North American Ice Age horses, new research


Two skulls of the new genus Haringtonhippus from Nevada (upper) and Texas (lower). Credit: Photos by Eric Scott
From the University of California – Santa Cruz in the USA:

A horse is a horse, of course, of course — except when it isn’t

Analysis of ancient DNA reveals a previously unrecognized genus of extinct horses that once roamed North America

November 28, 2017

Summary: Scientists have discovered a previously unrecognized genus of extinct horses that roamed North America during the last ice age. The new findings are based on an analysis of ancient DNA from fossils of the enigmatic ‘New World stilt-legged horse‘ excavated from sites such as Natural Trap Cave in Wyoming, Gypsum Cave in Nevada, and the Klondike goldfields of Canada’s Yukon Territory.

An international team of researchers has discovered a previously unrecognized genus of extinct horses that roamed North America during the last ice age.

The new findings, published November 28 in the journal eLife, are based on an analysis of ancient DNA from fossils of the enigmatic “New World stilt-legged horse” excavated from sites such as Natural Trap Cave in Wyoming, Gypsum Cave in Nevada, and the Klondike goldfields of Canada’s Yukon Territory.

Prior to this study, these thin-limbed, lightly built horses were thought to be related to the Asiatic wild ass or onager, or simply a separate species within the genus Equus, which includes living horses, asses, and zebras. The new results, however, reveal that these horses were not closely related to any living population of horses.

Now named Haringtonhippus francisci, this extinct species of North American horse appears to have diverged from the main trunk of the family tree leading to Equus some 4 to 6 million years ago.

“The horse family, thanks to its rich and deep fossil record, has been a model system for understanding and teaching evolution. Now ancient DNA has rewritten the evolutionary history of this iconic group,” said first author Peter Heintzman, who led the study as a postdoctoral researcher at UC Santa Cruz.

“The evolutionary distance between the extinct stilt-legged horses and all living horses took us by surprise, but it presented us with an exciting opportunity to name a new genus of horse,” said senior author Beth Shapiro, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at UC Santa Cruz.

The team named the new horse after Richard Harington, emeritus curator of Quaternary Paleontology at the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa. Harington, who was not involved in the study, spent his career studying the ice age fossils of Canada’s North and first described the stilt-legged horses in the early 1970s.

“I had been curious for many years concerning the identity of two horse metatarsal bones I collected, one from Klondike, Yukon, and the other from Lost Chicken Creek, Alaska. They looked like those of modern Asiatic kiangs, but thanks to the research of my esteemed colleagues they are now known to belong to a new genus,” said Harington. “I am delighted to have this new genus named after me. ”

The new findings show that Haringtonhippus francisci was a widespread and successful species throughout much of North America, living alongside populations of Equus but not interbreeding with them. In Canada’s North, Haringtonhippus survived until roughly 17,000 years ago, more than 19,000 years later than previously known from this region.

At the end of the last ice age, both horse groups became extinct in North America, along with other large animals like woolly mammoths and saber-toothed cats. Although Equus survived in Eurasia after the last ice age, eventually leading to domestic horses, the stilt-legged Haringtonhippus was an evolutionary dead end.

“We are very pleased to name this new horse genus after our friend and colleague Dick Harington. There is no other scientist who has had greater impact in the field of ice age paleontology in Canada than Dick,” said coauthor Grant Zazula, a Government of Yukon paleontologist. “Our research on fossils such as these horses would not be possible without Dick’s life-long dedication to working closely with the Klondike gold miners and local First Nations communities in Canada’s North.”

Coauthor Eric Scott, a paleontologist at California State University San Bernardino, said that morphologically, the fossils of Haringtonhippus are not all that different from those of Equus. “But the DNA tells a fascinatingly different story altogether,” he said. “That’s what is so impressive about these findings. It took getting down to the molecular level to discern this new genus.”

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Horse evolution, new study


This video says about itself:

7 August 2015

The “evolution of the horse” occurred over a period of 50 million years, transforming the small, dog-sized, forest-dwelling “Eohippus” into the modern horse. Paleozoologists have been able to piece together a more complete outline of the evolutionary lineage of the modern horse than of any other animal.

