African turacos’ fossil ancestor in North America


This video from South Africa says about itself:

Knysna Loeries, Friday 2nd October 2015

Adult Knysna Loerie (Knysna Turaco) feeding with 2 juvenile birds in Paradise, Knysna. Notice the plumage difference between the adult & the youngsters.

From the University of Bath in England:

Tropical ‘banana eater’ birds lived in North America 52 million years ago

Unique fossil suggests these birds once lived outside the tropics

June 26, 2018

A fossil of an ancestor of modern tropical birds has been found in North America, proving they also used to live in the Northern Hemisphere, say scientists at the Milner Centre for Evolution at the University of Bath.

As many birdwatchers know, the largest number of bird species are found in the Southern Hemisphere, with many bird groups restricted to South America, Africa and Australasia — land masses that made up the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana.

However, Dr Daniel Field at the Milner Centre for Evolution, and Dr Allison Hsiang from The Swedish Museum of Natural History have shown that an early representative of a modern group of African birds called turacos called North America home 52 million years ago. The Latin name for turacos translates to “banana eaters” — a nod to their fruit-eating lifestyles.

Banana eaters are a group of around 24 species of brightly coloured medium-sized fruit-eating birds, found exclusively in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The fossil was first discovered in 1982 and studied ten years later. However, only now has the fossil been firmly placed in its evolutionary context.

The fossil skeleton not only shows that banana eaters formerly resided well outside of their present geographic range, but also that early banana eaters had long legs, suggesting they may have been ground dwelling.

Dr Daniel Field explained: “All the modern turacos live in trees and have relatively short legs suited for perching on branches.

“The fact that their ancestors had long legs indicates they most likely lived on the ground, suggesting that turacos may have moved into the trees much later.”

This finding ties in with Dr Field’s recent research into how birds transitioned to tree dwelling following the asteroid strike that killed the giant dinosaurs 66 million years ago.

Field and Hsiang, publishing their findings in the journal BMC Evolutionary Biology, used the fossil record and genetic data of modern birds to trace the evolutionary tree of life for these birds.

Dr Field added: “It’s a really exciting time to be studying bird evolution. Modern techniques allow us to study 3D scans of fossils in great detail, and sequence large amounts of genetic data.

“This fossil raises almost as many questions as it’s answered — why are the modern descendants of these birds now restricted to the tropics when they were previously found in the Northern Hemisphere too?

“We think changes in climate might be partly responsible for fluctuations in the distributions of these birds, but need to study this further.”

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From microscopic life to big animals, prehistoric evolution


This video from Canada says about itself:

The Ediacaran Period: Glimpses of the Earth’s Earliest Animals

Royal Tyrrell Museum Speaker Series 2016

Calla Carbone – Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology “The Ediacaran Period: Glimpses of the Earth’s Earliest Animals”.

Originally published February 22, 2016.

From the University of Cambridge in England:

Why life on Earth first got big

June 25, 2018

Some of the earliest complex organisms on Earth — possibly some of the earliest animals to exist — got big not to compete for food, but to spread their offspring as far as possible.

The research, led by the University of Cambridge, found that the most successful organisms living in the oceans more than half a billion years ago were the ones that were able to ‘throw’ their offspring the farthest, thereby colonising their surroundings. The results are reported in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution.

Prior to the Ediacaran period, between 635 and 541 million years ago, life forms were microscopic in size, but during the Ediacaran, large, complex organisms first appeared, some of which — such as a type of organism known as rangeomorphs — grew as tall as two metres. These organisms were some of the first complex organisms on Earth, and although they look like ferns, they may have been some of the first animals to exist — although it’s difficult for scientists to be entirely sure. Ediacaran organisms do not appear to have mouths, organs or means of moving, so they are thought to have absorbed nutrients from the water around them.

As Ediacaran organisms got taller, their body shapes diversified, and some developed stem-like structures to support their height.

In modern environments, such as forests, there is intense competition between organisms for resources such as light, so taller trees and plants have an obvious advantage over their shorter neighbours. “We wanted to know whether there were similar drivers for organisms during the Ediacaran period”, said Dr Emily Mitchell of Cambridge’s Department of Earth Sciences, the paper’s lead author. “Did life on Earth get big as a result of competition?”

