Michael de Vries made this video.
This video from the USA says about itself:
31 March 2016
Large male Green Iguana basking in the Florida sun. Escaped or released pet iguanas are now freely breeding in the wild and gradually spreading northward with warm winters. Small Iguanas and their eggs have many predators that eat them limiting their numbers, but once they reach two feet tall and larger they have few natural enemies. They can reach six feet in length, but 3 or 4 feet long like this one is more common. This one was spotted in Palm Beach County. Hard winter freezes will generally limit their northward advances to around Palm Beach County. They are excellent tree climbers and although primarily herbivore will take birds and eggs in the nest if found. They are of course invasive and can be legally killed if on private property and done humanely and their meat is said to be a delicacy in central and South America.
Adult iguanas are herbivores feeding on foliage, flowers, and fruit. They will occasionally eat animal material such as insects, lizards, and other small animals, nestling birds and eggs. Juveniles eat more animal material, especially insects, and hatchling green iguanas eat the droppings of adult iguanas to acquire the gut bacteria that help them digest plant material. Males are territorial against other males, but are not territorial against females and juveniles. These large lizards like to bask in open areas, sidewalks, docks, seawalls, landscape timbers, or open mowed areas. If frightened, they dive into water (green iguanas and basilisks) or retreat into their burrows (spiny tailed iguanas). This habit of diving into the water to escape makes green iguanas very difficult to capture. Basilisks and anoles generally eat insects and small vertebrate prey, but Knight anoles occasionally eat small fruits and flowers as well.
Read more here.
This 4 January 2016 video is about the smallest chameleon species, like the thumb-sized rosette-nosed chameleon, having the fastest tongues.
From Brown University in the USA about this today:
Tiniest chameleons deliver most powerful tongue-lashings
January 4, 2016
A new study reports one of the most explosive movements in the animal kingdom: the mighty tongue acceleration of a chameleon just a couple of inches long. The research illustrates that to observe some of nature’s best performances, scientists sometimes have to look at its littlest species.
PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] — Chameleons are known for sticking their tongues out at the world fast and far, but until a new study by Brown University biologist Christopher Anderson, the true extent of this awesome capability had been largely overlooked. That’s because the smallest species hadn’t been measured.
“Smaller species have higher performance than larger species,” said Anderson, a postdoctoral research associate in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
In Scientific Reports, Anderson reports that ballistic tongue projection in a chameleon that would fit on your thumb produced a peak acceleration 264 times greater than the acceleration due to gravity. In automotive terms, the tongue could go from 0 to 60 miles per hour in a hundredth of a second, though it only needs about 20 milliseconds to snag a cricket.
Anderson’s review of the biomechanics literature suggests that the motion has the highest acceleration and power output produced per kilogram of muscle mass by any reptile, bird, or mammal and is the second most powerful among any kind of vertebrate (only a salamander outdoes it). The total power output of the plucky Rhampholeon spinosus chameleon’s tongue was 14,040 watts per kilogram.
The secret of chameleons is that they don’t just use spontaneous muscle power to fling their tongues. They preload most of the motion’s total energy into elastic tissues in their tongue. The recoil of those tissues greatly augments what muscle alone can do on the fly — to catch a fly.
Anderson wanted to find the upper limit of chameleon tongue performance. To do that, he gathered individuals of 20 species of widely varying sizes in his former University of South Florida lab. Then he perched them one by one in front of a camera that shoots 3,000 frames a second. For each measurement, a cricket hung off a small dangling mesh to tempt the tongue to emerge. When it did, he could measure the distance the tongue went, the elapsed time, and the speed and the acceleration at any given time.
What Anderson noticed across all his measurements and analysis was that the smaller the chameleon, the higher the peak acceleration, relative power, and distance of tongue extension relative to body size (Rhampholeon spinosus stuck out its tongue to 2.5 times its body length). Larger chameleons produced impressive motions, too, but not compared to their smaller cousins. For example, a roughly two-foot-long species, Furcifer oustaleti, managed a peak acceleration less than 18 percent that of the tiny champ, Rhamp.
