215 pterosaur eggs discovered

This video says about itself:

30 November 2017

They were known to rule the skies in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, but it seems that pterosaurs had a slow start in life. A new study has revealed that the giant reptiles had a two year incubation and couldn’t fly when they hatched. The findings suggest that young pterosaurs were ‘less precocious than previously assumed.’ The researchers analysed 215 eggs of the pterosaur species Hamipterus tianshanensis found in China.

From the American Association for the Advancement of Science in the USA:

Hundreds of fossilized eggs shed light on pterosaur development

November 30, 2017

An invaluable collection of more than 200 eggs is providing new insights into the development and nesting habits of pterosaurs.

To date, only a small handful of pterosaur eggs with a well-preserved 3-D structure and embryo inside have been found and analyzed — three eggs from Argentina and five from China. This sparse sample size was dramatically increased upon the discovery of 215 eggs of the pterosaur species Hamipterus tianshanensis from a Lower Cretaceous site in China.

Xiaolin Wang et al. used computed tomography scanning to peer inside the eggs, 16 of which contain embryonic remains of varying intactness. The most complete embryo contains a partial wing and cranial bones, including a complete lower jaw. The samples of thigh bones that remain intact are well-developed, suggesting that the species benefited from functional hind legs shortly after hatching.

However, the structure supporting the pectoral muscle appears to be underdeveloped during the embryonic stage, suggesting that newborns were likely not able to fly. Therefore, the authors propose that newborns likely needed some parental care. Based on growth marks, the team estimates one of the individuals to be at least 2 years old and still growing at the time of its death, supporting the growing body of evidence that pterosaurs had long incubation periods.

Lastly, the fact that a single collection of embryos exhibits a range of developmental stages hints that pterosaurs participated in colonial nesting behavior, the authors say. Denis Deeming discusses these findings in a related Perspective.

Romania now gets its third pterosaur from the Haţeg Basin region of Transylvania, an area known for its rich vertebrate fossil deposits. Though the researchers did not give the poor guy a name, it joins the giraffe-sized Hatzegopteryx and the smaller but by no means diminutive Eurazhdarcho: here.


Small Cretaceous pterosaurs discovered

This video says about itself:

25 July 2014

Pterosaurs (/ˈtɛrɵsɔr/, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning “winged lizard”) were flying reptiles of the clade or order Pterosauria. They existed from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous Period (228 to 66 million years ago).

Pterosaurs are the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved powered flight. Their wings were formed by a membrane of skin, muscle, and other tissues stretching from the ankles to a dramatically lengthened fourth finger. Early species had long, fully toothed jaws and long tails, while later forms had a highly reduced tail, and some lacked teeth. Many sported furry coats made up of hair-like filaments known as pycnofibers, which covered their bodies and parts of their wings. Pterosaurs spanned a wide range of adult sizes, from the very small Nemicolopterus to the largest known flying creatures of all time, including Quetzalcoatlus and Hatzegopteryx.

From Science News:

Pterosaurs weren’t all super-sized in the Late Cretaceous

Some of the flying reptiles were smaller than a bald eagle

By Meghan Rosen

7:00am, September 12, 2016

Pterosaurs didn’t have to be gargantuan to survive in the Late Cretaceous.

Fragmentary fossils of a roughly 77-million-year-old pterosaur found in British Columbia suggest it had a wingspan of just 1.5 meters, about a quarter that of a bald eagle.

Bald eagles have wingspans of about two meters. So, the newly discovered pterosaus were smaller than bald eagles; but not four times smaller.

The ancient flier is the smallest pterosaur discovered during this time period — by a lot, report paleontologist Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone of the University of Southampton in England and colleagues August 30 in Royal Society Open Science.

Dozens of larger pterosaurs, some with wings spanning more than 10 meters (nearly the length of a school bus), have been unearthed. But until now, scientists had found only two small-scale versions, with wingspans 2.5 to 3 meters long, from the period stretching from 66 million to 100 million years ago.

