Finnish salmon sex life, new research


This video from Finland is called Small salmon in Teno river (Kuusiniemenväylä) 2016.

From the University of Helsinki in Finland:

Size matters in the sex life of salmon

June 23, 2020

Summary: For Atlantic salmon, size matters when it comes to love. Larger males and females that may spend up to four years at sea produce many more babies, but they are very rare compared to younger fish.

Every summer, tens of thousands of Atlantic salmon migrate from the Barents Sea to the Teno River, Finland, to spawn in the streams where they were born. This journey is a feat of endurance: salmon stop feeding and must navigate fast-flowing water, leap over obstacles, and avoid predators, hooks, and fishing nets to arrive at their spawning grounds.

The marathon doesn’t stop there though: once they arrive at their spawning grounds, they must fight for the possibility to mate with members of the opposite sex. Who are the winners of this evolutionary competition? It turns out that the largest fish produce the most offspring, but there are far fewer of these fish on the spawning ground battling for reproductive success than their younger — and smaller — competitors, according to researchers at the University of Helsinki and the Natural Resources Institute Finland.

The study, recently published in the scientific journal Molecular Ecology, is part of a long-term monitoring program. A small piece of fin tissue was removed for genetic fingerprinting of more than 5000 adults and juveniles before they were released back into the wild. Adults were also fitted with a unique identification tag after a few scales were carefully sampled. The scales are particularly valuable, as they record annual growth cycles, much like tree rings.

“Great care was taken to not harm the fish,” explains Dr. Kenyon Mobley, lead author of the article. “In fact, we have recaptured adults returning to spawn several years later and juveniles returning to spawn as adults.”

Larger salmon have more offspring

Most salmon in Teno River spend between one and four years at sea before migrating back to breed. The more time salmon spend at sea, the larger they grow. Females generally take between 2-3 years to mature, but most males return after just one year at sea.

Mobley’s study showed that for every year spent at sea, females gain over 4 kilograms of body weight and produce 60% more offspring. Males, on the other hand, gain nearly 5 kilograms of body weight and produce 200% more offspring for every year they spend at sea.

However, spending more time at sea comes with a significant cost. Very few of these older larger fish return to spawn. “This is presumably because spending more time at sea exposes fish longer to predators, fishing, and diseases, and thus a higher risk of death before having a chance to spawn,” explains Mobley.

“Knowing the reproductive contributions of different sized fish in this river section can help us to develop more accurate models of offspring production. These are needed for developing Teno salmon management guidelines,” says Professor Jaakko Erkinaro from Natural Resources Institute Finland. “It also helps our ongoing research aimed at predicting how many large adults may survive at sea to return to spawn,” Mobley adds.

Larger salmon have more mating partners

Like most animals in nature, salmon are not monogamous and can have up to eight mating partners, the study shows. Having more mating partners ensures successful fertilization of eggs and passing on their genes to the next generation.

Nearly all females captured in the study produced offspring, mating on average with more than two males, and gained 35% more mates for each year they spent at sea. Males have, on average, less than one mate, indicating that many males are excluded from mating presumably through strong competition by bigger males. For each year spent at sea, males gain 60% more mates. This means that larger salmon, in particular males, have a distinct advantage when it comes to finding mates.

Where are the females?

In the study population, females are a rare commodity. There are up to seven males for every female at the spawning ground near the entrance of the Utsjoki River. This pattern is consistent across all years of the study. Having a high number of males likely increases fights among males for opportunities to mate with the few available females. Why so few females return to this particular site remains a mystery, as other locations in the Teno River have a more balanced mix of males and females.

Early life-history affects female reproduction

Prior to entering the sea, juvenile salmon usually spend between 3-5 years in freshwater. The researchers were surprised to find that the longer the females stay in freshwater, the fewer years they spend at sea, and return to spawn at a much smaller size. Because these females are smaller, they have fewer eggs and produce less offspring. Males, on the other hand, do not seem to be affected by spending more time in freshwater.

“These results show how overlooked aspects of salmon life-history are important to the long-term conservation of these fish,” said Mobley.

What Finnish damselflies eat, new research


This 2018 video from Ferguson, Missouri in the USA is called Damselflies Mating and Laying Eggs.

From the University of Turku in Finland:

Dragonflies are efficient predators

They consume hundreds of thousands of insects in a small area

March 3, 2020

A study led by the University of Turku, Finland, has found that small, fiercely predatory damselflies catch and eat hundreds of thousands of insects during a single summer — in an area surrounding just a single pond. In terms of weight, this equates to a total prey mass of just under a kilo. Dragonflies mostly catch different kinds of midges, but also large numbers of other insects.

