French president receives fascist fuehrer at palace


This video says about itself:

Le Pen’s National Front accused of backing Holocaust denier for office in Paris

15 March 2014

France’s far-right National Front party has placed a Holocaust denier on its list of candidates for the municipal elections in Paris. The candidate, Pierre Panet, has said he “shares the analysis” of Roger Garaudy, a convicted Holocaust denier but that he doesn’t elaborate on his views because it is illegal in France.

For decades, presidents of France did not receive Jean-Marie Le Pen, leader of the racist National Front party, at the presidential palace.

In 2007, ‘center right’ President Nicolas Sarkozy broke ranks in this with his predecessors, by receiving Jean-Marie Le Pen at the Elysée palace.

And now, President Hollande makes things worse, inviting Marine Le Pen, appointed by her father as his successor, to the Elysée. Hollande did not have the excuse for this that Ms Le Pen is a member of parliament; she is not.

By Alex Lantier in France:

Le Pen at the Elysée Presidential Palace

10 January 2015

French President François Hollande’s decision to invite Marine Le Pen, the leader of the neo-fascist National Front (FN), to the Elysée Presidential Palace to discuss the terrorist attack on Charlie Hebdo</em> marks a turning point in French politics with far-reaching consequences.

A party closely associated since its foundation in 1972 with the worst crimes of European fascism in the 20th century is being elevated to the status of a legitimate, even indispensable component of French political life.

Leaving the Elysée yesterday morning, Le Pen said that Hollande had promised to launch a national “debate” on Islamic fundamentalism. This presages an escalation of the campaign to vilify France’s five million Muslims. Already on Thursday, Le Pen called for reinstating the death penalty, which France abolished in 1981, in response to the Charlie Hebdo attack.

The right-wing Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) is also promoting the FN, pressing for it to join the “rally for national unity” called for Sunday by Hollande’s Socialist Party (PS) and the UMP. After UMP leader and former president Nicolas Sarkozy met with Hollande on Thursday, the UMP’s political committee echoed Le Pen’s demands that the FN be allowed to participate.

“It is a unanimous decision: it is unacceptable for the National Front to be excluded from a march for national unity,” declared Laurent Wauquiez, the general secretary of the UMP.

The implications of Wauquiez’s statements are staggering. For decades, the FN was treated as a pariah on the national stage by both the UMP and the PS. It was understood to be the descendant of the fascist Vichy regime, which ruled France in collaboration with Nazi Germany during World War II, and of the Secret Armed Organization (OAS), the most fanatical defenders of French colonial rule in Algeria. It was widely hated for its thuggish attacks on workers and students in France and its defense of criminal methods, including torture and terror bombings, in the 1954-1962 Algerian war.

The FN’s founder, Jean-Marie Le Pen, began his political career after World War II by selling the fascist Action Française’s newspaper and overseeing the torture of Algerian independence fighters as a paratroop lieutenant. He relied on a broad cadre of former Nazi and Vichy collaborationists inside the FN, including figures such as Roland Gaucher, a convicted collaborationist who served during World War II as the youth leader of Vichy Labor Minister Marcel Déat’s National Popular Rally.

Due to Le Pen’s apologetics for fascism and mass murder, including his trivialization of the Holocaust as a “detail” of history, the ruling elite initially elected not to include the FN in mainstream politics. …

The current turn to promoting the FN is a sign of a deep crisis of capitalist rule in Europe. Beset by economic slump, international conflicts and rising class tensions for which it sees no solution, the European bourgeoisie is turning toward fascistic methods of rule. It is seizing on the terrorist attack on Charlie Hebdo to legitimize the FN and fascism and proceed as far as possible with the erection of a police state.

The FN’s fortunes have skyrocketed particularly since the PS presidential election victory in 2012. In part, the FN benefited from the replacement of Jean-Marie Le Pen by his daughter Marine, whose studied silence on the crimes of fascism facilitated the media’s attempts to market her to the public. Above all, it has relied on the discrediting of the PS, with Hollande becoming France’s most unpopular president since World War II.

In a seamless transition from his conservative predecessor Nicolas Sarkozy, Hollande has adopted wholesale the austerity agenda of the European Union, devastating working-class living standards. He has also maintained Sarkozy’s alignment with the reckless NATO war drive, led by Washington, against Muslim countries across the Middle East and Africa.