Some scientists blamed competition with birds for the scarcity of little flying reptiles. Researchers have proposed that, “the only way pterosaurs could survive was by evolving completely crazy massive sizes,” Martin-Silverstone says.

The new find, she says, may mean that, “pterosaurs were doing better than we thought.”

Pterosaur fossil with poop discovery

The full Rhamphorhynchus specimen (Hone et al., PeerJ DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1191/fig-1 (CC-BY 4.0))

From Smithsonian.com in the USA:

Fossilized Poop is Rare, Fossilized Poop Inside a Fossilized Dinosaur is Even Rarer

This title is a bit misleading; as the article is about a pterosaur, a flying reptile which is not a dinosaur.

Fossilized feces are always interesting, and researchers may have just found an extra special example

By Marissa Fessenden

24 August 2015

Paleontologists get really excited when they find poop — or at least, fossilized feces, called coprolites. They are not alone in the research world in this regard. Finding coprolites still within the animal that created it is rare indeed, but that may be exactly what a newly discovered specimen of Rhamphorhynchus, a winged reptile, contains.

Soft things like tissue and stomach contents don’t preserve in the fossil record well, explains Shaena Montanari for Forbes. As a result, it is “often difficult for paleontologists to fully understand the diet and ecology of extinct creatures. While there are ways of analyzing tooth shape and also chemical signatures in fossils to determine diet, an easier way to see direct feeding behavior is fossilized gut contents,” she writes.

The pterosaur specimen dates back to the Late Jurassic, about 161 to 146 million years ago. Paleontologists originally found this Rhamphorhynchus  the Schernfeld quarry from Bavaria, Southern Germany in 1965. Now, the fossil is held by the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palenotology in Alberta, Canada. There, a research team recently got the chance to analyze the fossil in depth. 

The team notes in their paper, published in PeerJ, that the specimen is in good condition — some soft tissues such as wing membranes and the skin that stretch from the hindlimbs to the tail are visible. In addition, lying amongst the specimen’s guts are the bones of what may be fish. There’s also a mass of something below the creature’s sacrum, a triangular bone at the base of the spine, close to where the cloaca would be.

The possible coprolite has structures in it that look like hooks. These structures, the team hypothesizes, may be the remains of spines from some kind of marine invertebrate (perhaps a sponge or relative of a starfish). If the suspiciously-located mass really is a coprolite then it will be the first found for any kind of pterosaur.

Pterosaur flight, an engineer’s perspective

This video is called Largest flying creature ever – Pterosaurs Documentary HQ.

From Palaeocast today:

Episode 42: Pterosaur aerodynamics

Palaeontology is more than just going out into the field, digging up bones, and putting them back together. A good understanding of biology, geology, and even engineering can help to figure out how extinct animals lived and especially how they moved around.

To further comprehend how we can use knowledge of engineering in palaeontology, especially with respect to understanding extinct animal flight, we spoke to Colin Palmer from the University of Bristol, and the University of Southampton. His background in engineering provides a unique set of skills and angle to studying pterosaur flight.

International symposium on pterosaurs in England

This video says about itself:

Largest flying creature ever – Pterosaurs Documentary HQ

25 July 2014

Pterosaurs (/ˈtɛrɵsɔr/, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning “winged lizard”) were flying reptiles of the clade or order Pterosauria. They existed from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous Period (228 to 66 million years ago).

Pterosaurs are the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved powered flight. Their wings were formed by a membrane of skin, muscle, and other tissues stretching from the ankles to a dramatically lengthened fourth finger. Early species had long, fully toothed jaws and long tails, while later forms had a highly reduced tail, and some lacked teeth. Many sported furry coats made up of hair-like filaments known as pycnofibers, which covered their bodies and parts of their wings.

