the health of wild gorillas.

He and colleagues were observing one of eight mountain gorilla groups habituated to humans in the Volcanoes National Park, in Rwanda.

Within the group live 23 gorillas, including three silverback males, a younger male, and seven adult females, as well as juvenile gorillas and infants.

The veterinarians saw a gorilla named Kigoma, the second ranking silverback in the group, insert his left hand in to a hole in the ground, attempting to catch driver ants to eat.

He quickly withdrew it, and ran from the hole, shaking his arm, presumably remove the biting ants, report Dr Felix and colleague Dr Dawn Zimmerman, who are both affiliated to the University of California, US.

All the time, a younger female, Lisanga, watched his actions, they report in the American Journal of Primatology.

She approached the hole and for approximately two minutes watched the ants enter and leave it.

She then put her own hand in the whole, suffering Kigoma’s fate.

Undeterred however, she found her tool, a broken branch lying some 2 m from the hole, and preceded to use it to dine on the ants.

Chimpanzees are well known to use tools in the wild, with different groups using different implements; some use sticks to dig out termites or to fish or dip for ants. They have even been seen using spears to hunt monkeys.

Wild orang-utans in Asia have spontaneously created hammers, probes and scrapers made of sticks.

And in captivity, gorillas have been seen using sticks as weapons, using coconut fibres as sponges, and logs as ladders.

Which begs the question, why don’t they in the wild?

One answer is that they do, but it goes unnoticed.

Another is that gorillas are observed more in captivity, making it more likely that scientists spot novel behaviours.

But it could also be that captive gorillas have less to do than their wild counterparts, so are more inclined to experiment to fill the time, Mike Cranfield, Director of Gorilla Doctors told BBC Earth.

Captive gorillas often have new objects placed in their enclosures to enrich their environments, providing more opportunity for them to be turned into tools.

“Lisanga is a curious gorilla,” explained Dr Kinani. “She is known to have an investigative personality.”

For example, one anecdotal report details her showing more than casual interest in a researcher’s bag, quietly approaching behind the researcher and attempting to take the bag away.

“This looks to be an idiosyncratic behaviour,” he adds, referring to her use of the stick to catch and eat ants.

No other gorillas witnessed Lisanga’s actions, so it is unlikely that they too will learn the same trick, developing a culture of stick use.

This time, at least.

African conservationists learning from each other

This 2013 video is called Kenya At 50: Kenya‘s challenges in wildlife conservation.

From BirdLife:

Local conservation groups learn from each other

By Obaka Torto, Wed, 17/12/2014 – 09:31

Local Conservation Groups (LCGs) from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda that are involved in the implementation of the Lake Victoria Basin project had the opportunity to meet in Uganda on 10-13th November 2014. The main purpose of the visit was to learn from each other through sharing experiences and best practices in institutional management, networking, conservation issues and eco-businesses.

Two days were dedicated to field visits to the Site Support Groups (SSGs) of Lutembe Wetland Users Association and Mabamba Wetland Ecotourism Association, to learn about the conservation and income generating activities organised by the community and to discuss the challenges faced and ways of addressing them. Sites and projects visited included:

Malaki Eco lodge, a private venture within Lutembe wetland which aims to operate in harmony with the surrounding landscape and vegetation;

Entebbe Snake Park, a partner with Lutembe Wetland Users Association, that promotes the conservation of snakes and other reptiles;

Confidence Eco Model Yard (CEMY) , an Eco-tourism company site that demonstrates how to live within a wetland while contributing to its conservation and improving the tourism status of Lutembe Bay;

A solid waste management programme, spearheaded by CEMY, which engages in activities including separation of different forms of solid waste such as used clothes, glass, polythene and biodegradables. The community uses the biodegradable materials to make briquettes which are cheaper to use and more environmentally friendly than charcoal;

Mabamba Wetland Ecotourism Association’s liquid and bar soap project;

Crisps and bagiya making by members of Mabamba Wetland Ecotourism Association, which are sold to generate profits for the group; and

A tree nursery, which is part of Mabamba Wetland Ecotourism Association’s objective of conserving and restoring Mabamba wetland for sustainability.