France’s political equilibrium has been decisively shattered. The immigrant working class is totally alienated from the political establishment, opening the door for the most disoriented and backward sections of immigrant youth to be attracted to Al Qaeda.

On the other hand, broad sections of the French population and working class, enraged by the increasingly desperate social situation created by PS austerity measures, have concluded that Marine Le Pen is the best alternative available to them.

Under these conditions, the entire French ruling class has begun to play with Le Pen, much as the German bourgeoisie played with Adolf Hitler before Marshal Paul von Hindenburg handed power to Hitler in 1933. Leading strategists of the French bourgeoisie are coming to view violent conflict with France’s Muslim population as inevitable.

Journalist Eric Zemmour, who has extensive ties to far-right and pseudo-left circles, told Italy’s Corriere della Sera last month that a situation where there are “Muslims in the French people” will “lead us to chaos and civil war.” Asked if he proposed to deport millions of Muslims from France, Zemmour replied that this was “unrealistic” for now, but added, “History is surprising.”

Two days after terrorists struck Paris, Europe’s far-right and anti-immigrant parties jumped on the bandwagon yesterday to press home their divisive message that European Muslims are dangerous: here.

The two-day manhunt and military-police mobilization around Paris ended Friday afternoon in twin shootouts in which three Islamist gunmen and four hostages were killed: here.

Francois Hollande is not a popular president. No matter how hard the “socialist” leader tries to impress, there never seems to be a solid constituency that backs him. He attempted to mask his initial lack of experience in foreign affairs with a war in Mali, after his country enthusiastically took on Libya. While he succeeded at launching wars, he failed at managing their consequences as the latest attacks in Paris have demonstrated: here.

French President Hollande promotes the neo-fascist National Front: here.

Anti-Roma xenophobe Valls, France’s new Prime Minister


This video says about itself:

Leonarda: a symbol – French Press

17 Oct 2013

French papers focus on the exportation [sic; deportation] of a 15-year-old Roma girl who was seized by police while on a school trip. Critics say the Socialist government is acting exactly like its right-wing predecessor on the issue of immigration.

By Antoine Lerougetel and Alex Lantier in France:

Hollande names right-wing interior minister as new premier after defeat in French municipal elections

1 April 2014

After the defeat of his Socialist Party (PS) in Sunday’s municipal elections and the record victory of the neo-fascist National Front (FN), French President François Hollande reshuffled his cabinet, naming Interior Minister Manuel Valls as prime minister to replace Jean-Marc Ayrault.

The municipal elections, the first nationwide poll since Hollande’s election in 2012, were a broad rejection of Hollande’s record of social austerity policies and imperialist wars. The nomination of Valls is a signal that the PS will step up its attacks on the working class, while trying to maintain a limited political base on a law-and-order platform, implementing many of the FN’s racist, anti-immigrant policies.

As interior minister, Valls has spearheaded mass deportations of Roma and undocumented immigrants and stated that, in his opinion, the Roma as an ethnic group should collectively leave France. He has on this basis been promoted and featured by the media.

Speaking on television last night, Hollande said he had “personally” received the message sent by the electorate. He added, “It is time to pass today to a new stage. I have thus given Manuel Valls the mission of leading the government of France.” Hollande said that Valls would lead “a small team, a government of combat.”

Hollande also praised Ayrault for carrying out “reforms”—i.e., the tens of billions in business tax and social spending cuts that have helped make Hollande’s presidency the most unpopular since the office was created in 1958. He pledged further tax cuts and “a program of budget cuts.”

With a record-high abstention of 37.3 percent, the PS lost control of 155 city councils in towns of over 9,000 inhabitants, including many that had voted for social democrats for decades or even over a century. These included Toulouse, both Tourcoing and Roubaix in the Lille metropolitan area, Angers, Tours, Reims, Grenoble, and Limoges, which had had “left” mayors since 1912. The PS retained Paris and Lyon, but failed to retake either Marseille or Bordeaux.

“This first test for François Hollande was a first-rate catastrophe, the victory [of the PS in the last municipal elections] of 2008 has been completely erased,” commented Frédéric Dabi of the Ifop polling agency.

While Jean-François Copé of the right-wing Gaullist Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) saluted a “first great victory” of his party in local elections, the greatest victor in the election was Marine Le Pen’s FN. After a straight first-round win in the former PS stronghold of Hénin-Beaumont, with 50.3 percent of the vote, the FN ended up controlling 15 of the 259 towns of over 9,000 inhabitants in which it qualified for the second round—where previously it had none.