Mitchell and her co-author Dr Charlotte Kenchington from Memorial University of Newfoundland in Canada examined fossils from Mistaken Point in south-eastern Newfoundland, one of the richest sites of Ediacaran fossils in the world.

Earlier research hypothesised that increased size was driven by the competition for nutrients at different water depths. However, the current work shows that the Ediacaran oceans were more like an all-you-can-eat buffet.

“The oceans at the time were very rich in nutrients, so there wasn’t much competition for resources, and predators did not yet exist”, said Mitchell, who is a Henslow Research Fellow at Murray Edwards College. “So there must have been another reason why life forms got so big during this period.”

Since Ediacaran organisms were not mobile and were preserved where they lived, it’s possible to analyse whole populations from the fossil record. Using spatial analysis techniques, Mitchell and Kenchington found that there was no correlation between height and competition for food. Different types of organisms did not occupy different parts of the water column to avoid competing for resources — a process known as tiering.

“If they were competing for food, then we would expect to find that the organisms with stems were highly tiered”, said Kenchington. “But we found the opposite: the organisms without stems were actually more tiered than those with stems, so the stems probably served another function.”

According to the researchers, one likely function of stems would be to enable the greater dispersion of offspring, which rangeomorphs produced by expelling small propagules. The tallest organisms were surrounded by the largest clusters of offspring, suggesting that the benefit of height was not more food, but a greater chance of colonising an area.

“While taller organisms would have been in faster-flowing water, the lack of tiering within these communities shows that their height didn’t give them any distinct advantages in terms of nutrient uptake”, said Mitchell. “Instead, reproduction appears to have been the main reason that life on Earth got big when it did.”

Despite their success, rangeomorphs and other Ediacaran organisms disappeared at the beginning of the Cambrian period about 540 million years ago, a period of rapid evolutionary development when most major animal groups first appear in the fossil record.

What caused the mass extinction of Earth’s first animals? Unravelling mystery of the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. June 27, 2018, by Arizona State University. Fossil records tell us that the first macroscopic animals appeared on Earth about 575 million years ago. Twenty-four million years later, the diversity of animals began to mysteriously decline, leading to Earth’s first know mass extinction event. A research team is helping to unravel this mystery and understand why this extinction event happened, what it can tell us about our origins, and how the world as we know it came to be: here.

Scientists from The Australian National University (ANU) and overseas have discovered the oldest colours in the geological record, 1.1 billion-year-old bright pink pigments extracted from rocks deep beneath the Sahara desert in Africa. Dr Nur Gueneli from ANU said the pigments taken from marine black shales of the Taoudeni Basin in Mauritania, West Africa, were more than half a billion years older than previous pigment discoveries. Dr Gueneli discovered the molecules as part of her PhD studies. “The bright pink pigments are the molecular fossils of chlorophyll that were produced by ancient photosynthetic organisms inhabiting an ancient ocean that has long since vanished,” said Dr Gueneli from the ANU Research School of Earth Sciences: here.

Dinosaur tongues, new research


This 2017 video is called How to Sculpt a Dinosaur Part 2 – Eyes, Teeth, Tongue & Skin Texture – PREVIEW.

From the University of Texas at Austin in the USA:

T. Rex couldn’t stick out its tongue

June 20, 2018

Dinosaurs are often depicted as fierce creatures, baring their teeth, with tongues wildly stretching from their mouths like giant, deranged lizards. But new research reveals a major problem with this classic image: Dinosaurs couldn’t stick out their tongues like lizards. Instead, their tongues were probably rooted to the bottoms of their mouths in a manner akin to alligators.

Researchers from The University of Texas at Austin and the Chinese Academy of Sciences made the discovery by comparing the hyoid bones — the bones that support and ground the tongue — of modern birds and crocodiles with those of their extinct dinosaur relatives. In addition to challenging depictions of dino tongues, the research proposes a connection on the origin of flight and an increase in tongue diversity and mobility.

The research was published June 20 in the journal PLOS ONE.

“Tongues are often overlooked. But, they offer key insights into the lifestyles of extinct animals,” said lead author Zhiheng Li, an associate professor at the Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.He conducted the work while earning his Ph.D. at the UT Jackson School of Geosciences.