Who keeps numbers of insects in check during the summer? This has been debated for some time, but a clear answer has remained elusive, as it has been difficult to monitor the numbers consumed by different insect predators. A new study now sheds light on the role of dragonflies that occur in large numbers.

Even in just a small area, populations of matchstick-sized damselflies that whiz around, consume hundreds and thousands of insects. Although the numbers of prey species individuals hatching in the area is as much as one hundred times the quantities being consumed by the damselflies, the quantity consumed is nevertheless significant because there are many other predators also preying on the same prey species.

The results of the novel study were obtained by combining multiple scientific methods. The prey species of the dragonflies and their relative quantities were assessed by examining prey DNA extracted from the faeces of damselflies, using a method known as metabarcoding. Population estimates of dragonflies were also obtained.

Chironomids are damselflies’ favourite food

Dragonflies are among the apex predators of the insect world and are considered to be responsible for regulating the numbers of many other insect species. During the period studied, the insect species consumed the most by the damselflies were different chironomids.

– In the 12-hectare area we studied, the catch mass for the four species of dragonflies was about 900 grams, equivalent to about 700,000 medium-sized midges. This equated to around 1% of the total mass of the midge populations in the area. This amount should not, however, be disregarded, as damselflies are by no means the only predators of midges and other insects. The area we are studying has an enormous number of other predators, including twenty other species of dragonfly, as well as birds and bats, explains Docent of Molecular Ecology Eero Vesterinen from the Biodiversity Unit of the University of Turku, who was responsible for the project’s DNA analyses.

We investigated the numbers of dragonflies by marking them with a series of numbers on their wings, releasing them and then catching them again. By comparing the numbers of marked and unmarked dragonflies caught, we were able to estimate the total number of individuals in the area. The numbers of insects consumed, meanwhile, were estimated by covering certain areas with tent-like hatching traps and counting how many insects accumulated in them over a particular surface area, explains Senior Researcher Kari Kaunisto from the Biodiversity Unit of the University of Turku, who led the study.

Dragonflies have always fascinated people, as they are impressive insects and effective predators. Dragonflies are also particularly at risk because they are apex predators in natural ecosystems.

– In this study, we focused on four small but locally abundant damselfly species from among the 62 dragonfly species found in Finland, Vesterinen adds.

The species studied were the common blue damselfly (Enallagma cyathigerum), the northern damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum), the Irish damselfly (Coenagrion lunulatum), and the variable damselfly (Coenagrion pulchellum).

New information on natural food web functions

Understanding the functioning of the food webs is particularly important now, when natural diversity is diminishing at an accelerating rate.

– For the first time, our study examined the intensity of insect hunting in relation to the total number of insects being preyed on. The collapse of insect populations reduces the amount of food available to dragonflies, but it has not been possible to assess the impacts of predation by dragonflies without this accurate information on food chains, says Kaunisto.

Professor Tomas Roslin from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, who participated in the study, is really excited about the new approach and the interesting results of the study.

– By combining several methods, the research reveals the overall impact of predation in nature. We succeeded in revealing both the wide range of insects preyed on by dragonflies and the significance of predation in relation to both individual prey species as well as the community as a whole, Roslin exclaims.

Finnish dippers fly through waterfall


This 17 November 2019 video from northern Finland says about itself:

White-throated dippers “fly” through water to find food and nest.

I saw these dippers in northern Finland. I saw how they dived in icy water and dealt with ice. But then I did not see them flying through a waterfall, like in this video.

Flounders in the Gulf of Finland


This August 2017 video says about itself:

European flounder let back into the sea

This washed ashore youngster was placed back in the Baltic sea.

From the University of Helsinki in Finland:

Flounders in the Gulf of Finland: Decline caused by the near disappearance of one species

January 25, 2019

Over the past 40 years, there has been a dramatic decline in fishery landings of an iconic Baltic Sea fish: the flounder. In the 1980s, the landings of the flounder fishery in the Gulf of Finland dropped by 90 per cent, a trend that was later confirmed by fishery-independent surveys.

There are two cryptic (i.e. morphologically very similar) species of flounder in the Baltic Sea: the European flounder (Platichthys flesus), which spawn pelagic eggs in high-salinity offshore basins, and the recently described Baltic flounder (Platichthys solemdali), the only endemic fish of the Baltic Sea.