Pterosaurs spanned a wide range of adult sizes, from the very small Nemicolopterus to the largest known flying creatures of all time, including Quetzalcoatlus and Hatzegopteryx

From the Flugsaurier 2015 Portsmouth site in England:

Second Circular

Flugsaurier 2015: The Fifth International Symposium on Pterosaurs

August 25th-30th 2015

School Of Earth And Environmental Sciences

Portsmouth, UK

Dear colleagues,

We are pleased to present you with the second circular for the Fifth International Symposium on Pterosaurs. This includes information on conference structure, fees, abstract submission, accommodation, workshops and the conference dinner. Please visit our website at www.flugsaurier2015.com and remember further information will be provided in the third circular.

We look forward to seeing you all next year.

Flugsaurier 2015 committee.


Registration is now open and can be found at flugsaurier2015.com/register. The conference fee is £60, with a student concession of £30. All payments will be conducted through Paypal with the required information emailed to delegates following their registration. All students must provide their student numbers and a letter signed by their supervisor/lecturer confirming their student status. This letter should accompany the initial registration and can be emailed to registration@flugsaurier2015.com.

Presentation and abstract submission

We are now accepting submission of abstracts relating to any aspect of pterosaur research. Abstracts must be no more than 1000 words including references and may include 1 figure/A4 plate. Please ensure references are in the style of the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. While we prefer that presentations are specifically on pterosaur research, we are willing to accept submission of more peripheral topics for posters e.g. the associated faunal assemblage of a pterosaur bearing unit. Abstract submission closes on March 1st to allow time for the review process. We are also arranging a special publication through the Geological Society of London which we encourage delegates to consider contributing to.


We are happy to confirm two workshops for Flugsaurier this August. The first workshop, “Biomechanics and aerodynamics of pterosaurs” will be chaired by Colin Palmer and Mike Habib and focuses on the biomechanics of flight. The second workshop is “The taphonomy of Lagerstätten and the implications for pterosaurs”, chaired by Dave Martill and Steve Sweetman. Dave will be focusing on Konservat Lagerstätten, and Steve will focus on pterosaur-bearing Konzentrat Lagerstätten in the UK.

In addition to our workshops, we will have several pterosaur specimens on display which can be examined by the delegates, including the skull of Parapsicephalus purdoni, on loan from the British Geological Survey. There will also be opportunities to examine the holotypes of Cuspicephalus and Caulkicephalus. Other specimens on display will be announced in the third circular.

Conference dinner

The conference meal will be held in The Royal Maritime Club, adjacent to Portsmouth’s Historic Dockyard. The dinner will cost £37 and will include 3 courses and a half bottle of wine. Any delegates interested in attending should sign-up for the meal when registering for the conference. If you have any specific dietary requirements, please include them in the comments field on the registration form.

Field trips

The fees for the conference field trips to the Isle of Wight and the Jurassic Coast (the second in conjunction with SVPCA 2015) are still to be determined. Delegates are welcome to register their interest for the field trips and will be informed of the price in the third circular.


Accommodation is available in the University of Portsmouth’s Rees Hall for Flugsaurier delegates. There are 50 single rooms available for £45 per night. Double rooms are £63 per night, but will only be available upon request. To register your interest in a room, please tick the appropriate box on the registration form. If you would like a double room, please mention it in the comments section.

Questions or comments should be directed to the organising committee at enquiries@flugsaurier2015.com.

Click here to view a PDF copy.

‘Butterfly-headed’ pterosaurs discovery in Brazil

A new species of flying reptile from the Cretaceous Era, Caiuajara dobruskiii, has been unearthed in southern Brazil. The creature, described in a 2014 PLOS ONE paper, sported a bony crest on its head. Credit: Maurilio Oliveira/Museu Nacional-UFRJ

From Live Science:

Flock of Ancient ‘Butterfly-Headed’ Flying Reptiles Discovered

By Tia Ghose, Staff Writer

August 13, 2014 02:00pm ET

An ancient flying reptile with a bizarre, butterflylike head has been unearthed in Brazil.