The researchers made their discovery by comparing the hyoid bones of extinct dinosaurs, pterosaurs and alligators to the hyoid bones and muscles of modern birds and alligator specimens. Hyoid bones act as anchors for the tongue in most animals, but in birds these bones can extend to the tip. Because extinct dinosaurs are related to crocodiles, pterosaurs and modern birds, comparing anatomy across these groups can help scientists understand the similarities and differences in tongue anatomy and how traits evolved through time and across different lineages.

The comparison process involved taking high-resolution images of hyoid muscles and bones from 15 modern specimens, including three alligators and 13 bird species as diverse as ostriches and ducks, at the Jackson School’s High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography Facility (UTCT). The fossil specimens, most from northeastern China, were scrutinized for preservation of the delicate tongue bones and included small bird-like dinosaurs, as well as pterosaurs and a Tyrannosaurus rex.

The results indicate that hyoid bones of most dinosaurs were like those of alligators and crocodiles — short, simple and connected to a tongue that was not very mobile. Co-author and Jackson School Professor Julia Clarke said that these findings mean that dramatic reconstructions that show dinosaurs with tongues stretching out from between their jaws are wrong.

“They’ve been reconstructed the wrong way for a long time”, Clarke said. “In most extinct dinosaurs their tongue bones are very short. And in crocodilians with similarly short hyoid bones, the tongue is totally fixed to the floor of the mouth.”

Clarke is no stranger to overturning dinosaur conventions. Her 2016 study on dinosaur vocalizations found evidence that large dinosaurs might make booming or cooing sounds, similar to the sounds made by crocodiles and ostriches.

In contrast to the short hyoid bones of crocodiles, the researchers found that pterosaurs, bird-like dinosaurs, and living birds have a great diversity in hyoid bone shapes. They think the range of shapes could be related to flight ability, or in the case of flightless birds such as ostriches and emus, evolved from an ancestor that could fly. The researchers propose that taking to the skies could have led to new ways of feeding that could be tied to diversity and mobility in tongues.

“Birds, in general, elaborate their tongue structure in remarkable ways”, Clarke said. “They are shocking.”

That elaboration could be related to the loss of dexterity that accompanied the transformation of hands into wings, Li said.

“If you can’t use a hand to manipulate prey, the tongue may become much more important to manipulate food”, Li said. “That is one of the hypotheses that we put forward.”

The scientists note one exception linking tongue diversity to flight. Ornithischian dinosaurs — a group that includes Triceratops, ankylosaurs and other plant-eating dinosaurs that chewed their food — had hyoid bones that were highly complex and more mobile, though they were structurally different from those of flying dinosaurs and pterosaurs.

Further research on other anatomical changes that occurred with shifts in tongue function could help improve our knowledge of the evolution of birds, Clarke said, giving an example of how changes in the tongues of living birds are associated with changes in the position of the opening of the windpipe. These changes could in turn affect how birds breathe and vocalize.

However, the researchers note that the fossil record as yet can’t pin down when these changes to the windpipe occurred.

“There is more work to be done,” Li said.

The study was funded by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, the Smithsonian Institution and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

How primates got fingernails, new research


This 2016 video says about itself:

Nails evolved from claws roughly 50 million years ago. Why did this happen and what purpose do nails serve?

Oldest evidence of nails in modern primates: “From hot pink to traditional French and Lady Gaga‘s sophisticated designs, manicured nails have become the grammar of fashion. Scientists have now recovered and analyzed the oldest fossil evidence of fingernails in modern primates, confirming the idea nails developed with small body size and disproving previous theories nails evolved with an increase in primate body size.” Read more here.

“Which came first, the nail or the claw? The answer is unclear, but researchers have discovered a clue: an early primate that had a toe bone with features of both a grooming claw and a nail. A fossil of the 47-million-year-old primate, Notharctus tenebrosus, had a lemur-like grooming claw on its second digit, but it was flattened, a bit like a nail, according to a new study in the journal PLoS One.” Read more here.

Evidence for a Grooming Claw in a North American Adapiform Primate: Implications for Anthropoid Origins: “Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans). Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities.” Read more here.