The latter lays demersal eggs and is well adapted to the low salinities of the coastal waters of the Gulf of Finland and northern Baltic Proper. It was long assumed that only the demersal-spawning species occurs in the Gulf of Finland, where salinity is too low for P. flesus’s reproduction.

Researchers from the University of Helsinki developed a simple genetic test to distinguish the two species. By analyzing the DNA from flounders’ ear bones collected over the past four decades, they discovered that European flounders were in fact once the most abundant species in the Gulf of Finland. However, they have almost completely disappeared.

“We discovered that the decline in fishery landings closely mirrors in time the near-complete disappearance of the pelagic-spawning European flounder — a species that was not supposed to occur here. This species — not the Baltic flounder — dominated local assemblages until three decades ago, but has since disappeared as a result of worsening environmental conditions,” says researcher Paolo Momigliano from the University of Helsinki.

European flounders cannot reproduce in the Gulf of Finland; their northernmost spawning ground is east of Gotland, in the eastern Gotland Basin. However, larvae and juveniles can be transported to the Gulf of Finland by deep water currents.

Eutrophication and climate change have contributed to the worsening of environmental conditions in the eastern Gotland Basin. This, in turn, has likely greatly reduced the supply of larvae to the Gulf of Finland, explaining the near-complete disappearance of European flounders from the Finnish coast.

Revealing the contribution of each species to flounder stocks is essential for the appropriate management of this marine resource. The test developed by the authors also provides the means to monitor the contribution of each species to the local flounder assemblages in real-time, and for the first time will allow estimations of demographic changes, resilience to climate change and exploitation, as well as each species’ response to management.

“But perhaps more importantly, our study demonstrates that cryptic species could become locally extinct before we even notice their presence,” Momigliano points out.

DNA was extracted from 480 otoliths (ear bones), sampled from a collection containing over 29 000 flounder otoliths. These were collected annually from 1975 to 2011 as part of the routine sampling conducted by the Finnish Natural Resources Institute and its predecessor, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute.

Religious homophobia in Finland


This 1 March 2017 video is called Gay Marriage Legalized in Finland!

From Yle.fi in Finland:

23.12.2018 14:42

Prof slams Lutheran church over reprimands for gay weddings

So far Finland’s Lutheran Evangelical Church has reprimanded at least six clerics for officiating at gay weddings.

Finland’s Evangelical Lutheran Church has taken to issuing warnings to priests who officiate at gay weddings. The last such case came to light last Monday, when a priest from Mikkeli in southeast Finland received a caution from the diocese for marrying a same-sex couple.

So far this year the church has reprimanded six clerics for officiating at gay weddings. Last year the Helsinki diocese also issued a reprimand to priest Kai Sadinmaa for the practice. His was considered the first case in which a priest was sanctioned for administering marriage vows to a same-sex couple.

The church has said that the priests in question have violated church rulings and guidelines. However from a legal perspective the issue is not as clear. Priests who officiate at weddings are seen as performing official duties and in such cases must comply with Finnish law.

In Finland, same-sex marriage has been legal since 1 March 2017. “Priests act appropriately when they use their official powers to marry same-sex couples,” said Helsinki University civil law emeritus professor Urpo Kangas.

Kangas noted that marriage has a legal status and added that the current cases turn on a clash between secular and religious views.

Bishop: Priest committed official misconduct

Head of the Mikkeli diocese, Bishop Seppo Häkkinen said that priests in Finland’s Lutheran Evangelical Church have neither the right nor the opportunity to officiate at wedding ceremonies for gay couples.

“If a priest acts in violation with the given rules, then he has committed dereliction of duty. In such cases, the diocese must intervene,” Häkkinen observed.

However legal scholar Kangas disagreed. “That statement is not accurate. A priest’s right to marry is not based on church law or regulations, but on marriage laws,” he declared.

Kangas added that any employer has the right to caution an employee, but not necessarily in matters that which also relate to matters of conscience.

“It is entirely open to interpretation whether or not a priest commits official misconduct for marrying two people with the same gender,” Kangas continued.

However Bishop Häkkinen stressed that in the view of the diocese, issuing a reprimand to errant clerics is not a violation of the law.

“On the contrary. We have observed the regulations of church law that bind our diocese council.”

Finnish app saves reindeer lives


This September 2017 video says about itself:

Porokello – The Reindeer bell: Reindeer app made in Finland

Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment is developing in cooperation with e.g. Finnish Transport Agency, Reindeer herder’s association in Finland, Paikkatieto Online Oy, V-Traffic, HERE and Milliemallie a service for road users “Porokello” to reduce reindeer accidents on the roads.