The newfound reptile species, Caiuajara dobruskii, lived about 80 million years ago in an ancient desert oasis. The beast sported a strange bony crest on its head that looked like the wings of a butterfly, and had the wingspan needed to take flight at a very young age.

Hundreds of fossils from the reptile were unearthed in a single bone bed, providing the strongest evidence yet that the flying reptiles were social animals, said study co-author Alexander Kellner, a paleontologist at the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. [See Images of the Bizarre ‘Butterfly Head’ Reptile]

Rare find

Though pterosaur fossils have been unearthed in northern Brazil, no one knew of pterosaurs fossils in the southern part of the country. In the 1970s, a farmer named Dobruski and his son discovered a massive Cretaceous Period bone bed in Cruzeiro do Oeste in southern Brazil, a region not known for any fossils, Kellner said. The find was forgotten for decades, and then rediscovered just two years ago. The team dubbed the reptile Caiuajara dobruskii, after the geologic formation, called the Caiuá Group, where it was found, as well as the farmer who discovered the species, Kellner said.

C. dobruskii belonged to a group of winged reptiles known as pterosaurs, which are more commonly known as pterodactyls.

Hundreds of bone fragments from the species were crammed in an area of just 215 square feet (20 square meters). At least 47 individuals — and possibly hundreds more — were buried at the site. All but a few were juveniles, though the researchers found everything from youngsters with wingspans of just 2.1 feet (0.65 m) long to adults with wingspans reaching 7.71 feet (2.35 m). The fossils weren’t crushed, so the 3D structure of the animals was preserved, the authors wrote in a research article published today (Aug. 13) in the journal PLOS ONE.

The ancient reptiles’ bony crests changed in size and orientation as the pterosaurs grew.

Because the adult skeletal size (other than the head) wasn’t much different from the juveniles’, the researchers hypothesized that C. dobruskii was fairly precocious and could fly at a young age, Kellner said.

Water congregation

Based on the sediments in which the bones were found, the area was once a vast desert with a central oasis nestled between the sand dunes, the authors wrote in the paper.

Ancient C. dobruskii colonies may have lived around the lake for long periods of time and died during periods of drought or during storms. As the creatures died, the occasional desert storm would wash their remains into the lake, where the watery burial preserved them indefinitely, the researchers said. Another possibility is that the pterosaurs stopped at this spot during ancient migrations, though the authors suspect that is less likely.

The bone bed, with its hundreds of individuals in well-dated geological layers, is some of the strongest evidence yet that the fruit-eating animals were social, Kellner said.

“This was a flock of pterosaurs,” Kellner told Live Science.

This finding, in turn, strengthens evidence that other pterosaur species may have been social as well, the authors wrote in the paper.

Pterosaur exhibition in the USA

This video from the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in the USA says about itself:

4 March 2014

They flew with their fingers. They walked on their wings. Some were gigantic, while others could fit in the palm of a hand. Millions of years ago, the skies were ruled by pterosaurs, the first animals with backbones to fly under their own power. In the new exhibition Pterosaurs: Flight in the Age of Dinosaurs, rare fossils, life-size models, and hands-on interactives bring these ancient animals to life.

Step back in time to see pterosaurs, including giants such as Tropeognathus mesembrinus, with a wingspan of more than 25 feet, and find out how they moved on land and in the air. Get a first-hand look at the rare pterosaur fossils that have helped paleontologists learn all that we know about these animals. In a virtual flight lab, use your body to pilot a pterosaur over a prehistoric landscape. Encounter the exceptional creatures that flew in the age of dinosaurs.

Pterosaurs: Flight in the Age of Dinosaurs is on view from April 5, 2014, through January 4, 2015. Learn more about the exhibition at http://www.amnh.org/pterosaurs.

This video, linked to the erxhibition, is called Pterosaur App and Card Game.

See also here.