Having gone into the elections with only 80 municipal councilors, the FN now has over 1,200. FN mayors now run cities including Fréjus, Villers-Cotterêts, and the 7th sector of Marseille.

“We are clearly passing into a new stage,” said Marine Le Pen. “There is now a third great political force to be reckoned with in our country.”

The press has hailed the FN as having ended the “bipolarization” of French bourgeois politics between the Gaullists and the PS that emerged after the 1968 general strike. It is now widely expected that the FN will win a substantial victory in the upcoming European elections in May, possibly receiving the most votes of any party.

An Ipsos-Steria poll of voting intentions for the European elections gave the FN 22 percent, in front of the PS at 19 percent, and just 2 points behind the UMP. Previous polls put the FN ahead of the UMP, however.

Hollande’s nomination of Valls shows the utter bankruptcy of claims that voters can rely on supporting the PS or other bourgeois parties to halt the rise of the FN and the steady drift of French and European politics toward the far right. It can safely be predicted that Valls’ nomination, like the decision of Hollande’s right-wing predecessor, Nicolas Sarkozy, to make chauvinist and law-and-order appeals to the FN’s voting base, will only strengthen the FN.

One indication of the character of the policies Valls will pursue is the collection of reactionary views he put forward as a candidate in the PS’ primary campaign prior to the 2012 presidential elections, which Hollande ultimately won.

A figure often compared to Britain’s free-market Prime Minister Tony Blair, Valls denounced social programs, calling for the PS to oppose what he called “a society of state handouts.” Underscoring his attempts to burnish his right-wing credentials, he said his focus was “the means we should give to the judiciary, the struggle against crime, and, again, the immigration issue.” He has also called for lengthening the work week.

Significantly, Valls proposed that the PS abandon the fiction that it has any connection to socialism and cease calling itself “socialist.” He explained, “We must transform from top to bottom the PS’ functioning … [and] change the name, because the word socialism is itself obsolete; it refers to nineteenth century conceptions.”

The right-wing policies of Valls aim to impose the type of devastating austerity measures the European Union (EU) has imposed on Ireland, Spain and Greece.

In the run-up to the elections, there were widespread discussions of dissatisfaction in financial circles with Hollande for failing to quickly spell out his plans for tens of billions of euros in tax and spending cuts under the so-called Responsibility Pact he announced this winter.

Now, the Financial Times noted, Hollande is “under severe pressure from Brussels [the EU] to maintain pressure on public finances, having already been given two years’ grace to 2015 to meet the EU’s designated target of reducing the budget deficit to 3 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).” France’s budget deficit is still substantially over this target, at 4.3 percent, and its debt burden is already 93.5 percent of GDP.

As the administration of President François Hollande named the ministers in France’s new cabinet, incoming Prime Minister Manuel Valls pledged to intensify Hollande’s austerity measures against the working class: here.

The appointment of Manuel Valls as France’s prime minister on a pro-austerity, law-and-order platform exemplifies the rightward shift in European politics: here.

Enhanced by Zemanta

Austerity and militarism in France


This video is called Mali Mayhem: ‘French post-colonial ambition to spark African anger’.

By Alex Lantier in France:

French presidential address: A call for austerity and militarism

15 January 2014

French President François Hollande gave a three-hour press conference yesterday at the Elysée presidential palace, trying to halt the slide in support for his Socialist Party (PS) government.

The Hollande administration has been undermined by growing popular anger and disillusionment with its reactionary policies. It has become France’s most unpopular government since World War II, falling to 15 percent approval over unpopular wars overseas and rising unemployment. In upcoming municipal and European elections this year, it faces a rout and a possible first-place finish by the neo-fascist National Front (FN).

Before his press conference, the financial press called on Hollande to accelerate his austerity measures. The Economist magazine pressed Hollande to impose the type of cuts that have devastated Europe’s so-called “peripheral” countries—Greece, Ireland, and Spain. It complained, “Far from copying the deep structural reforms undertaken in peripheral countries, he has barely begun liberalizing labor and product markets or trimming France’s social-welfare spending, the highest in the OECD rich-country club.”

