This is a green heron video.
This is an agami heron video from Ecuador.
First-ever conservation plan announced for the Agami Heron
By Sanya Khetani-Shah, Wed, 21/10/2015 – 09:30
Agami Herons are a nocturnal and discreet species of birds. While their range includes a large part of Central and South America, since they are so difficult to observe, nothing is known about their diet, breeding, feeding grounds or areas frequented by them during the nonbreeding season. Nor is there much information about the species’ population size. However, a huge colony of 2,000 breeding pairs exists in the Kaw-Roura Marshes in the tropical rainforests of French Guiana, France’s largest overseas département.
One thing we do know: the Agami Heron (Agami agami) is a Vulnerable species according to the IUCN Red List assessment; the population is expected to decline rapidly over the next three generations. The colony in French Guiana represents more than 90% of the world’s known breeding population.
Mining and logging (which cause deforestation), the construction of new roads (especially in densely populated coastal regions), and lack of knowledge on the species and consequently what our conservation priorities need to be are exposing this species and its habitat to degradation. To make matters worse, the pillars of the EU’s nature laws – the Birds and Habitats Directives – do not apply in Member States’ overseas regions.
To right the situation, the French Guianan Groupe d’Etude et de Protection des Oiseaux en Guyane (GEPOG) launched a study on Agami Heron (Agamia agami) conservation from 2011 to 2015, as part of a LIFE programme (the EU’s financial instrument supporting nature conservation). Data was acquired by monitoring eight Agami Herons fitted with satellite transmitters. In September 2015, the first Agami Heron conservation plan, co-written with HeronConservation (the Heron Specialist Group of IUCN) and other contributors from around the world, was published.
The purpose of this plan is to provide a range-wide framework for the conservation and management of Agami Herons and their habitats from limited legal protection, deforestation, urbanisation, rising sea levels due to climate change and other human activities and disturbances.
The plan advocates additional research and monitoring to improve our knowledge of the species, including finding the most important colony for the species in general and for the regional populations as well as the feeding areas associated with them; determining the impact of disturbances as well as mitigation and protection measures of colony sites; better understanding the range and distribution of the species; and better understanding their feeding behaviour, prey and feeding/breeding cycles.
But the plan is not just about getting to know the species better for future protection. It also includes various conservation actions that must begin now. These include: creating an Agami Heron Working Group (AHWG) to coordinate the monitoring of the population at each important colony site ; protect breeding sites, feeding areas and migratory stop-over sites; protecting mangrove forests throughout the species’ range; determining habitat areas containing important numbers of Herons outside the nesting season; and encouraging campaigns to educate people living near known colonies about the species’ importance and protection.
Most importantly, the conservation organisations involved aim to revise this plan every 10 years, so that they can stay updated on the conservation status and needs of the Agami Heron.
Agami Herons’ Full Mating Ritual Photographed for the First Time. A couple’s trek to a hidden lagoon in Costa Rica leads to a cache of new details about a glorious, yet understudied bird: here.
This video from the USA is called Act for Songbirds – Help Save Threatened Migratory Birds.
From the Journal of Field Ornithology in Canada:
Volume 85, Issue 3, pages 237–257, September 2014
There is an overdue and urgent need to establish patterns of migratory connectivity linking breeding grounds, stopover sites, and wintering grounds of migratory birds. Such information allows more effective application of conservation efforts by applying focused actions along movement trajectories at the population level. Stable isotope methods, especially those using stable hydrogen isotope abundance in feathers (δ2Hf) combined with Bayesian assignment techniques incorporating prior information such as relative abundance of breeding birds, now provide a fast and reliable means of establishing migratory connectivity, especially for Neotropical migrants that breed in North America and molt prior to fall migration.
Here we demonstrate how opportunistic sampling of feathers of 30 species of wintering birds in Cuba, Venezuela, Guatemala, Puerto Rico, and Mexico, regions that have typically been poorly sampled for estimating migratory connectivity, can be assigned to breeding areas in North America through both advanced spatial assignment to probability surfaces and through simpler map lookup approaches. Incorporating relative abundance information from the North American Breeding Bird Survey in our Bayesian assignment models generally resulted in a reduction in potential assignment areas on breeding grounds.
