Pregnant tyrannosaur discovered?

This video says about itself

An excerpt from the “Clash of the Dinosaurs” series episode “Extreme Survivors” featuring the mighty TYRANNOSAURUS REX produced by Discovery Channel in 2009.

By Ed Mazza in the USA:

Science Answers An Age-Old Question: How Can You Spot A Pregnant T. rex?

“We know next to nothing about sex-linked traits in extinct dinosaurs.”

03/16/2016 05:31 am ET

Scientists have discovered what they believe is a pregnant Tyrannosaurus rex — and it might even still contain dino DNA.

Tests conducted on the fossilized femur of a 68-million-year-old T. rex revealed the presence of medullary bone, or a type of bone that forms only in female birds before or during egg-laying, according to a news release from North Carolina State University.

“It’s a dirty secret, but we know next to nothing about sex-linked traits in extinct dinosaurs,” Lindsay Zanno, assistant research professor of biological sciences at the university and co-author of the new study, said in the release.

“Dinosaurs weren’t shy about sexual signaling, all those bells and whistles, horns, crests, and frills, and yet we just haven’t had a reliable way to tell males from females,” Zanno said. “Just being able to identify a dinosaur definitively as a female opens up a whole new world of possibilities.”

N.C. state paleontologist Mary Schweitzer spotted what she believed to be the medullary bone in the T. rex sample in 2005.

“All the evidence we had at the time pointed to this tissue being medullary bone,” Schweitzer, who is lead author of the new study, said in the release. “But there are some bone diseases that occur in birds, like osteopetrosis, that can mimic the appearance of medullary bone under the microscope. So to be sure we needed to do chemical analysis of the tissue.”

The new study focused on that analysis, comparing the dino bones to the medullary tissue of ostriches and chickens.

It was a match.

One test looked for a substance called keratan sulfate, which is found in medullary bone but not other types of bone.

Scientists thought this substance might not survive the passage of millions of years, but it turns out it did.

And if that can still be detected, there may be hope that a sample of dino DNA is still waiting to be found.

“Yes, it’s possible,” Lindsay Zanno told Discovery News. “We have some evidence that fragments of DNA may be preserved in dinosaur fossils, but this remains to be tested further.”

Tyrannosaur relative, new discovery

This video says about itself:

Scientists Dicover Small T. Rex Ancestor

14 March 2016

Scientists announced Monday they have discovered a new, smaller ancestor to the T. rex. The Timurlengia euotica was roughly the size of a horse and posessed many of the same features as the T. rex.

By Jacqueline Howard, Senior Science Editor, The Huffington Post in the USA:

Meet T. Rex’s Fierce, Fleet-Footed Relative

The newly discovered species is being called a missing link.

03/14/2016 03:00 pm ET

Scientists have discovered a nimble, meat-eating dinosaur with blade-like teeth that fills an important gap in Tyrannosaurus rex’s family tree.

The newly named creature, Timurlengia euotica, sheds light on how a family of dinosaurs called tyrannosaurs advanced from being small predators to clever giants at the top of the food chain — within the span of about 70 million years.

The long-legged, 600-pound T. euotica lived some 90 million years ago. It was around this time that tyrannosaurs developed impressive cognitive abilities and sharp senses, such as the ability to detect low-frequency sounds, according to a study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Soon after, tyrannosaurs began to get bigger. By the late Cretaceous period, massive tyrannosaur species would emerge, such as T. rex, which lived around 66 to 68 million years ago, said Dr. Hans-Dieter Sues, the chairman of the paleobiology department at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History and a co-author of the study.

“Timurlengia has already evolved the sophisticated senses and many bone features of T. rex but was a much smaller animal,” Sues said. “The new discovery fills in a multimillion-year gap in the evolution of one particularly successful group of dinosaurs.”

Sues and Dr. Alexander Averianov, a senior scientist at the Russian Academy of Sciences, unearthed the T. euotica fossils in the Kyzylkum Desert of Uzbekistan during a series of expeditions between 1997 and 2006.

Sues and an international team of paleontologists reanalyzed the remains and found that they belonged to a previously unknown species, T. euotica, which they determined was a relative but perhaps not an ancestor of T. rex.

