How male, female leopards live in Tanzania


This 2019 video says about itself:

Pula, a female leopard, hunts and takes down an impala for a meal.

From the University of Copenhagen in Denmark:

The surprising rhythms of Leopards: Females are early birds, males are nocturnal

September 10, 2020

Summary: After 10 months of camera surveillance in the Tanzanian rainforest, researchers have concluded that female and male leopards are active at very different times of the day. The discovery contradicts previous assumptions and could be used to help protect the endangered feline, whose populations have dwindled by 85 percent over the past century.

Tanzania’s Udzungwa Mountains are carpeted by dense rainforest, making the area impossible to reach by jeep or other vehicles. As such, the leopards in this area have never been subject to the prying eyes of researchers. Until now.

After covering 2,500 square kilometers on foot, setting up 164 game camera traps and collecting more than 5000 days worth of footage from the area, the Natural History Museum of Denmark’s Rasmus W. Havmøller has discovered new and surprising knowledge about these spotted predators.

“I’m the first person to study leopards in this area, simply because it is so inaccessible. It took several pairs of good hiking boots, let me put it that way,” says Havmøller, who never actually got to see one of the shy leopards with his own eyes. Instead, he had to “settle” for buffalo and elephants.

While Havmøller never caught a glimpse of a leopard himself, his 164 camera traps most certainly did. Using motion sensors, the cameras captured the leopards, as well as forest antelopes, baboons and other leopard prey on film. Camera observations revealed leopard behaviour that contradicts previous assumptions.

“In the past, leopards were thought to be most active at dusk. Very surprisingly, the study shows that leopards hunt and move around at very different times of the day depending on whether they are females or males,” says Rasmus W. Havmøller, who adds:

“Females are typically active from early through late morning, and then a bit before sunset, while males only really wake up at night.”

This is the first time that differences in activity patterns between male and female leopards have been studied.

Differences between male and female leopards have only recently begun to be studied, so there is still much to learn about the animal. But researchers need to hurry. Rapidly growing human populations in Africa and India are the greatest threat to these animals, which are forced from their habitats and shot when they near livestock.

“Globally, things are going awfully for leopards, with sharp declines in their populations over the past 100 years. Furthermore, these animals aren’t monitored all that well. In part, this is because it is difficult. But also, because there has been a greater focus on species that are even more endangered, including lions, tigers and cheetahs. Therefore, it might be that the leopards in Udzungwa present the last chance to study these creatures in a diversified environment, one that has only been lightly impacted by humans, before they end up becoming highly endangered” explains Rasmus W. Havmøller.

The researcher believes that the results will provide a better understanding of the lives of wild leopards — an understanding that may help prevent their complete extinction.

“The fact that female leopards are active well into the morning makes them more vulnerable to human activities, since this is when we as humans are most active. To protect something, one needs to have some knowledge about it. During my study, we also discovered that a leopard from the rainforest doesn’t move into semi-arid areas or onto the savannah, or vice versa. It’s very strange. Why they don’t is the next big question,” concludes Havmøller.

Leopards of Serengeti, Tanzania, new research


This 11 June 2019 video is called Leopard kills Warthog – Safari Serengeti.

From the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, News Bureau in the USA:

Serengeti leopard population densities healthy but vary seasonally, study finds

Camera-trap study yields insights into what drives leopard population density

August 31, 2020

A study of camera-trap data from Serengeti National Park in Tanzania found that leopard population densities in the 3.7-million-acre park are similar to those in other protected areas but vary between wet and dry seasons. The fluctuations appear to be driven by the abundance of prey and how this affects interactions with other large carnivores like lions, researchers report.

Despite the long history of wildlife research in the Serengeti, this is the first peer-reviewed study of leopard densities in the park, said Max Allen, a carnivore ecologist with the Illinois Natural History Survey at the University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign who led the research. Allen and his team analyzed data from Snapshot Serengeti, a large collaborative effort that uses hundreds of camera traps to collect data on large cats and other wildlife in the Serengeti. The team published the new findings in the journal Biodiversity and Conservation.

“In the wet season, when potential prey species like Thomson’s gazelle and impala are available in abundance, leopards appear at higher densities,” Allen said. “In the dry season, leopards seem to work harder to avoid other large carnivores that compete with them for less abundant food.”

The team used advanced analytical techniques called Bayesian statistics to estimate leopard densities for each camera-trap site and for the study area overall.

“We found 5.72 and 5.41 leopards per 100-square-kilometers in the wet and dry seasons, respectively,” Allen said. “These densities suggest the leopard populations are at moderately healthy levels in the Serengeti. This reflects the importance of large conservation areas for large carnivores, as leopard populations are generally declining across their range.”