Hollande responded at his press conference yesterday by trying to rally support in the ruling class, pledging draconian social cuts justified with militarist and anti-immigrant rhetoric. It was a thoroughly scripted affair, from the gilded woodwork of the Elysée palace to the equally wooden questions of the invited journalists—to which Hollande replied with professions of belief in various free-market nostrums and the military power of French imperialism.

Stressing his “desire to cut public spending,” Hollande touted “supply-side” policies, like slashing corporate contributions to social spending, to cheapen labor and fatten profits for firms operating in France. He said, “The time has come to deal with France’s principal problem: production. We must produce more and better. We must therefore act on the supply side. …This does not contradict demand, in fact supply even creates demand.”

He added, “I am setting a new goal: by 2017, for companies and the self-employed, we must end family social payments, eliminating €30 billion in taxes.” These payments fund a subsidy of approximately €150 per child paid to each family in France with at least two children under 20, the centerpiece of a policy of maintaining a higher birth rate in France.

Hollande also called for more cuts to the RSA unemployment and social benefit, as part of a drive to slash corporate taxes by a total of €50 billion. He said that preparations would be made during the spring, and a law passed to this effect in the autumn.

Hollande said his austerity measures would be worked out in collaboration with the so-called “social partners,” i.e., the trade unions and employers federations. Praising the “Responsibility Pact” on social policy he is devising with them, he called it “one of the greatest pacts proposed to our country in decades, it involves all the social partners. My method is negotiation—it has proved its worth in discussions on youth contracts, pension cuts, and job training.”

Hollande justified his austerity policies with chauvinist and warmongering appeals, claiming that these would permit French imperialism to assert itself militarily on the world stage.

Boasting that he is “reformist, realistic, but above all patriotic,” Hollande said: “What are we? We are not simply a country which has had colonial possessions. We are a power that still has resources. … If this great country, this military capacity, these admirable soldiers do not have behind them an economy capable of creating the necessary dynamic, it is the impact of France that will be reduced.”

He boasted, “I will tell you a sort of secret: if it turned out that we had had to carry out strikes in Syria, we would have been able to do it.”

In a further appeal to right-wing sentiment, Hollande also indicated his support for Interior Minister Manuel Valls’ reactionary expulsion of Roma schoolgirl Leonarda Dibrani and her family last autumn—on which he declined to take a position at the time. He said, “On the Leonarda affair, the only question I asked myself was whether I should intervene. It appears the matter is solved, and no one has returned.”

It testifies to the bankruptcy of capitalism, despite the disastrous consequences of the wars and austerity policies launched by European imperialism, Hollande has nothing to offer but more of the same. The US-led intervention in Syria nearly led to a military confrontation with Iran and Russia that could have led to global war, and austerity policies in Greece and Spain have driven an economic collapse that threw most young workers out of work. Yet similar policies are still pursued by bourgeois “left” parties like the PS as models of success.

Though he did not spell it out, Hollande himself and the European ruling class are well aware that their chauvinist and militarist appeals are escalating nationalist tensions inside Europe and boosting neo-fascist groups such as the FN.

Calling for closer political and military ties with Germany, Hollande briefly acknowledged the rising conflicts between the major European powers: “There is rancor inside Europe, but I will not let the very idea of Europe tear itself apart.”

He also referred cryptically to the rise of the FN, calling for pro-business growth policies to stave off the rise of “populist” forces in French elections: “We must act fast, otherwise it will be the populists—a name which in fact does not have meaning, let us say the extremists, the racists, who will benefit.”

In fact, the principal factors driving the rise of the FN and the tensions inside Europe are the capitalist collapse and the type of reactionary initiatives Hollande made in his address.

Hollande’s state visit to Washington: France embraces global neo-colonialist war: here.

Franco-German reform plan calls for deep social cuts, wage freeze in France: here.

As it drafts its revised military strategy, France’s Socialist Party government (PS) is preparing a major military escalation. The government recently convened a Defense Council to review the military budget, escalate overseas military operations and permanently maintain troops deployed across France after the mass Charlie Hebdo shooting in January: here.

France to spend billions on military rearmament program: here.

FRANCE became the latest state to disregard international law by bombing Islamic State (Isis) targets in Syria yesterday without consultation with the Damascus government: here.

Britain: Osborne demands smash Welfare States throughout the EU: here.

Enhanced by Zemanta

French president Hollande acknowledges 1961 massacre of Algerians


This is a French video on the 1961 massacre of Algerians. It says about itself:

Commemoration and demonstration for the victims of the massacre of Algerians in Paris on the 17th of October 1961.