“As few dinosaur fossils are known from 90 million-year-old rocks, we hoped to find fossils that would tell us something about dinosaur evolution at this point in time,” Sues said. “Still, Timurlengia showed unexpected features.”

To learn more about the species and its cognitive abilities, the researchers took CT scans of T. euotica‘s fossilized brain case and used that data to build a model of its brain.

They concluded that, even though T. euotica‘s skull was much smaller than that of T. rex, its brain and senses were highly developed.

“The ancestors of T. rex would have looked a whole lot like Timurlengia, a horse-sized hunter with a big brain and keen hearing that would put us to shame,” Dr. Steve Brusatte, a paleontologist at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland who led the new research, said in a statement. “Only after these ancestral tyrannosaurs evolved their clever brains and sharp senses did they grow into the colossal sizes of T. rex. Tyrannosaurs had to get smart before they got big.”

This new research is not only noteworthy for what it teaches us about the tyrannosaurs’ family tree, but also because it could provide clues about how dinosaurs evolved when faced with a changing environment, Sues said.

“Dinosaurs have been a huge evolutionary success since they first appeared about 230 millions year ago,” he said. “Learning about their evolutionary history and how they coped with environmental changes holds important lessons for the many changes seen in today’s world.”

Extremely big dinosaur discovery in Argentina

This 22 January 2016 Argentine TV video, in Spanish, is about the recent discovery of the Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi dinosaur.

From Nature:

A gigantic new dinosaur from Argentina and the evolution of the sauropod hind foot

18 January 2016


Titanosauria is an exceptionally diverse, globally-distributed clade of sauropod dinosaurs that includes the largest known land animals. Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to understanding the stance and locomotion of these enormous herbivores and, by extension, gigantic terrestrial vertebrates as a whole. However, completely preserved pedes are extremely rare among Titanosauria, especially as regards the truly giant members of the group.

Here we describe Notocolossus gonzalezparejasi gen. et sp. nov. from the Upper Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. With a powerfully-constructed humerus 1.76 m in length, Notocolossus is one of the largest known dinosaurs. Furthermore, the complete pes of the new taxon exhibits a strikingly compact, homogeneous metatarsus—seemingly adapted for bearing extraordinary weight—and truncated unguals, morphologies that are otherwise unknown in Sauropoda. The pes underwent a near-progressive reduction in the number of phalanges along the line to derived titanosaurs, eventually resulting in the reduced hind foot of these sauropods.

A Culture24 top ten of the best dinosaur museums and collections in the UK: here.

Tyrannosaurus rex in Leiden museum ‘an old lady’

This is a February 2015 Dutch TV video about a Tyrannosaurus rex going from Montana in the USA to the Netherlands.

In 2016, for the first time ever, people will be able to see a Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton in a museum outside North America: in Naturalis museum in Leiden, the Netherlands. The fossil skeleton will arrive there in mid-2016.

This dinosaur was found in Montana in 2013.

This morning, Naturalis paleontologist Anne Schulp, involved in the excavation, was interviewed by Dutch radio on this.

He said this Tyrannosaur is probably a female of over 30 years old. That would make her the Tyrannosaur with the longest life found so far.

Dinosaur love life discovery in Colorado, USA

This video from the USA says about itself:

5 August 2011

Dr. Martin Lockley answers the question “Why do dinosaur tracks contribute to our extinction theories?”

Dr. Martin Lockley is a renowned world expert in the fields of paleontology, geology and evolution. A native of England, he created the Dinosaur Tracks Museum at the University of Colorado at Denver, and is currently its director.

A fountain of knowledge on dinosaurs, fossil footprints and prehistoric creatures, renowned paleontologist Martin Lockley leads an expedition to find and identify dinosaur foot prints within the Gateway confines as well as an excursion just outside Gateway to search for more tracks.

This time, better news from Colorado, USA than last time.

From the Denver Post:

Dinosaur love nests unearthed on local land by Colorado researcher

Rubber molds and fiberglass copies of the scrapes are being stored at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science

By Elizabeth Hernandez

01/07/2016 07:00:00 AM MST

A skilled Colorado dinosaur tracker has unearthed 100 million-year-old dino love nests in Denver’s backyard.