From the University of Florida in the USA:

Fossils show ancient primates had grooming claws as well as nails

Why don’t we have them? Maybe because we have each other

June 20, 2018

Humans and other primates are outliers among mammals for having nails instead of claws. But how, when and why we transitioned from claws to nails has been an evolutionary head-scratcher.

Now, new fossil evidence shows that ancient primates — including one of the oldest known, Teilhardina brandti — had specialized grooming claws as well as nails. The findings overturn the prevailing assumption that the earliest primates had nails on all their digits and suggest the transition from claws to nails was more complex than previously thought.

“We had just assumed nails all evolved once from a common ancestor, and in fact, it’s much more complicated than that,” said Jonathan Bloch, study co-author and Florida Museum of Natural History curator of vertebrate paleontology at the University of Florida.

The findings are scheduled to be published today in the Journal of Human Evolution.

Grooming in mammals is not just about looking good. Thick body hair is a haven for ticks, lice and other parasites — possible health threats, as well as nuisances. Having a specialized claw for removing pests would be an evolutionary advantage, said Doug Boyer, an associate professor in the department of evolutionary anthropology at Duke University and the study’s lead author.

It’s one that has been retained in many primates. Lemurs, lorises, galagoes and tarsiers have nails on most of their digits and grooming claws on their second — and in tarsiers, second and third — toes.

So, why did the ancestors of monkeys, apes and humans lose their grooming claws? One possible answer: because we have each other.

“The loss of grooming claws is probably a reflection of more complex social networks and increased social grooming”, Boyer said. “You’re less reliant on yourself.”

This could explain why more solitary monkey species, such as titi and owl monkeys, have re-evolved a grooming claw, he said.

Researchers had thought grooming claws likely developed independently several times along the lines that gave rise to living primates. But these fossils suggest grooming claws were hallmark features of the earliest primates, dating back at least 56 million years.

They also come from five different genera of ancient primates that belonged to the omomyoids, the ancestors of monkeys, apes, humans and tarsiers — not the branch of primates that gave rise to lemurs, lorises and galagoes.

In 2013, Boyer was at the University of California Museum of Paleontology, sifting through sediment collected in Wyoming several decades earlier, when he found several curious primate fossils. They were distal phalanges, the bones at the tips of fingers and toes, from omomyoids. The shape of these bones reveals whether they support a claw or nail. Bones topped with a claw mimic its narrow, tapered structure while bones undergirding a nail are flat and wide. The distal phalanges that Boyer discovered looked like they belonged to animals with grooming claws.

“Prior to this study, no one knew whether omomyoids had grooming claws”, Boyer said. “Most recent papers came down on the side of nails.”

Meanwhile, Bloch, picking through collections recently recovered from Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, came across what looked like a “strange, narrow nail” bone. But when he compared it to modern primates, “it looked just like a tarsier grooming claw.” Smaller than a grain of rice, it matched the proportions of Teilhardina brandti, a mouse-sized, tree-dwelling primate.

Bloch and Boyer had co-authored a 2011 study describing the first fossil evidence of nails in Teilhardina. At the time, they believed the primate had nails on all its digits. Now, fossils were making them reevaluate their assumptions, not only about Teilhardina, but other omomyoids.

On the off-chance that they could add one more ancient primate to the growing list of claw-bearers, the pair drove out to Omomys Quarry, Wyoming, once inhabited by another genus of omomyoid, Omomys.

“We spent a day combing that site, never expecting to find something as tiny and delicate as a grooming claw,” Boyer said.

The team picked one right off the surface. They had found grooming claws at three independent sites from omomyoids spanning about 10 million years in the fossil record.

“That was the last nail in the coffin”, Boyer said.

Why did primates develop nails at all? The question is a contentious one, but Bloch and Boyer think the transition away from claws could have mirrored changes in primate movement. As we ramped up climbing, leaping and grasping, nails might have proven more practical than claws, which could snag or get in the way.

Grooming claws might seem insignificant, but they can provide crucial insights into ancient primates, many of which are known only from fossil teeth, Bloch said. These tiny claws offer clues about how our earliest ancestors moved through their environment, whether they were social or solitary and what their daily behavior was like.