From Yle.fi in Finland:

26.12.2018 14:30

Watch: Reindeer alert app makes Lapland roads safer for drivers

Technology is helping motorists to avoid reindeer, one of the biggest causes of road accidents in Lapland.

“I once hit six reindeer all at the same time,” truck driver Tuomas Juopperi told Yle News. “It was dark and slippery.”

“And they all died,” he added as he barrelled along open expanses of road last autumn.

There are over 200,000 reindeer in Lapland – almost as many as there are people – and they cause around 4,000 traffic accidents in the region every year.

Now, a project funded by the Finnish Transport Agency is using an app to try to reduce the number of reindeer-related accidents on Lapland’s roads.

The new reindeer alert app, Porokello, uses mobile phone and satellite navigation location services to warn users of reindeer on the road.

Warnings are uploaded by a network of drivers – usually bus or truck drivers – who can press a button to place a location marker on the map when they see a reindeer while driving.

The marker, which remains in place for 30 minutes, will trigger a warning in the app for other Porokello users as they approach the location.

Lapland is reindeer territory

“There are a lot of reindeer in Lapland, and they are half wild, so they can basically go anywhere they want,” said Porokello driver and land surveyor Tommi Uusimäki.

“I see it as a small favour to other drivers that if I see the reindeer, I can just press a button, and maybe it will help them to drive safer,” he added.

The Porokello project is run by the Lapland Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment or ‘Ely-keskus’, and has received support from the Finnish Reindeer Herders’ Association.

“Some reindeer herders have the application,” explained app developer Ahti Lahtela. “I listened to drivers and they were happy it’s so simple to use. It doesn’t take your attention very much when you’re driving.”

Porokello project manager, Henna Nurminen, told Yle News that the project has had a positive impact in the region. “This year it looks as if our work is working, the [number of] reindeer accidents is quite low at this time.”

“Reindeer currently cause about 4,000 accidents a year. Our goal is to get to 2,000,” she noted.

Porokello was publicly launched in September 2017, and Nurminen claimed it has between 500-1,000 daily users.

This past autumn, there were 2,952 accidents involving reindeer in Lapland compared to 4,133 in 2017, according to figures provided by Nurminen.

Finnish protests before Trump-Putin summit


This video from Finland is called Helsinki Protests Ahead Of Trump-Putin Summit.

15 Juy 2018 Helsinki demonstrators, photo REUTERS/Leonhard Foeger

Trump vs. the Democrats: Two reactionary factions fight over foreign policy. 16 July 2018. Monday’s scheduled meeting between US President Donald Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin has been preceded by a massive barrage of propaganda from the Democrats, their allied media outlets and the US intelligence agencies, demanding that Trump intensify military pressure on Russia: here.

US PRESIDENT Trump and Russian President Putin held a historic meeting in Finland yesterday in which they talked about joint cooperation with Israel in dealing with Syria: here.

Who’s Thrilled With The Helsinki Summit, Besides Russia? Israel. Read more here.

By Bill Van Auken in the USA, 17 July 2018:

No sooner had the US and Russian presidents finished their joint press conference than CNN’s anchor in Helsinki, Anderson Cooper, an heir to the Vanderbilt fortune who interned with the CIA before going into television news, announced to his viewers that they had been “watching the most disgraceful conduct by an American president…that I have ever seen.”

”The most disgraceful conduct by an American president”? That’s really saying something!

More disgraceful than George W. Bush’s launching of a war of aggression against Iraq based on lies, which claimed more than a million lives? More disgraceful than Barack Obama’s drone assassination campaign that murdered thousands? More disgraceful than Trump’s own savage war on immigrants, in which the deliberate torture of children has become a weapon?

Finns demonstrate massively against murderous neo-nazis


Massive anti-nazi demonstration, Helsinki, Finland, 24 September 2016, photo Roni Rekomaa/Leht. ikuva via AP

From Associated Press:

Finns Say “Enough is Enough” Over Neo-Nazism

People demonstrate against racism and fascism in Helsinki, Finland Saturday, Sept. 24, 2016, after a man, who took exception to a neo-Nazi demonstration in central Helsinki on September 10th, died a week after he was assaulted.

Tens of thousands of people are demonstrating across Finland under the slogan “Enough is enough” following the death of a man who reportedly spit in front of neo-Nazis holding a rally in Helsinki.

The demonstration snaked through the Finnish capital to the sound of whistles on Saturday as participants and spectators held green balloons and signs reading “No to Nazism.”