This visit was much appreciated by all participants, whose comments included:

“I learned from the visits that for a group to prosper there has to be mutual understanding amongst members. Despite the level of education, we must embrace each other” (Peris Odour, member of Yala Wetland Environmental Volunteers, Kenya).

“From the two SSGs visited, we learned that continued communication and reinforcing available networks with other partners working towards nature conservation is important. Therefore, we’ll try to replicate this in Ruyigi province and, if it is possible, with other provinces” (Nshimirimana Consolate member of Serukubeze, Burundi).

“As our overall goal is to use sustainably our wetland in a way that conserves biodiversity and ecosystem services, we learned much from our colleagues in Uganda and we took a decision to share our views with a large number of people, starting with those we work with in our SSGs, to ensure that every one becomes a motor of positive change in environmental conservationandprotection”
(Uwimana Rosine, member of Cooperative Sugira Musenyi, KOSUMU, Rwanda).

This visit was organised and facilitated by BirdLife International in collaboration with national Partners of Burundi (Association  Burundaise  pour  la  protection  de  la  Nature), Kenya (Nature Kenya), Rwanda (Association pour la Conservation de la Nature au Rwanda) and Uganda (Nature Uganda), as part of a Aage V Jensen Charity Foundation funded project entitled “Conservation of the birds and biodiversity of the Lake Victoria Basin (the Greatest of Africa’s Great Lakes) through community-led action and sustainable development

Story by Mercy Kariuki

Women in Conservation: Let women benefit from ecotourism revenues – biodiversity will benefit, too: here.

Gorilla film wins award

This video says about itself:

“Hope”, a film by Craghoppers featuring Sir David Attenborough

8 April 2014

Hope is a powerful film, which revisits the plight of the critically endangered mountain gorillas in Rwanda and the team of people who are responsible for their survival.

Produced by Craghoppers and voiced by Sir David Attenborough, Hope was filmed in the Volcanoes National Park 47 years after Dian Fossey began her life’s work in mountain gorilla conservation. Only ruins of Fossey’s original Karisoke Research Centre remain — but we meet the research team in their new home, where 120 people continue Dian’s work.

Never before seen footage goes behind the scenes of the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International as they intensely monitor the gorillas, with the help of a dedicated team of trackers and anti poaching patrols — whose job it is to follow the great apes every day, 365 days per year, through difficult and sometimes dangerous terrain.

The documentary also shows the very human side to the Fossey Fund’s approach to conservation as we follow the local people who live next to the gorilla’s habitat and the work that is being done to change attitudes. The children growing up in these communities today have grown to love and the respect the gorillas that their people once killed for their own survival.

More than 40 years of extreme conservation, which was pioneered by Dian Fossey, has resulted in the Virunga mountain gorilla population nearly doubling in size. However, the mountain gorillas remain critically endangered. Providing much hope for the future, yet highlighting the need for continued support, the film has one very clear message: we must support the people protecting the mountain gorillas — they are their only hope of survival.

From Wildlife Extra:

Mountain gorilla film wins award

A film highlighting the plight of mountain gorillas in Rwanda has won the Best Short Film award at the Wildlife Conservation Film Festival, which runs from 13-19 October in New York.

Narrated by Sir David Attenborough and produced by Craghoppers, Hope revisits the mountain gorillas at the Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda, nearly 47 years after Dian Fossey began her work in the region.

“Our motivation behind making Hope was to highlight the extreme efforts adopted by the Dian Fossey Fund to protect the mountain gorillas in Rwanda and the sometimes dangerous challenges the team face every day,” said Managing Director for Craghoppers, Jim McNamara.

“It’s therefore a great feeling to know that a film that was designed to inspire and remind people about the plight of the gorillas has done just that in wider industry.

