Lichens, indicators of forest health


This video from the USA says about itself:

Climate Change and the Mosses and Lichens in the Columbia River Gorge

9 June 2011

A short look at the mosses and lichens in the gorge and the effects climate change may have on them. This video was created by the Gifford Pinchot Task Force for the Multnomah County climate change short films series, thanks for viewing!

From Science News in the USA:

Lichens are an early warning system for forest health

Scientists tap symbiotic lichens as sentinels of air quality, and now, climate problems

By Amy McDermott

5:30am, November 15, 2016

View the slideshow

Ecologist Linda Geiser works her way through thick undergrowth on the steep hills of the Bull Run Watershed just outside of Portland, Ore. Every step in her heavy boots is deliberate. It would be easy to break an ankle here, or worse. A dense sea of ferns and berry bushes hides deep pits and sharp fallen branches.

This treacherous slope is a U.S. Forest Service 
field site, one of many in the United States, recognizable by its bright orange flagging fluttering from the trees. Geiser has patrolled terrain like this for 30 years. As manager of the Forest Service’s 
air-quality program, she’s tasked with monitoring pollution. So she has come here, not to check sophisticated equipment, but to find lichens.

Fringed and fuzzy, or as slick as a coat of paint, lichens are mosaics of fungi partnered with algae or cyanobacteria that speckle tree bark and dangle from the canopy (SN: 11/7/09, p. 16). In those precarious perches, lichens absorb their food from fog, wind and rain. With no roots but very absorbent tissue, lichens are exquisitely vulnerable to gases released from burning fossil fuels and other 
pollutants carried by the wind and rain. That sensitivity makes lichens powerful sentinels of forest health.

“Where there is pollution, there is a predictable effect on lichens,” Geiser says. Rare and delicate lichen species that are highly specialized to their habitat are some of the first to die out as air quality falls. Less-sensitive, generalist lichens hang on longer and, in some cases, even survive and expand. Both can signal problems to come.

In the presence of high levels of excess nitrogen, moderately sensitive wolf lichens (Letharia vulpine, left) languish while candleflame lichens (Candelaria pacifica, right) thrive.

Jason Hollinger/Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 2.0); J-DAR/MUSHROOM OBSERVER (CC BY-SA 3.0)
A 2014 study linked an abundance of the nitrogen-loving lichen Candelaria pacifica in Yosemite National Park with hot spots of excess nitrogen blown over from the sprawling farmlands of 
California’s Central Valley. Nitrogen becomes a pollutant at very high concentrations. A 2015 study in Washington State tied an area of heavy metal pollution, detected in lichen tissues in the Colville National Forest, to a zinc and lead smelter just across the border with Canada.

Pollution builds up inside lichen tissues in proportion to its concentration in the wider environment. Anything poisoning lichens is also accumulating more broadly in the forest. Lichens and other supersensitive species begin to shift first, but the same contaminants may hit hardier plants and animals next.

That’s why Geiser is hiking in the shadow of Mount Hood. She jots down the name and abundance of every lichen species she finds at Bull Run to track changes in the lichen census since the last survey of this plot, 10 years ago. Geiser carries a large, clear bag in her pack and fills it with a seafoam green lichen called Platismatia glauca. In a lab at the University of Minnesota, researchers will dissolve the P. glauca in acid to measure levels of 24 air pollutants. Other tests measure sulfur, nitrogen and mercury.

The Forest Service has used lichens to track air quality since the 1980s. What began as a few pilot studies has expanded into a national program, with thousands of lichen-monitoring plots across the country. The information collected at those sites is cataloged in a database, used by the Forest 
Service to track changes in the lichen landscape. Until now, that database has not been publicly available. But in 2017, it will be released — along with an atlas of lichen distributions nationwide — so anyone can track this early warning system.

The timing is good, because while these fungal mélanges have been counted on as air monitors for decades, they have now also begun to show their worth as sentinels of climate change in the Lower 48 states and, increasingly, in the Arctic.