“We see a bit of ourselves in the hands and feet of living primates”, Bloch said. “How they got this way is a profoundly important part of our evolutionary story.”

Sponge-like Cambrian fossil discovery


Allonia nuda. Credit: Derek Siveter/Tom Harvey/Peiyun Cong

From the University of Leicester in England:

Strange sponge-like fossil creature from half a billion years ago

June 19, 2018

Summary: A discovery of a new species of sponge-like fossil from the Cambrian Period sheds light on early animal evolution.

Scientists have discovered the fossil of an unusual large-bodied sponge-like sea-creature from half a billion years ago.

The creature belongs to an obscure and mysterious group of animals known as the chancelloriids, and scientists are unclear about where they fit in the tree of life.

They represent a lineage of spiny tube-shaped animals that arose during the Cambrian evolutionary “explosion” but went extinct soon afterwards. In some ways they resemble sponges, a group of simple filter-feeding animals, but many scientists have dismissed the similarities as superficial.

The new discovery by a team of scientists from the University of Leicester, the University of Oxford and Yunnan University, China, adds new evidence that could help solve the mystery.

The researchers have published their findings in the Royal Society journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The Leicester authors are Tom Harvey, Mark Williams, David Siveter & Sarah Gabbott.

The new species, named Allonnia nuda, was discovered in the Chengjiang deposits of Yunnan Province, China. It was surprisingly large in life (perhaps up to 50 cm or more) but had only a few very tiny spines. Its unusual “naked” appearance suggests that further specimens may be “hiding in plain sight” in fossil collections, and shows that this group was more diverse than previously thought.

Furthermore, the new species holds clues about the pattern of body growth, with clear links to modern sponges. It is too soon to say the mystery has been solved, but the discovery highlights the central role of sponge-like fossils in the debate over earliest animal evolution.

Dr Tom Harvey, from the University of Leicester’s School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, explained: “Fossil chancelloriids were first described around 100 years ago, but have resisted attempts to place them in the tree of life. We argue that their pattern of body growth supports a link to sponges, reinvigorating an old hypothesis. We’re not suggesting that it’s “case closed” for chancelloriids, but we hope our results will inspire new research into the nature of the earliest animals.”

Dr Peiyun Cong, from the Yunnan Key Laboratory for Palaeobiology, Kunming, China, and The Natural History Museum, UK, added: “The Chengjiang deposits of Yunnan Province continue to reveal surprising new fossils we could hardly have imagined. Together, they provide a crucial snapshot of life in the oceans during the Cambrian explosion.”

Ancient Precambrian animals named after Attenborough, Obama


This 14 November 2014 video says about itself:

The fossils of the first animal can be found in the Ediacara Hills in South Australia. This animal is called Dickinsonia. It was a cushion like creature that lay on the seafloor. Its size ranged from a penny to a bath mat. It crept around very slowly to look for food.

From the University of California Riverside in the USA:

Two new creatures discovered from dawn of animal life

June 18, 2018

Earth’s first complex animals were an eclectic bunch that lived in the shallow oceans between 580-540 million years ago.

The iconic Dickinsonia — large flat animals with a quilt-like appearance — were joined by tube-shaped organisms, frond-like creatures that looked more like plants, and several dozen other varieties already characterized by scientists.

Add to that list two new animals discovered by a UC Riverside-led team of researchers:

Obamus coronatus, a name that honors President Barack Obama’s passion for science. This disc-shaped creature was between 0.5-2 cm across with raised spiral grooves on its surface. Obamus coronatus did not seem to move around, rather it was embedded to the ocean mat, a thick layer of organic matter that covered the early ocean floor.

Attenborites janeae, named after the English naturalist and broadcaster Sir David Attenborough for his science advocacy and support of paleontology. This tiny ovoid, less than a centimeter across, was adorned with internal grooves and ridges giving it a raisin-like appearance.

The discovery of Obamus coronatus was published online June 14 in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, or AJES, and the Attenborites janeae paper is forthcoming in the same journal. The studies were led by Mary Droser, a professor of paleontology in UCR’s Department of Earth Sciences. Both papers will be included in print in a 2019 thematic AJES issue focusing on South Australia’s Flinders Ranges region, where the discoveries were made.