The first evidence of dinosaur dating was discovered by Martin Lockley, a University of Colorado Denver geology professor who stumbled across large scratch marks in Colorado rocks. Initially, the marks had Lockley and his international team stumped.

Taking a cue from birds — relatives to the carnivorous dinos that lived in the area — Lockley said he and his crew started to think the scratches could be a ritual activity many male birds partake in: pseudo-nest-building.

“It’s like they’re showing off to a prospective mate,” Lockley said. “They say, ‘Look, I can make a nest.’ And if a female is watching, they make another and another.”

Dozens of scrapes would send the female dinosaurs swooning until mating took place and a real nest was built.

“When we first realized that they were mating evidence, my first thought was, ‘This is going to be big,’ ” said Lockley, who has been at CU Denver for 35 years. “It’s dinosaurs and sex. What a combo.”

Flowers and a box of chocolates? Hardly.

The scrapes, Lockley said, are very deep, narrow grooves, with a claw mark on the end.

These etchings of courtship, which come in pairs, can be as large as bathtubs.

The markings have been found at Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area, Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area, areas around Montrose, and Dinosaur Ridge, just south of Lakewood, said Harley Armstrong, the Bureau of Land Management’s state and regional paleontologist.

“The reason it’s a big deal is that these kinds of scrapes have never been found ever in the world,” Lockley said, “but that didn’t stop scientists from speculating.”

Many researchers long believed dinosaurs were trying to attract one another, but there was no physical evidence of the prehistoric courtship until Lockley unearthed his two years of research.

“Not only have we found the scrape marks — like dinosaur foreplay,” Lockley said, “but we found 50 or 60 of these things, and these sites are what have been called display arenas where they play out their display activity and then go and nest.”

Because the marks were unable to be removed from the massive rock slabs without being damaged, 3-D images were created to document them. Rubber molds and fiberglass copies of the scrapes are being stored at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science.

The Lockley-led study appears Thursday in the journal Scientific Reports.

“I think it’s wonderful,” Armstrong said. “It’s another feather for Colorado’s fossil cap. Because we have some of the known dinosaur fossils, the world has been coming to our doorsteps since 1877.”

Lockley looks forward to finding more scratches and ones that existed more than 100 million years ago.

“It wouldn’t surprise me at all after publishing this article that there are people in Europe, South America, Asia that go, ‘Oh, we have those. We just didn’t know what they were,'” Lockley said.

Bird evolution, new research

This 2014 video is called THE EVOLUTION OF FLIGHT.

From the American Museum of Natural History in the USA:

Study uncovers influence of Earth’s history on the dawn of modern birds

December 11, 2015

New research led by the American Museum of Natural History reveals that the evolution of modern birds was greatly shaped by the history of our planet’s geography and climate. The DNA-based work, published today in the journal Science Advances, finds that birds arose in what is now South America around 90 million years ago, and radiated extensively around the time of the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event that killed off the non-avian dinosaurs. The new research suggests that birds in South America survived this event and then started moving to other parts of the world via multiple land bridges while diversifying during periods of global cooling.

“Modern birds are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates in terms of species richness and global distribution, but we still don’t fully understand their large-scale evolutionary history,” said Joel Cracraft, a curator in the Museum’s Department of Ornithology and co-author of the paper. “It’s a difficult problem to solve because we have very large gaps in the fossil record. This is the first quantitative analysis estimating where birds might have arisen, based on the best phylogenetic hypothesis that we have today.”

Cracraft and lead author Santiago Claramunt, a research associate in the Museum’s Department of Ornithology, analyzed DNA sequences for most modern bird families with information from 130 fossil birds to generate a new evolutionary time tree.

A new study puts an end to the longstanding debate about how archaic birds went extinct, suggesting they were virtually wiped out by the same meteorite impact that put an end to dinosaurs 65 million years ago: here.

Reconstructing dinosaur skeletons in Dutch museum, video

This Dutch video shows how the first Triceratops bones were shown to the media in Naturalis museum in Leiden, on 9 December 2015. During the next months, the Triceratops skeletons will be reassembled there.