Environmental watchdogs

Far from the rain-drenched forests of the Pacific Northwest, on the gray streets of 1860s Paris, a botanist named William Nylander noticed a peculiar pattern. More lichen species grew in the oasis of the Luxembourg Garden than elsewhere in the city. The park was less polluted than the rest of Paris. Nylander inferred a connection: Better air quality meant higher lichen diversity.

Proof that lichens respond to air quality came about a century later. Studies in the 1950s found that lichen diversity fell as sulfur dioxide rose. In 1958, botanist Erik Skye found that airborne sulfur dioxide, emitted from a Swedish oil works, killed lichens surrounding the factory. The sulfur 
dioxide acidified the lichens’ cells, disrupting metabolism and photosynthesis. Other pollutants, like nitrogen dioxide, can also kill some lichen species by overfertilizing them. Without protective structures common in plants, such as a waxy cuticle and pores that can close to keep out unwanted substances, lichens are especially vulnerable to environmental vagaries.

By the 1980s, most large cities in Central Europe monitored lichens to track air quality, says biologist Christoph Scheidegger of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research in Birmensdorf. What’s appealing, he says, is the tight relationship between lichen diversity and pollution levels. When the number of sensitive lichen species goes down, it reveals areas where pollution levels are going up.

In the United States, lichens help the Forest Service and National Park Service set pollution targets and identify areas where those targets are being exceeded. Those agencies don’t have the authority to set pollution laws. Instead, they make recommendations to state governments and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on the amount of pollution an ecosystem can withstand before falling into decline.

To figure out how much pollution is too much, government scientists look to lichens, as well as alpine plants, trees, grasses and other parts of the ecosystem, says ecologist Tamara Blett of the National Park Service, which also monitors air quality. Many field studies show that lichens “start to disappear at a lower amount of air pollution than other species,” Blett says. Other organisms “aren’t affected until the pollution is higher.”

That means lichens set the high bar for pollution standards. Protect them, and everything else is safe. Once pollution thresholds are established, U.S. scientists can use lichens to identify hot spots that exceed recommended limits. It works like this: Scientists like Geiser hike into forest field sites to collect lichen tissues and survey the number and abundance of lichen species. In the lab, the tissues are analyzed for concentrations of nitrogen, sulfur and other potential pollutants. From the results, ecologists make a map that reveals “red zones,” “orange zones” and “green zones,” where pollution thresholds are met or exceeded across the landscape, Blett says.

Fluffy, green wolf lichen (Letharia vulpina) collected in 2011 along a major road in California’s Sierra Nevada had nitrogen levels exceeding recommended pollution limits. In Wyoming’s Wind River Range, an area plagued by air pollution, nitrogen concentrations were twice as high in lichens growing near natural gas drilling operations as those growing farthest away, researchers reported in 2013; concentrations decreased exponentially with distance from drilling sites.

Machines and nature

The lichens are “like teeny living instruments,” Blett says. Studying them is an order of magnitude cheaper than installing human-made air-quality monitors. Each lichen plot costs $150 to $500, says Forest Service lichenologist Sarah Jovan, who leads the lichen program with Geiser.

Measuring pollutants directly, using a human-made air-quality monitor, would cost $3,000 to $20,000 a year, Jovan says, depending on the instrument and pollutants measured. “It’s an incredible savings,” she says.

Plus, Geiser adds, lichens can provide evidence of ecological harm, while chemical and physical methods tell only what’s in the air or precipitation. “They don’t tell you if that level is harmful to living things.”

While lichens have a huge cost advantage, they also have limitations as indicators. In general, Jovan says, the content of lichen tissues today points to pollution over the last six to 12 months. They don’t offer the same time frame precision as pricier instruments.

Agencies navigate these pros and cons by using lichens in combination with other monitors. In places where the source of pollution isn’t clear, it doesn’t make sense to install expensive instruments across the landscape.

Instead, lichen studies are a first step to identify pollution hot spots, Blett and Jovan explain. Then more expensive monitors are installed at heavily polluted sites. “Using the two approaches together creates incredible efficiency,” Jovan says, “and cost savings.”