The horse belongs to the order Perissodactyla, the members of which all share hooved feet and an odd number of toes on each foot, as well as mobile upper lips and a similar tooth structure. This means that horses share a common ancestry with tapirs and rhinoceroses. The perissodactyls arose in the late Paleocene, less than 10 million years after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. This group of animals appears to have been originally specialized for life in tropical forests, but whereas tapirs and, to some extent, rhinoceroses, retained their jungle specializations, modern horses are adapted to life on drier land, in the much harsher climatic conditions of the steppes. Other species of “Equus” are adapted to a variety of intermediate conditions.

The early ancestors of the modern horse walked on several spread-out toes, an accommodation to life spent walking on the soft, moist grounds of primeval forests. As grass species began to appear and flourish, the equids’ diets shifted from foliage to grasses, leading to larger and more durable teeth. At the same time, as the steppes began to appear, the horse’s predecessors needed to be capable of greater speeds to outrun predators. This was attained through the lengthening of limbs and the lifting of some toes from the ground in such a way that the weight of the body was gradually placed on one of the longest toes, the third.

From Science News:

Horse evolution bucks evolutionary theory

Speciation events not accompanied by big changes in teeth and body size

BY RACHEL EHRENBERG, 2:00PM, FEBRUARY 9, 2017

A cautionary tale in evolutionary theory is coming straight from the horse’s mouth. When ancient horses diversified into new species, those bursts of evolution weren’t accompanied by drastic changes to horse teeth, as scientists have long thought.

A new evolutionary tree of horses reveals three periods when several new species emerged, scientists report in the Feb. 10 Science. The researchers found that changes in teeth morphology and body size didn’t change very much during these periods of rapid speciation.

“This knocks traditional notions that rapid diversification of new species comes with morphological diversification as well,” says paleontologist Bruce MacFadden of the University of Florida in Gainesville. “This is a very sophisticated and important paper.”

The emergence of several new species in a relatively short time is often accompanied by the evolution of special new traits. Classic notions of evolution say that these traits — such as longer teeth with extensive enamel — are adaptive, enabling an animal to succeed in a particular environment. In horses, the evolution of such teeth might permit a shift from browsing on leafy, shrubby trees to grazing on grasses in open spaces with windblown dust and grit.

“You can’t live on a grassland as a grazer and have short teeth,” says MacFadden, an expert in horse evolution. “You’ll wear your teeth down and that’s not a recipe for success as a species.”

Similarly, a big change in body size can indicate a move to a new environment. Animals that live in forests tend to be smaller and more solitary than the larger herd animals that live in open grasslands.

Paleontologist Juan Cantalapiedra and colleagues compiled decades of previous work to create an evolutionary tree of 138 horse species (seven of which exist today), spanning roughly 18 million years. The tree reveals three major branchings of new species: a North American burst between 15 million and 18 million years ago, and two bursts coinciding with dispersals into Eurasia about 11 million and 4.5 million years ago.

The researchers expected to see evidence of an “adaptive radiation,” major changes in teeth and body size that allowed the new horse species to succeed. But rates of body size evolution didn’t differ much in sections of the family tree with low and high speciation rates. And rates of change in tooth characteristics were actually lower in sections of the tree with fast speciation rates, the team reports.

“It’s very tempting to see some change in body size, for example, and say, ‘Oh, that’s adaptive radiation,’” says Cantalapiedra, of the Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin. “But that’s not what we see.”

Cantalapiedra and his collaborators speculate that during the periods of rapid speciation, the environment was so expansive and productive that there just wasn’t a lot of competition to drive the evolution of adaptive traits. Perhaps, for example, North American grasslands were so rich and dense that there was enough energy for various species to evolve without having to develop traits that gave them an edge.

That scenario might be special to horses, says MacFadden, but it might not. Similarly, classic adaptive radiation scenarios might be true in many cases, but as this work shows, not always.

Rabbit contacts horse, video


In this 19 October 2016 video by Saskia Kabel from the Netherlands, a rabbit tries to contact a horse.

Zebras’ mating season quarrel, video


This video says about itself:

Epic Zebra Fight For Mate – Africa – BBC

13 April 2016

A lone Grevy’s Zebra can go for three days without drinking in this dry land and he’s been waiting for months for female visitors to his territory.

Konik horses play fighting, video


This video shows konik horses play fighting.

Eef vd Bijl made this video at Plantage Willem III in Utrecht province in the Netherlands.