The biggest dinosaurs of all time

This 16 September 2018 video says about itself:

The Biggest Dinosaurs Of All Time

Some dinosaurs were the biggest land-dwelling animals to ever exist on Earth. When you picture a dinosaur, you might imagine a 13-meter long T. rex or a Titanosaur the size of an airplane.

But the first dinosaurs would have only come up to your knee. It turns out that sauropods, like Brontosaurus, developed special adaptations that allowed them to tower over the competition.


Mosasaur species comparison

This video says about itself:

15 September 2018

Mosasaurs are one of the largest families of non-dinosaur reptiles to exist during the age of dinosaurs. Mosasaurs are aquatic reptiles that are closely related to modern day snakes and monitor lizards.

Mosasaurus hoffmanni is the largest of that family. The Tylosaurus is also one of the largest mosasaurids.

There are numerous Mosasaurids or Mosasaur family species that can be compared.

In this comparison video we shall go ascending in size of the mosasaur species. The smallest mosasaur is the Dallasaurus and the largest mosasaurid is the Mosasaurus itself.

The Mosasaurus is famous for being in the Jurassic Park film franchise.

Mosasaurids were the apex predators of the ancient seas often in competition with sharks and pliosaurs. Predator X or Pliosaurus is still smaller than the largest Mosasaur and is similar in size and comparison to the Tylosaurus. So, have fun watching this video on Mosasaur family species comparison, of 20 species and related genera. TATA! Have fun!

Human origins, video

This 14 September 2018 video says about itself:

The story of human evolution began about 7 million years ago, when the lineages that lead to Homo sapiens and chimpanzees separated. Learn about the over 20 early human species that belong in our family tree and how the natural selection of certain physical and behavioral traits defined what it means to be human.

Extinct crocodiles of Madagascar

This 11 September 2018 video says about itself:

Voay is an extinct genus of crocodile from Madagascar and includes only one species—Voay robustus. Its name comes from the Malagasy language name for crocodile “Voay”.

Numerous subfossils have been found, including complete skulls as well as vertebrae and osteoderms from such places as Ambolisatra and Antsirabe. The genus is thought to have become extinct relatively recently during the Holocene.

It has even been suggested to have disappeared in the extinction event that wiped out much of the endemic megafauna such as the elephant bird following the arrival of humans to Madagascar around 2000 years ago.

V. robustus has been estimated to have obtained lengths up to 5 m (16.4 ft) and a weight of 170 kg (375 lbs). These estimates suggest that V. robustus was the largest predator to have ever existed in Madagascar in recent times.

Its size, stature, and presumed behavior is similar to the modern Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus).

One unusual feature of V. robustus that distinguishes it from other crocodilians is the presence of prominent “horns” extending from the posterior portion of the skull. Another diagnostic characteristic is the near-exclusion of the nasals from the external naris. It had a shorter and deeper snout than the extant Crocodylus niloticus, as well as relatively robust limbs.

Because V. robustus shared so many similarities with the Nile crocodile there must have been a great deal of interspecific competition for resources between the two crocodile genera if they were to have coexisted with one another. It has recently been proposed that the Nile crocodile only migrated to the island from mainland Africa after V. robustus had gone extinct in Madagascar.

Prehistoric parasitic wasps discovered

This 6 September 2018 video says about itself:

New Species of Parasitic Wasps Found in Fossil Flies | National Geographic

When scientists scanned 35 million-year-old fly pupae, they discovered a hidden intruder—fossilized parasitic wasps.

Out of 1,510 ancient fly pupae that were discovered at a site in France, 55 housed the parasitic invaders. Several species of parasitic wasp injected their eggs into the pupae as the maggots transformed into flies. The wasps hatched inside the fly pupae and ate the young flies. Scientists identified four new wasp species among the cache of fossils.

Read more here.

Triassic, earliest dinosaurs video

This 5 September 2018 video says about itself:

In this video we shall take a look into the earliest and first dinosaurs to have ever existed in this world.

These early dinosaurs are the oldest to be discovered in fossils of the Triassic age timeline.