The results also highlight the importance of citizen-scientist projects for the conservation of wild species, Allen said. Snapshot Africa is one of the most effective citizen science projects in the world, he said.

“Large carnivores at the top of the food chain play important roles in ecosystem regulation, and disease and population control,” Allen said. “The human-induced changes to habitat availability and quality are accelerating the decline of large carnivores, which are already vulnerable because they have naturally low population densities at birth.”

Understanding how carnivore populations are faring and what factors contribute to their success is essential to conserve them and the other wildlife in their ecosystem, Allen said. Capturing data about their habits through unobtrusive camera traps can lead to better management of the wild areas on which they depend.

The INHS is a division of the Prairie Research Institute at the U. of I. The INHS, U. of I. and Slovenian Research Agency supported this research.

Jackal-leopard conflict in South Africa


This 22 June 2020 video from South Africa says about itself:

Jackals bark at the wrong leopard

Two [black-backed] jackals from Kgalagadi park were barking at a leopard for being too close to their den. This only angered the leopards and they ended up hunting down one of the jackals.

Leopard Teaches Cubs to Cross a Road


This 21 April 2020 video from South Africa says about itself:

Leopard Teaches Cubs How to Cross the Road

There is no need to go to Oklahoma to see cute cubs, GO TO AFRICA INSTEAD! There, you will watch these magnificent big cats how they should be viewed – in the wild. This video is in honor of all the animals that are locked up in cages when they should be in the wild.

Watch the unbelievably cute moment filmed on camera when a leopard mother is seen helping her cute newborn leopard cubs cross the road in the Kruger National Park. The heart-warming cuteness of these little ones is almost unbearable and all we can do is watch. When you get the opportunity to capture it on film, it makes the sighting even more special.

64 Year old, Thinus Delport, had the opportunity to see this incredible sighting of a mother leopard and her two very tiny cubs crossing a road 6km from Lower Sabie towards Crocodile Bridge. Thinus tells LatestSightings.com of the excitement to have been able to witness such a rare sighting.

“Early morning, my daughters and I left the camp looking for leopards. They were convinced that there are no leopards in the Kruger, as neither of them had ever seen one. As we drove, I jokingly convinced them to start singing in the car, to draw the leopards out, and so they did – and to my surprise – it actually worked!”

“We hit a traffic jam where a few cars were stationary. It seemed like visitors were looking at a pride of lions. My daughter noticed that in the thicket behind our vehicle, there was a mother leopard trying to move her cubs!!”

“It was my daughter’s first visit to the Kruger and she was the first to whip out her video camera. I’m glad she did because I would have been shaking so much from excitement, that the footage might have just been ruined. We stayed and watched as the mother crossed the road first to make sure that all was safe, before returning to encourage her cubs to cross to safety.”

“This was an extremely rare sighting, and you don’t often get to see a leopard mother relocate her cubs when they are still so young. We’ve been visiting the Kruger for over 50 years, and not once have we seen something like this. This just came to show that patience really does pay off.”

Indian peafowl don´t fear young leopard


This 27 March 2020 video from India says about itself:

A leopard cub’s afternoon nap is interrupted by a curious flock of peafowls. Normally, these birds wouldn’t go anywhere near a predator – but she’s too young to pose a serious threat.

Hungry leopardess risks death by stealing food


This 26 February 2020 video from Africa says about itself:

A Leopard Risks Her Life to Steal Food

A female leopard is risking life and limb by trying to steal food from another, male, leopard. One wrong move and the male, a third bigger than she is, could make her pay.

Zambian leopard eats out of crocodile’s mouth


This 25 February 2020 video says about itself:

Leopard Eats Food Right Out a Crocodile‘s Mouth

Watch the incredible moment a leopard builds up enough courage to go up to crocodile and eat right from its mouth!

This incredible moment of an opportunistic leopard stealing a croc’s meal right out of its mouth was filmed by Nicole Dangoor, a ranger at the Bush Camp Company.

She shared this incredible sighting with LatestSightings.com, and tells the story.

Nicole was joined by a group of safari visitors on a night drive in the South Luangwa National Park. They stopped to watch a couple of crocodiles who were in the middle of a feast when a leopard crept closer to the crocodile with the bulk of the food, seemingly interested in what the crocodile had in its mouth.

As the light was shining on the crocodile for a better view for the guests, the opportunistic leopard risked the chance and started biting and clawing at the pieces of meat dangling from the croc’s mouth, pulling out pieces of the meat and eating it!

After a few mouths-full, the leopard attempted one final claw, grab and bite and managed to pull what looks like a whole impala leg from the crocodile. This seemed like a fair enough portion for the leopard as it ran off into the distance to eat in peace. As the light from the safari visitors followed the leopard into the thicket, the crocodiles took the opportunity to make a break for the bushes to eat what was left of the meal.