“I am incredibly proud of what we have achieved with this documentary. Winning this award is a not only a great achievement for Craghoppers and the team who produced ‘Hope’, but also for the Dian Fossey Fund, as the film will get in front of an even greater audience and will hopefully urge people to support the charity and donate to a very worthy cause.”

Rwanda’s mountain gorillas, new film

Wildlife Extra writes about this video:

Rwanda’s mountain gorillas star in new documentary – watch it here

April 2014: Mountain gorillas at the Volcanoes National Park are the subject of a new 15 minute documentary entitled Hope which you can watch [above here]. The short film revisits the mountain gorillas at the park, nearly 47 years after Dian Fossey began her work in the region, and explores the extreme, intensive and sometimes dangerous methods employed to protect the great apes.

The film, narrated by Sir David Attenborough, takes a historical look back to 1967 when Dian Fossey began her work. Fewer than 300 mountain gorillas remained at the time, their population ravaged by poachers, who for years targeted the gorillas to make money, selling infant gorillas to zoos or the hands and heads of the adults as trophies to wealthy tourists.

Dian Fossey was murdered in 1985, her original research centre destroyed, rebuilt and then destroyed again during the civil war in Rwanda in the 1990s. However, despite adversity, the work never stopped. Today the Karisoke Research Center has a new home where 120 people continue Dian’s work, as the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International.

The charity employs teams of trackers who follow the gorillas every day. They monitor each gorilla, ensuring its safety and health, risking their lives in a region that is still plagued by violence.

“The number of mountain gorillas had become so depleted in Rwanda by the late 1960s that extreme measures were needed to protect the remaining population and allow it to increase,” said David Attenborough. “The work at the Volcanoes National Park by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International absolutely must continue, if we are to protect this species of great ape, which is still critically endangered. The film Hope will once again bring to light the fragile existence of the mountain gorillas and the work that goes into protecting them. By watching and sharing this very important film you will be helping the people saving the gorillas.”

At the beginning of July, Rwanda celebrates its annual Kwita Izina, a traditional gorilla naming ceremony: here.

Mountain gorillas in Rwanda could run the risk of inbreeding, as females often stay in their natal group well into adulthood, which means living closely with their fathers, usually the dominant male in the group. However, in these circumstances they appear tactically to avoid mating with their fathers, according to Linda Vigilant and her research group from the Max Planck Institute for Anthropology in Germany, published in Springer’s journal Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology: here.

Mountain gorillas could survive for thousands of years at very low population levels due to resistance to the genetic effects of inbreeding: here.


Gorillas and tourism in Rwanda

This video is called Family of Mountain Gorillas – Cousins – BBC.

From The New Times (Kigali, Rwanda):

Rwanda: How Much Do You Know About the Gorilla, the Rose and Its Roots?

By Sam Kebongo, 5 April 2013

There is a South American poem to the effect that the flowers get all the glory and honour and the roots hardly get noticed yet it is the roots that enable the flowers, the stem and the leaves; the plant to stay so luxuriant and alive.

When we think of roses, most of us think of the beauty, the aroma and stuff like that. Very few of us think of all the trouble it takes to get the rose so rosy. This is the mirror image of the relationship between tourism and conservation in Rwanda. You and I are more likely more focused on the tourism figures and frills and I bet you very few of us think about the nature conservation side.

Sample the following:

The Roses: Facts and figures we could gather indicated that the projected revenue from tourism earnings for the year 2012 was US$ 277 million (that is over 180 Billion Rwandan Francs). In 2011 tourism earnings were US$ 251 million in 2011. Much of that money came courtesy of the mountain gorillas which remain one of the major attractions of tourists to Rwanda.

According Rica Rwigamba, head of Tourism and Conservation unit at Rwanda Development Board (RDB); gorilla receipts account for 90% of total national park receipts with the endangered primates attracting some 20,000 visitors in 2011.