By Antoine Lerougetel and Alex Lantier in France:

French president Hollande acknowledges 1961 massacre of Algerians in Paris

29 October 2012

On the 51st anniversary of the police massacre of hundreds of unarmed Algerian protesters in Paris, French Socialist Party (PS) president François Hollande offered the first official recognition by the French government that the massacre actually occurred.

His brief communiqué stated: “On October 17, 1961, Algerians who were demonstrating for the right to independence were killed in an act of bloody repression. The Republic recognizes lucidly these facts. Fifty-one years after the tragedy, I pay tribute to the memory of the victims.”

The massacre took place during Algeria’s war for independence against France, when the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) called a peaceful protest in Paris against a curfew for “Muslim Algerians” imposed by then-President Charles de Gaulle. Some 30,000 Algerians marched. They were attacked by police under the orders of Paris prefect Maurice Papon, a former official in France’s fascist Vichy regime who played a major role in the deportation of Jews to Nazi Germany during World War II.

Large numbers of Algerian demonstrators, who had come to a peaceful protest with their entire families, were murdered–shot, drowned in the Seine River, or beaten to death. The exact number of victims is unknown, as police archives have not been made public, a key demand of victims’ relatives and survivors of the massacre. Historian Jean-Luc Einodi, who wrote La Bataille de Paris (The Battle of Paris) about the massacre, estimates the death toll at 250, though Papon’s absurd tally of 3 dead and 64 wounded still stands as the French state’s official toll. (French filmmaker Alain Tasma made a moving film in 2005, Nuit noire (October 17, 1961), about the incident.)

Police arrested 11,538 demonstrators and detained them in locations throughout Paris, including the Vél D’Hiv cycling stadium–where, 19 years before, Paris police under the orders of René Bousquet had detained thousands of Jews before sending them to Nazi death camps.

President Francois Hollande has acknowledged the brutality of France’s colonisation of Algeria, but stopped short of a full apology: here.

French disengament from NATO?


Sarkozy and NATO, cartoon

Reuters reports:

Hollande orders French NATO command seat review

PARIS, July 18 – French President Francois Hollande has asked former foreign minister Hubert Vedrine to review France’s membership of NATO’s integrated military command, his office said on Wednesday, echoing unease about its place in the alliance’s inner circle.

Hollande has in the past expressed reservations about France’s 2009 return to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s integrated command, a move approved by his conservative predecessor Nicolas Sarkozy, who was one of the most pro-American presidents France has had in decades.

Hollande also asked fellow Socialist Vedrine, who opposed France’s return to NATO’s inner circle, to review France’s relationship with the United States over the next decade.

Vedrine is to report back by the end of October.

General Charles de Gaulle withdrew French forces from NATO’s command in 1966 at the height of the Cold War and forced the alliance’s headquarters to relocate from Paris and Fontainebleau the following year in protest at what he saw as U.S. hegemony in Europe.

(Reporting by Leigh Thomas; Editing by Andrew Osborn)

Timidness over an escalating manufacturing jobs crisis at home and agreements reached at series of EU summits ostensibly designed to tackle the eurozone’s debt and banking crisis has meant Hollande now stands accused of backtracking on key election promises: here.

New French president says out of Afghanistan


This video from the USA, about an earlier peace demonstration, is called U.S./NATO Out of Afghanistan NOW! – CHICAGO 10/8/2011.

By Max J. Rosenthal in the USA:

Francois Hollande, French President-Elect, Confirms Afghanistan Exit In 2012

05/07/2012 4:56 pm Updated: 05/07/2012 4:58 pm

After his election to the French presidency on Sunday, Francois Hollande wasted no time in following through on one of his highest-profile campaign pledges.

Hollande‘s communications director, Manuel Valls, confirmed to the Telegraph on Monday that France will “announce the withdrawal of its forces from Afghanistan between now and the end of the year.” The announcement will take place at the NATO summit being held in Chicago on May 20 and 21.

It is to be hoped that the other NATO politicians in Chicago will follow France‘s good example. Stimulated to do so by lots of pro-peace demonstrators in the streets of Chicago, whose free speech rights should not be destroyed by police violence.