However, additional tools to constrain longitude such as DNA markers or other isotopes would be desirable for establishing breeding or molt origins of species with broad longitudinal distributions. The isotope approach could act as a rapid means of establishing basic patterns of migratory connectivity across numerous species and populations.
We propose a large-scale coordinated sampling effort on the wintering grounds to establish an isotopic atlas of migratory connectivity for North American Neotropical migrants and suggest that isotopic variance be considered as a valuable metric to quantify migratory connectivity. This initiative could then act as a strategic template to guide further efforts involving stable isotopes, light-sensitive geolocators, and other technologies.
This video is called Colombia Tanagers [various species].
From Wildlife Extra:
Study dispels Darwin’s theory to prove birds can have it all
The author of a new study, Nick Mason, from the the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in New York state, challenged the long-held notion, first proposed by Charles Darwin, that for a bird species to excel in one area it must give up its edge in another.
Mason and his colleagues tested the theory by examining a very large family of songbirds from Central and South America, the tanagers.
This group consists of 371 species and included some of the most spectacularly colourful birds in the world such as the paradise tanager as well as the more drab birds, such the black-bellied seedeater. The group also includes both accomplished and weak songsters alike.
“If there were going to be any group of birds at all that would show this trade-off, the tanagers would be a very good candidate, because there’s all this variation in song and plumage complexity,” Mason said.
“But when we dived into it and did some rigorous statistics, it turns out that there is no overall trend. Tanagers can be drab and plain-sounding, or colourful and musical, or or anything in between.”
It’s still possible that trade-offs take place at the level of genus, Mason said, or that they influence species relatively fleetingly as evolutionary pressures appear and disappear.
But as a broad effect on an entire family of birds, a voice–plumage trade off doesn’t seem to exist. One possibility is that the resources needed to develop fancy plumage are different from the ones required for complex songs, freeing tanagers to invest in both forms of showiness simultaneously.
This video from Canada says about itself:
Indigo bunting, Blackburnian warbler, stop on migration at my bird feeder
14 May 2013
From Wildlife Extra:
US songbirds are found to migrate with the wind
Millions of tiny songbirds, many weighing less than an ounce, migrate thousands of miles from North America to Central and South America each year. How they do it has been somewhat of a mystery, but now scientists have discovered how far they take advantage of prevailing wind patterns to save calories.
“Most of what we’ve known about migration routes comes from ducks and geese,” said Frank La Sorte, a Cornell Lab of Ornithology research associate and lead author of the paper in the Journal of Biogeography. “But terrestrial birds are much smaller and they aren’t reliant on the same kinds of habitats. There really isn’t a narrow migration path for them, and they aren’t necessarily in the same place in spring and fall.”
The findings from this study are important as they may help refine ideas about how and where to plan for conservation along migratory pathways.
“All these species migrate at night, at high altitudes, where we can’t see them,” La Sorte said. “But when the sun comes up in the morning they have to find somewhere to land. So any new knowledge about where they’re travelling is valuable to conservation planners.”
For years US scientists assumed songbirds followed the same well-defined “flyways” that ducks, geese, and shorebirds used to travel up and down the continent. There is one known wildfowl flyway along each coast, one up the Mississippi River valley, and one in the centre of the country. Those flyways were marked out from studies which compiled data from recoveries of birds with leg rings and records kept by hunters, but those methods don’t work for small songbirds that migrate at night.
The new work solved this problem with a fresh approach using crowd-sourced data submitted to the Cornell Lab’s eBird project between 2004 and 2011. The researchers analysed thousands of people’s sightings to develop, for each of 93 species, an aggregate picture of where a species is during spring and autumn migration. Although they weren’t tracking individual birds, collective sightings gave them an indication of how the species were migrating. They then used computer models to sort species with similar movement patterns into groups and compared migration routes with seasonal patterns of prevailing winds at night.
The study revealed that most US land birds fit into three main groups: a western one of 31 species, a central group of 17 species, and an eastern of 45 species. Examples of each group include the black-throated gray warbler, the clay-coloured sparrow, and the American redstart, respectively. The researchers noted that the flyways for these are much more spread out across the continent than those of wildfowl, and routes in the central and eastern groups overlap considerably.
The analysis also revealed that many more land birds than previously realised follow different routes through America in spring and autumn — particularly in the East, where many species cross the Gulf of Mexico in a single overnight flight.