Part of the Ediacara Biota, the soft-bodied animals are visible as fossils cast in fine-grained sandstone that have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years. These Precambrian lifeforms represent the dawn of animal life and are named after the Ediacara Hills in the Flinders Ranges, the first of several areas in the world where they have been found.

In the hierarchical taxonomic classification system, the Ediacara Biota are not yet organized into families, and little is known about how they relate to modern animals. About 50 genera have been described, which often have only one species.

“The two genera that we identified are a new body plan, unlike anything else that has been described”, Droser said. “We have been seeing evidence for these animals for quite a long time, but it took us a while to verify that they are animals within their own rights and not part of another animal.”

The animals were glimpsed in a particularly well-preserved fossil bed described in another paper published by Droser’s group that will be included in the Flinders Ranges issue of AJES. The researchers dubbed this fossil bed “Alice’s Restaurant Bed”, a tribute to the Arlo Guthrie song and its lyric, “You can get anything you want at Alice’s Restaurant.”

“I’ve been working in this region for 30 years, and I’ve never seen such a beautifully preserved bed with so many high quality and rare specimens, including Obamus and Attenborites”, Droser said. “The AJES issue on the Flinders Ranges will support South Australia’s effort to obtain World Heritage Site status for this area, and this new bed demonstrates the importance of protecting it.”

Prehistoric panda discovery in China


This 18 June 2018 video is called Oldest Known Giant Panda Fossil Found In China.

From ScienceDaily:

22,000-year-old panda from cave in Southern China belongs to distinct, long-lost lineage

June 18, 2018

Researchers who’ve analyzed ancient mitochondrial (mt)DNA isolated from a 22,000-year-old panda found in Cizhutuo Cave in the Guangxi Province of China — a place where no pandas live today — have revealed a new lineage of giant panda. The report, published in Current Biology on June 18, shows that the ancient panda separated from present-day pandas 144,000 to 227,000 years ago, suggesting that it belonged to a distinct group not found today.

The newly sequenced mitochondrial genome represents the oldest DNA evidence from pandas.

“Using a single complete mtDNA sequence, we find a distinct mitochondrial lineage, suggesting that the Cizhutuo panda, while genetically more closely related to present-day pandas than other bears, has a deep, separate history from the common ancestor of present-day pandas”, says Qiaomei Fu from the Chinese Academy of Sciences. “This really highlights that we need to sequence more DNA from ancient pandas to really capture how their genetic diversity has changed through time and how that relates to their current, much more restricted and fragmented habitat.”

Very little has been known about pandas’ past, especially in regions outside of their current range in Shaanxi province or Gansu and Sichuan provinces. Evidence suggests that pandas in the past were much more widespread, but it’s been unclear how those pandas were related to pandas of today.

In the new study, the researchers used sophisticated methods to fish mitochondrial DNA from the ancient cave specimen. That’s a particular challenge because the specimen comes from a subtropical environment, which makes preservation and recovery of DNA difficult.

The researchers successfully sequenced nearly 150,000 DNA fragments and aligned them to the giant panda mitochondrial genome reference sequence to recover the Cizhutuo panda’s complete mitochondrial genome. They then used the new genome along with mitochondrial genomes from 138 present-day bears and 32 ancient bears to construct a family tree.

Their analysis shows that the split between the Cizhutuo panda and the ancestor of present-day pandas goes back about 183,000 years. The Cizhutuo panda also possesses 18 mutations that would alter the structure of proteins across six mitochondrial genes. The researchers say those amino acid changes may be related to the ancient panda’s distinct habitat in Guangxi or perhaps climate differences during the Last Glacial Maximum.

The findings suggest that the ancient panda’s maternal lineage had a long and unique history that differed from the maternal lineages leading to present-day panda populations. The researchers say that their success in capturing the mitochondrial genome also suggests that they might successfully isolate and analyze DNA from the ancient specimen’s much more expansive nuclear genome.

“Comparing the Cizhutuo panda’s nuclear DNA to present-day genome-wide data would allow a more thorough analysis of the evolutionary history of the Cizhutuo specimen, as well as its shared history with present-day pandas”, Fu says.