The results make physical and evolutionary sense, Anderson said. All of the chameleons have the same catapult-like apparatus for launching the tongue, but proportional to their size, smaller chameleons have a bigger one than larger chameleons. They are like little sports cars with relatively powerful engines.
The evolutionary reason why tiny chameleons are proportionately better equipped for feeding is presumed to be because, like all small animals, they need to consume more energy per body weight to survive. So little chameleons must be especially good at catching their insect meals — their tongues have to burst out unusually fast and far to compete for all that needed nutrition.
For these reasons, Anderson said, it will often benefit researchers to look at the little guys when studying physical performance. Prior studies of chameleon tongue acceleration had measured much lower peak values because they only looked at much larger chameleons.
“What this study shows is that by using smaller species, we may be able to elucidate these higher performance values,” he said.
This video says about itself:
The festival organisers write about it:
Cuba’s rainforests are famous for housing the Anolis lizard. There are over 60 different species of Anolis lizard living in Cuba ranging in size from minute to mighty. These lizards have managed to dominate Cuba’s jungle and Adapting Anolis explores the adaptions that have allowed these lizards to become so successful.
There is also the film Pyrenees Island, about a newly discovered amphibian species.
The festival organisers write about it:
In 1990, the discovery of a mysterious frog motivated a Spanish ecologist to begin research on this little amphibian. After three years of extensive studies, Jordi Serra Cobo finally described this new species and named it Rana pyrenaica. Starting in the footsteps of the rare Pyrenean frog, the film invites us into the chaotic world of high mountain torrents.
In this turbulent environment, strange rare beings live alongside the frog. All of them have a complex evolutionary history. All of them are now threatened with extinction. The story tells us not only about the magic of the Pyrenean frog the naturalist discovered, but it also has a lot to teach us about ourselves and the uncertain future that awaits us.
And there is also this Dutch film about frogs at the festival.
This video is about freeing two Balkan green lizards.
From Wildlife Extra:
With little to eat on many Greek islands, Balkan green lizards have evolved their digestive systems considerably compared to members of the same species on the mainland.
Even more surprisingly, these insect-eating lizards have also developed special valves to help them to digest plants.
These facts have emerged from a study led by Konstantinos Sagonas of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens in Greece and published in Springer’s journal The Science of Nature.
The new study confirms how some reptiles can adjust their digestive system and food preferences in response to adverse circumstances such as low rainfall and poor food supply.
Previous studies have shown that insect-eating Balkan green lizards (Lacerta trilineata) surviving in the harsh environments of various Greek islands have broadened their diet to include more plants.
To extend this research, Sagonas’ team set out to compare groups of these lizards on the islands of Andros and Skyros with two other populations in mainland Greece.
They found that the island lizards have a longer small intestine and hindgut compared to their mainland counterparts.
Those collected from the island of Skyros also have longer stomachs.
Cecal valves, which slow down food passage and provide fermenting chambers, were found in 62 per cent of the island-dwelling lizards, compared to 19 per cent of the mainland ones. This was a fact not previously known for green lizards.
Cecal valves are typically found in plant-eating lizards, and host micro-organisms that help to ferment and break down plant material into fatty acids.
When these structures do occur in insect-eating lizards, it is generally among populations that have started to eat a varied diet that also includes plants.
Sagonas believes the presence of cecal valves among the island lizards therefore reflects their higher consumption of plant material.
About 30 per cent of their diet consists of plant material, compared to the 10 per cent of the mainland reptiles.
So because of their longer digestive tract and the presence of cecal valves, it takes up to 26 per cent longer for the food of island lizards to pass through their digestive system and the ingested food is exposed for far longer to digestive enzymes.
“Such adaptations allow insular populations to take advantage of the limited food resources of the islands and, eventually, overcome food dearth,” explains Sagonas.
“Energy flow in insular environments, the digestive performance of insular populations and the connections within them, provide insights into how animals are able to colonise islands and maintain viable populations.”