Unlike wildfowl, which migrate north and south along the same relatively narrow routes, rather like lorries on a motorway, songbirds are more like passenger cars touring back roads. They are less tied to a single wetland habitat, so they can fan out. By shifting routes, birds take advantage of stronger tailwinds in spring and less severe headwinds in autumn. Tailwinds represent a huge advantage for small birds heading north to their breeding grounds, while finding weaker headwinds allows southbound birds to make the best of a bad situation.
This video says about itself:
23 Jan 2014
When a male túngara frog serenades female frogs from a pond, he creates watery ripples that make him easier to target by rivals and predators such as bats. A túngara frog will stop calling if it sees a bat overhead, but ripples continue moving for several seconds after the call ceases. In the study, published Jan. 23, 2014 in the journal Science, researchers found evidence that bats use echolocation — a natural form of sonar — to detect these ripples and home in on a frog. The discovery sheds light on an ongoing evolutionary arms race between frogs and bats. Video by Wouter Halfwerk.
From The Why Files:
Menacing mating game: Frogs fear bats!
23 January 2014
Like any foolish fellow, the túngara frog lives and loves dangerously. To those in the tropical-bio-biz, it’s old news that this resident of shallow ponds ranging from Venezuela to Central Mexico is prey to frog-eating bats.
That croaking mating call makes a great target for the flying mammals with an appetite for frogs’ legs. But now we hear another reason why life is hard for the feckless frog.
In a study released today, scientists revealed that the croaking frog sends two separate signals to the bats: First, the mating call, which deters competing males while attracting females — and those hungry bats.
But the frogs power their croak by inflating and deflating an enormous air sac, which forms ripples on the pond that survive even after the frog chokes off its croaks after seeing a bat against the night sky
To test the interaction between the bats and frogs, first author Wouter Halfwerk of Leiden University in The Netherlands set up an experiment in Panama, using artificial frogs to simulate the appropriate sound, with or without ripples
Halfwerk and co-author Michael Ryan, professor of zoology at the University of Texas, found that bats would attack in response to the mating call alone, but the attacks increased 36 percent when ripples accompanied the soundtrack.
Frogs croak, and then croak!
This makes life difficult for the frogs, Ryan notes. To reproduce, they must call. “The males can stop calling, but they can’t take these ripples back, so the danger of calling extends for a few seconds. It’s amazing that bats are able to figure this out.”
The tests were held in darkness, so the bats must have been using their sonar — echolocation — to find the pattern of ripples.
The mating call is primarily to attract females, but it also shouts “Keep away!” to other males, and the competition doubled their “I’m here too!” responses when ripples followed the croaks. “If you look when they are calling, the frogs are spaced out,” Ryan says. “If another male is too close, they start to make aggressive calls, and sometimes they fight; I have seen them kill each other.”
Ryan, who first noticed the frog-bat system as a graduate student in the 1980s studying with bat biologist Merlin Tuttle, notes, “We have known for a long time that the bats can find the frogs.” The new study, however, is the first to show how waves created when the frog sounds off affects bats — and other frogs.
Now that they know that competing males are more responsive when ripples are present, the researchers plan to see how females act with and without ripples.
Live to love, but love to live!
If the bats have “cracked the code” of the frogs behavior, turning a mating move into a death dance, that could be shaping frog behavior. “We know frogs prefer calling under cover, compared to out in the open,” says Ryan. Not only do bats have trouble flying to the sheltered frogs, but they may also have difficulty detecting ripples with echolocation in the brush.
We mused: the frogs, like certain guys we could name, allow mating to trump everything, even mortal danger. “Through the entire animal kingdom — there are exceptions — but most of the attributes that make an animal sexy or beautiful can be very costly. Men die before women in part because testosterone has a negative effect on the immune system.”
Every time an animal communicates, it creates a disturbance in the environment, and that’s especially true for the “look-at-me” mating messages. “The question I have,” Ryan adds, “is how many of these incidental things that we animals do become fodder for another animal that is looking to parasitize, to lay eggs” or grab dinner?
Do some showboating, and a biological big brother may be bugging your channel, Ryan says. “Males have to make themselves more conspicuous to females; to call louder, to wear brighter colors, do fancy dances. But all of this also makes them more conspicuous to predators.”
See also here.