When the EPA and the Forest Service set out to track regional environmental health in the early 1990s, they called on lichenologist Bruce McCune, of Oregon State University in Corvallis. The agencies asked McCune to design pilot studies using lichens to assess air pollution. That early work grew into the same lichen census that brought Geiser to Bull Run.

The Forest Service has almost 25 years of lichen data from more than 6,000 sites nationwide. “It’s unprecedented to have this scale of information,” says Jovan, who created the atlas over the last decade. “This is the first time all of the data we’ve ever had has come together.” Federal 
agencies including the Forest Service, the Park Service, U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management are all interested in lichens as environmental sentinels, she says. “Now all of a sudden, everyone and their mom wants to use lichens.”

When these data are released publicly in 2017, she says, they will set a baseline for lichen distributions nationwide. In 10 years, or in 50, scientists will be able to track large-scale changes over time.

Climate ups and downs

Climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions presents its own kind of air-quality problem. And lichens may help keep an eye out for climate changes, too.

Small differences in temperature and moisture mean big changes in the number and diversity of lichens in the landscape. Lichen diversity in 
Sweden and Alaska dropped with rising temperature, and lichens were more sensitive to change than vascular plants, according to a study published in 2012.

Earlier work in western Europe found that drought-tolerant lichens become more common in response to warming, while acid-loving species decline. In the Netherlands, Hyperphyscia adglutinata increased in abundance substantially from 1995 to 2001. During the same period, Lecanora conizaeoides declined by more than 60 percent.

By tracking which species increase or decrease with changing temperature and rainfall, ecologists are learning to read the climate story lichens are telling. The idea, Geiser says, is to use lichens to understand the on-the-ground realities of climate change.

The value of the lichens data trove will only increase with time, McCune says. Today, decades of lichen data offer a national snapshot that “contains priceless information on air quality and a basis for comparison in the future,” he says. “Can you imagine 50 years from now,” when “we’ve got thousands of plots in the U.S. with data from way back in 2000 or something like that? It’s going to be fantastic to see the difference between 2050 and 2000.”

In the meantime, the lichens of the Northwest that Geiser walks among will keep growing and changing in step with the changing planet. They’ll breathe in the mountain air and soak up water as it drips down the trees. These and other lichens will stand as a beacon of what’s to come.

Rare lichen discovery on Vlieland island


This video says about itself:

Lichen are one of the most undervalued organisms on the face of the planet. Watch this video to find out why.

Warden Anke Bruin from Vlieland island in the Netherlands reports about the discovery of a rare lichen on two sand dune spots in July this year.

It is Cladonia verticillata. This species had never been seen before on the Dutch Wadden Sea islands.

Rare lichens discovery in the Netherlands


This video is called Lichen, the most awesome thing ever.

Dutch news agency ANP reports about a discovery of several rare lichen species near Nijmegen in the Netherlands.

In nature reserve Heumensoord, the very rare Cladonia callosa was found. Maybe, Heumensoord is the most important place in the world for this species.

Other Heumensoord lichen species: Dibaeis baeomyces; Baeomyces rufus; Pycnothelia papillaria; and Cladonia strepsilis.

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New lichen species discovery in the Netherlands


The orange spots on this photo are the new species Oxneria huculica, photo by Michiel Sytsma

When Dutch nature guide Michiel Sytsma cycled between Ede and Veenendaal, he saw an unusual lichen species on five trees.

He photographed this. It turned out that Mr Sytsma had discovered a species, new for the Netherlands: Oxneria huculica.

The species now has a Dutch name: dragonderdooiermos, dragoon lichen. This is because the lichen was found at the Dragonderweg, dragoon road, in Ede. And also because the orange colour of the lichen is similar to the orange in the uniforms of the dragoons after whom that road was named.

These dragoons of the British army, commanded by “the grand old Duke of York“, were in that area in 1794-1795. They were supposed to stop the French army from invading the Dutch republic, allies of the United Kingdom. However, when the French army approached, the dragoons fled without firing a shot.

Reminding me of the song about the grand old Duke of York.

This music video from Britain is called The Grand Old Duke Of York; Children’s Animation.