Between 2005 and 2011, 160 gorillas were been born. There are an estimated 480 gorillas living around the Virunga Massif (Volcanoes National Park, Mgahinga in Uganda and Virunga in DR Congo). In fact, due to a booming demand to view these primates, RDB had to raise its fees.

A very rosy picture we have there. I’m sure that the current figures are even rosier; it is unfortunate that RDB does not have them at their finger tips.

The roots: One of the foremost gorilla habitat conservation organisations, the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund (DFGFI) has been at it since 1967 when its founder, Dian Fossey, moved to the Massif. The current gorilla population of 480 plus doubling of the 1978 figures when there were 250 gorillas in a trend that represented a decline. As a matter of fact, the western gorilla, the Bonobo and the Orang Utang have had their populations decline to a point of extinction.

The Fund’s annual budget is $2 million (1.3 billion francs), all from private donors. About $2 million is invested and we get close to $300 million returns. Of course there are other investments but we cannot deny that this is still good business.

The mere fact that our gorilla populations are growing against a global decline and extinction should make us kiss the boots of conservationists. But before we do that, it is on record that gorilla receipts account for 90% of total national park receipts and Tourism accounts for over 25% of our revenues. What does this mean? In deed the gorilla is Rwanda’s unique selling point in tourism. It must be treated royally at all costs.

The gorilla is our cash cow. Only a fool would leave a cash cow without pasture. As we admire the rose, we should work harder to get it water and weed the flower lest it wilt and we end up killing our goose that lays golden eggs.

There are many efforts to do this and they should be encouraged. The problem is that they are not coordinated and the wider public is not well informed about them. How much do you know about the gorilla, for example? Did you know that to capture a baby gorilla, the poacher would have to kill its parents? They are very protective of their young.

It is with a view of bringing nature conservation partnerships such as these to the fore that DFGFI organised a workshop that brought together the academia, as well as members of the private and public sectors. The lively discussions brought out the fact that a platform is needed to keep nature conservation a key driver of the economy.

There is need for more networking among players in the different sectors. The interdependency and power that comes thereof is enormous. We tend to ‘overspecialise’ to the extent that communication even within same organisation becomes a problem. This has been counterproductive.

Information sharing is still a challenge. People in positions that require that they know facts and figures don’t have the fact at their finger tips. Such sharing is crucial to foster progress and avoid duplication of effort.

Nature conservation is serious business; it is the root of our tourism and related business. We should all sign up.

Gorilla Guards in Virunga: here.

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Bird conservation in Rwanda

This video is called Rwanda‘s Biodiversity — World Environment Day 2010.

By Marc Ndimukaga, Association pour la Conservation de la Nature au Rwanda (BirdLife Partner in Rwanda):

Sustainable utilization of wetland resources by a Local Conservation Group: Case of Nyabarongo Wetlands, Rwanda

Thu, Dec 13, 2012

Nyabarongo wetlands, an Important Bird Area in Rwanda is a refuge for wetland-dependent species and plays important roles in regulating water flow.

They are home of the endangered Madagascar Pond heron Ardeola idae, the Near-threatened Papyrus Gonolek Laniarius mufumbiri, the Vulnerable Grey Crowned Crane Balearica regulorum gibbericeps, and Sitatunga Tragelaphus spekii. The unsustainable use of wetland resources and that of its watershed coupled with climate change have affected the wetlands and hence caused locals to suffer.

With the help of Association pour la Conservation de la Nature au Rwanda, the Inyange Site Support Group now harvests Papyrus for handicrafting after every four months. This allows for its (Papyrus) regeneration while the group members actively engage in monitoring and reporting illegal users of wetlands resources, for example, Sitatunga hunters.

This action has benefited some species that were almost eliminated in the wetlands to recover significantly. Today, Cranes may be seen in the wetlands, a positive outcome, as this species was over hunted in recent years for meat and illegally captured for ornamental purposes. Local people too are also benefitting from sale of handicrafts made by sustainably making use of locally available materials from the wetlands.