Members of the International Security Assistance Force, the NATO-led coalition in Afghanistan, agreed in 2010 to end their combat role at the end of 2014 while slowly transferring control of sections of the country to Afghan security forces. Hollande, however, pledged a much more rapid withdrawal than envisioned by NATO during his run against outgoing President Nicolas Sarkozy.

Jean-Yves Le Drian, a foreign policy advisor to Hollande and potential defense minister, told Reuters last month that “French combat troops had no business in Afghanistan now and a pullout should be executed within eight months.”

France had 3,308 soldiers deployed in Afghanistan as of April 12, 2012, making it the fifth-largest contributor to the war effort. While NATO has attempted to downplay past announcements of faster withdrawals by ISAF members, including the United States, the loss of French troops so early in the transition process could signal serious difficulties for the coalition.

President Barack Obama already had invited Hollande to meet at the White House before the NATO summit on “a range of shared economic and security challenges.” The Telegraph claims that Obama is “likely to appeal to Mr Hollande to remain in Afghanistan” at the meeting.

New French president to formally announce Afghanistan withdrawal: here.

US Republicans wary of socialist win in France: here.

Sarkozy, bye bye!


This music video is called BYE BYE NICOLAS SARKOZY.

The polling stations in France are closed now.

According to French daily Le Monde tonight, French Rightist President Nicolas Sarkozy lost today’s presidential elections.

François Hollande, the Socialist party candidate, had 51,9% of the exit poll votes, and is the new president.

Good riddance to bad rubbish. One may hope that for once in his life, Sarkozy will keep a promise and get out of all politics.

Sarkozy, bye bye?


Sarkozy before and after French presidential elections, cartoon

By Alex Lantier in France:

Socialist Party candidate Hollande, Sarkozy advance in French presidential elections

23 April 2012

Socialist Party (PS) candidate François Hollande and incumbent president Nicolas Sarkozy received the highest vote totals in Sunday’s first round of the French presidential elections, advancing to the second round to be held on May 6.

Hollande won an estimated 28 percent of the vote, with Sarkozy following at 27 percent. Neo-fascist candidate Marine Le Pen’s score of 19 percent surpassed poll estimates, as well as the 16.8 percent score of her father Jean-Marie Le Pen in the 2002 elections. Two other candidates won significant scores: Left Front candidate Jean-Luc Mélenchon at 11 percent—down from previous estimates of 14 to 15 percent—and the Democratic Movement’s (MoDem) François Bayrou, a right-wing “centrist” candidate, at 9 percent.

Europe-Ecology-the Greens (EELV) candidate Eva Joly won 2 percent, New Anti-capitalist Party (NPA) candidate Philippe Poutou won 1 percent and Workers Struggle (LO) candidate Nathalie Arthaud won 0.6 percent of the vote.

Hollande is currently expected to win handily in a match-up with Sarkozy, with polls showing him winning at least 56 percent of the vote. Sarkozy emerges weakened from the vote, as the first incumbent president of France’s Fifth Republic not to win the first round of the presidential elections.

At 80 percent. voter participation was larger than expected. This reflected broad popular hostility to Sarkozy’s policies of social austerity and war in the Middle East, and the sense that the French population faces a deep social and international crisis. This drove voters to the polls despite what was widely described as a lackluster campaign, where voters could not clearly distinguish between the candidates. Some 38 percent of voters indicated before the elections that they did not firmly support any candidate, and many voters cast ballots by default.

Yesterday’s result sets the stage for a race between two pro-war, pro-austerity candidates preparing deep attacks on the working class and for explosive class struggles in the coming presidential term. Hollande is committed to slashing over €115 billion ($US152 billion) in budget deficits and has supported French imperialism’s wars in Libya and Syria.

Why no one should overlook the extremely big limits in the ways in which Hollande would be an improvement on Sarkozy; still it would be great to drive the corrupt racist warmonger anti-worker politician Sarkozy out of the presidential palace. And out of politics altogether (which Sarkozy has promised if he would lose the presidency. It is to be hoped that will become the only promise which Sarkozy has ever kept).

Second round of the presidential elections: here.

President Nicolas Sarkozy is desperate to win the votes of the 6.5 million people who voted for the third placed candidate, the neo-fascist Marine Le Pen: here.

Tunisia: From 2007 to 2012 – French Vote in Nation Continues to Favor the Socialist Party Candidate: here.

French sick of Sarkozy: here.

WSWS speaks to Tamil immigrants and refugees in France: here.