According to Wikipedia:

The Grand Old Duke of York’ (also sung as The Noble Duke of York) is an English children’s nursery rhyme, often performed as an action song. The Duke of the title has been argued to be a number of the holders of that office, particularly Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1763–1827) and its lyrics have become proverbial for futile action. …

The most common modern version is:

Oh, The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men;
He marched them up to the top of the hill,
And he marched them down again.

And when they were up, they were up,
And when they were down, they were down,
And when they were only half-way up,
They were neither up nor down.

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New nature reserve in Wales


This video from Wales is called Gregynog Hall 2012.

From Wildlife Extra:

New National Nature Reserve created in Mid Wales

Mid Wales cultural centre becomes Wales’ newest National Nature Reserve

March 2013. Gregynog, near Newtown, is to become Wales’ newest National Nature Reserve (NNR).
Gregynog is a large country hall in the village of Tregynon, near Newtown. Owned by the University of Wales, the Hall is surrounded by 750 acres of grounds. The NNR designation confirms the estate of Gregynog as one of Wales’ most important sites for ancient parkland and wood-pasture habitats, veteran trees, and nationally important lichens, insects, and other wildlife, supported by these rare habitats.

Dr Maggie Hill, CCW’s Director for South and East Wales said: “Gregynog is designated because of the rich mosaic of parkland and ancient woodlands in the grounds of the hall. Gregynog has one of the largest examples of ancient woodland in Wales, aptly named the Great Wood. Some of the oak trees here are over 350 years old.

“But it is not just the trees themselves that are important; rare lichens cover the bark of the gnarled ancient oak and ash trees. One of these is the lichen Lecanora sublivescens which can be found on the sunlit tree trunks at Gregynog. This species is scarce on a world scale – and is only known to be here in the UK and in Southern Sweden.”

Insects

The insects also make the Gregynog estate a very special place for wildlife, with the larvae of many beetles and flies living in the dead and decaying wood of Gregynog’s large trees and standing and fallen dead trees. There are some strange creatures living this way of life; including a small oval brown beetle known as the cobweb beetle (Ctesias serra) which only feeds on the dry remains of dead insects that have been caught in spider webs under very dry bark! Many of these insects then emerge from the wood as adults and some of the brightly coloured longhorn beetles and hoverflies can be seen feeding on the nectar and pollen of the blossoming hawthorns and other shrubs and flowers.

The NNR declaration also highlights Gregynog as a place where the public can come to enjoy the countryside. There are a number of footpaths through the parkland – walking routes that have recently been mapped, upgraded and way-marked, through a partnership project between Gregynog and CCW, to make it easier for everyone to enjoy walking here.

Wildlife

Visitors can see a vast range of wildlife – from hares to breeding birds like the wood warbler, pied flycatcher and redstart; to great crested newts and dragonflies in and around the many ponds. Gregynog also supports good numbers of bats, and provides feeding areas for the important lesser# horseshoe bat. Interpretation panels full of information about the wildlife are dotted around the estate.

Karen Armstrong, Director at Gregynog said: “Work has already begun to remove all invasive Rhododendron to improve the woodlands, and also to explore options for enhancing the existing parkland areas by restoring nearby conifer blocks to native broadleaf woodland and ensuring that the next generation of trees in the parkland can become established.”

Birds help lichen grow


This video from England says about itself:

Murmuration of starlings coming together to roost. Filmed Nov 2009 on the A69 a few miles west of Haydon Bridge, Northumberland.

Translated from Vroege Vogels radio in the Netherlands:

Lichen loves poop

Ecologist Peter Bremer discovered it by accident: some lichen species like starlings. The droppings of the birds cause some ammonia-loving lichen species to really like roofs used by starlings as a resting place or a singing spot.

Common orange lichen benefits

Especially the common orange lichen (Xanthoria parietina) benefits from the bird droppings. Peter Bremer did his research in a Zwolle neighbourhood, full of houses with concrete tiles. These are ideal for investigation of the relationship between lichens and songbirds. Concrete is a more suitable substrate for lichens than ceramics. Also on the chimneys common orange lichen was found. In the district where Bremer did his research 14 different bird species used the roofs. But starlings were really the most prominent.