Similar demonstrations were staged in other Finnish cities.

A 28-year-old man died six days after hitting his head on the ground during a Sept. 10 rally by of members of the Finnish Resistance Movement. A 26-year-old suspect is being held on suspicion of homicide and assault.

This music video says about itself:

Satirical Anti-Nazi Songs

16 July 2016

0:00 Hitler Has Only Got One Ball [United Kingdom]
0:36 Der Fuehrer’s Face [United States]
3:15 Гадам нет пощады (No Mercy for the Scum) [Soviet Union]
6:38 La Complainte des Nazis (The Lament of the Nazis) [French Resistance]
9:29 Der Marsch Ins Dritte Reich (The March into the Third Reich) [German Resistance]

Finnish neonazis murder anti-fascist, people protest


This video from Canada says about itself:

The Truth about the Soldiers of Odin (Preview)

29 August 2016

(Coming Soon!) The Soldiers of Odin (SOO) began in Finland as a vigilante group ostensibly formed to protect women from sexual harassment and assault by the country’s immigrant and minority population (which leaves us wondering if they are as concerned about harassment and assaults against women by the majority native European population, but we digress). Though they claim not to be racist, the founder of the SOO has links to the far-right Finnish Resistance Movement as well as a conviction for a racially motivated assault.

The neonazi Soldiers of Odin are active in various countries, including Canada. Like the SVL, the Finnish Resistance Movement, SOO founder Mika Ranta’s other fascist gang, is also active in other countries, under the Nordic Resistance Movement label.

From the Varis site in Finland:

The Nazist Finnish Resistance Movement (FRM, in finnish Suomen Vastarintaliike, SVL) killed a passer-by during their street event on the 10th of September, near Helsinki Railway Station. The next day FRM published on their website a picture and a video featuring the person they assaulted, along with a text glorifying their violence. According to the victim’s family, the young man whom FRM assaulted died in hospital last night, September 16th at 10 PM, from the serious injuries he received. Anti-fascist network Varis takes part in the grief of his family and friends.

Spanish poster, commemorating Jim Joonas Jim Joonas Karttunen, murdered by Finnish nazis

From the blog For what we are:

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Finland: nazis murder Jim Joonas Karttunen

Nazis of the SVL organization attacked and severely injured antifascist activist Jim Joonas Karttunen on September 10th. … he died of his injuries at hospital.

Joonas was protesting the presence of a SVL propaganda stand near the train station of Helsinki when he was brutally attacked by the Nazis, who beat him brutally on the ground, causing him a major concussion which eventually killed him.

Days later the Nazi organization uploaded a video to YouTube claiming responsibility and stating that “counter-protesters must be disciplined“.

It is not the first time that the SVL is involved in criminal attacks: in 2013 they already stabbed a protester in Jyväskylä. In that occasion one of the attackers was found [to have] a pen-drive with detailed information about more than 300 “political enemies”, including antifascists, Greens, Social Democrats, Conservatives and Jewish personalities.

In 2011, Anonymous revealed the details of many SVL militants and sympathizers, including a prominent member of the True Finns party (xenophobic fascistoids, currently partner in the Finnish government), Juho Eerola, who eventually resigned. This implies that the SVL, part of a wider Nordic and Nordicist network, led by the Swedish [NRM], are not a mere marginal and minor group but actually a violent shock squad satellite of the other fascists, who pretend to be a “normal” party, just like Le Pen in France.

Beware because all those fascists … are gaining positions in most of Europe very dangerously and we can too easily slide into a new version of 1933 in no time.

Thanks Jim for fighting against fascism to the very last of your forces. If we are to overcome this horrible threat, it won’t be for those who sit in the sidelines watching but for true heroes like you. Let Mother Earth be gentle on you as you were to Her.

See also (in Spanish) here.

Translated from Dutch NOS TV:

Finns take to the streets against neo-Nazis

Today, 14:07

In Finland today there are massive demonstrations in various places against neo-Nazis. Tens of thousands of Finns take to the streets to express their disgust. They carry banners with anti-Nazi slogans.

The cause of the mass protest was the murder of a 28-year-old man, who openly showed his disdain and disgust for neo-Nazis. …

[An SVL nazi], jointly with some kindred spirits, beat the anti-fascist half-dead. Six days later he [Jim Joonas Karttunen] succumbed to his injuries.

Arrest

The Finnish police have arrested a 26-year-old man on suspicion of manslaughter. The identity of this man is still unknown.