The earliest dinosaurs are small in size and are mainly bipedal. … The comparison of the first dinosaurs and the large dinosaurs is really contrasting since the larger dinosaurs dwarf the early dinosaurs in height and weight.

The Eoraptor was once thought to be the earliest dinosaur to have existed, but then the Eoraptor lost that title to other early dinosaurs like the Saturnalia and then to the Nyasasaurus.

The Saturnalia predates the Eoraptor by 1 million years and the Nyasasaurus predates the others by more than 10 million years.

The Nyasasaurus is the earliest dinosaur we know, but definitely not the first since there is a probability that other dinosaurs might be found in the future. So, enjoy this video on the First / earliest dinosaurs comparison and timeline. The timeline is in the millions of years in the Triassic.

Timeline: Riojasaurus – 227 MYA, Alwalkeria/Herrerasaurus/Pisanosaurus/Saurikosaurus/Chromogisaurus – 230 MYA, Eoraptor – 231 MYA, Saturnalia – 232 MYA, Spondylosoma – 242 MYA and Nyasasaurus – 243 MYA.

Jurassic marine reptiles, new research

This 2013 BBC video says about itself:

In 2006, a fossil was dug out of a frozen [Svalbard] island high in the Arctic. It was a colossal marine reptile, twice as big as most ocean predators, at 15 metres long and weighing about 45 tonnes. This was Predator X, the most powerful marine reptile ever discovered. Its skull alone was nearly twice the size of a Tyrannosaurus rex‘s, and its bite force unmatched by anything in the Jurassic seas.

From the University of Edinburgh in Scotland:

Fossil teeth show how Jurassic reptiles adapted to changing seas

September 4, 2018

Marine predators that lived in deep waters during the Jurassic Period thrived as sea levels rose, while species that dwelled in the shallows died out, research suggests.

A study of fossilised teeth has shed light on how reptiles adapted to major environmental changes more than 150 million years ago, and how sea life might respond today.

It also reveals for the first time that the broad structure of food chains beneath the sea has remained largely unchanged since the Jurassic era.

For more than 18 million years, diverse reptile species lived together in tropical waters that stretched from present-day northern France to Yorkshire in the north of England.

Until now, however, little was known about the structure of the food chain in this region — called the Jurassic Sub-Boreal Seaway — or how it changed as sea levels rose.

By analysing the shape and size of teeth spanning this 18-million-year period when water levels fluctuated, palaeontologists at the University of Edinburgh found that species belonged to one of five groups based on their teeth, diet and which part of the ocean they inhabited.

The pattern is very similar to the food chain structure of modern oceans, where many different species are able to co-exist in the same area because they do not compete for the same resources, the team says.

As global sea levels rose, reptiles that lived in shallow waters and caught fish using thin, piercing teeth declined drastically, researchers found.

At the same time, larger species that inhabited deeper, open waters began to thrive. These reptiles had broader teeth for crunching and cutting prey.

Deep-water species may have flourished as a result of major changes in ocean temperature and chemical make-up that also took place during the period, the team says. This could have increased levels of nutrients and prey in deep waters, benefitting species that lived there.

The study offers insights into how species at the top of marine food chains today might respond to rapid environmental changes — including climate change, pollution and rising temperatures.

The study, which also involved the University of Bristol, is published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution. It was supported by the Leverhulme Trust, Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions, Systematics Research Fund, Palaeontographical Society and Palaeontological Association.

Davide Foffa, of the University of Edinburgh’s School of GeoSciences, who led the study, said: “Studying the evolution of these animals was a real — and rare — treat, and has offered a simple yet powerful explanation for why some species declined as others prospered. This work reminds us of the relevance of palaeontology by revealing the parallels between past and present-day ocean ecosystems.”

Dr Steve Brusatte, also of the University’s School of GeoSciences, said: “Teeth are humble fossils, but they reveal a grand story of how sea reptiles evolved over millions of years as their environments changed. Changes in these Jurassic reptiles parallel changes in dolphins and other marine species that are occurring today as sea-levels rise, which speaks to how important fossils are for understanding our modern world.”