Visit to Dear Kitty blog from Antarctica


This October 2019 video says about itself:

Join a team of marine scientists as they embark on an unprecedented journey across the Great Southern Ocean and beyond to Antarctica.

Today, for the first time ever, WordPress stats recorded a visit to Dear Kitty. Some blog from Antarctica.

Welcome, visitor, like visitors from all continents are welcome here! This brings back fond memories from when I was in the Antarctic.

How emperor penguins stay warm by huddling


This 27 December 2019 video about emperor penguins says about itself:

How Does Huddling Help Penguins Stay Warm? | BBC Earth

The centre of a penguin huddle can reach temperatures of up to 37 degrees C! How exactly does piling in help these snow animals stay so warm?

Antarctic gentoo penguins build nests


This 16 December 2019 video says about itself:

Gentoo Penguins Build Love Nests! | Penguin Post Office | BBC Earth

Why have a rock on your finger when you can have them in a nice neat pile? These Gentoo penguins have the right idea.

On a tiny island in Antarctica, there’s a post office surrounded by jaw-dropping scenery and 4,000 Gentoo penguins… Every summer, as tourists turn up in their hundreds to see the penguins and to send a postcard, the birds rush to find a partner and raise their young. This extraordinary four-month drama starts when the first penguin hops onto the island and continues until the last one leaves and the post office closes its doors for winter.

I was privileged to see these Port Lockroy penguins.

Before dinosaur extinction, life in trouble


This 2018 BBC video is called How did an Asteroid Drive the Dinosaurs to Extinction? | Earth Unplugged.

From Northwestern University in the USA:

Earth was stressed before dinosaur extinction

Fossilized seashells show signs of global warming, ocean acidification leading up to asteroid impact

December 11, 2019

Summary: By measuring the chemistry of fossilized seashells collected in Antarctica, researchers discovered that Earth was already experiencing carbon cycle instability before the asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs.

New evidence gleaned from Antarctic seashells confirms that Earth was already unstable before the asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs.

The study, led by researchers at Northwestern University, is the first to measure the calcium isotope composition of fossilized clam and snail shells, which date back to the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction event. The researchers found that — in the run-up to the extinction event — the shells’ chemistry shifted in response to a surge of carbon in the oceans.

This carbon influx was likely due to long-term eruptions from the Deccan Traps, a 200,000-square-mile volcanic province located in modern India. During the years leading up to the asteroid impact, the Deccan Traps spewed massive amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. The concentration of CO2 acidified the oceans, directly affecting the organisms living there.

“Our data suggest that the environment was changing before the asteroid impact,” said Benjamin Linzmeier, the study’s first author. “Those changes appear to correlate with the eruption of the Deccan Traps.”

“The Earth was clearly under stress before the major mass extinction event,” said Andrew D. Jacobson, a senior author of the paper. “The asteroid impact coincides with pre-existing carbon cycle instability. But that doesn’t mean we have answers to what actually caused the extinction.”

The study will be published in the January 2020 issue of the journal Geolology, which comes out later this month.

Jacobson is a professor of Earth and planetary sciences in Northwestern’s Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. Linzmeier was a postdoctoral researcher with the Ubben Program for Climate and Carbon Science at the Institute for Sustainability and Energy at Northwestern when the research was conducted. He is now a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the Department of Geoscience.

‘Each shell is a snapshot’

Previous studies have explored the potential effects of the Deccan Traps eruptions on the mass extinction event, but many have examined bulk sediments and used different chemical tracers. By focusing on a specific organism, the researchers gained a more precise, higher-resolution record of the ocean’s chemistry.

“Shells grow quickly and change with water chemistry,” Linzmeier said. “Because they live for such a short period of time, each shell is a short, preserved snapshot of the ocean’s chemistry.”

Seashells mostly are composed of calcium carbonate, the same mineral found in chalk, limestone and some antacid tablets. Carbon dioxide in water dissolves calcium carbonate. During the formation of the shells, CO2 likely affects shell composition even without dissolving them.

For this study, the researchers examined shells collected from the Lopez de Bertodano Formation, a well-preserved, fossil-rich area on the west side of Seymour Island in Antarctica. They analyzed the shells’ calcium isotope compositions using a state-of-the-art technique developed in Jacobson’s laboratory at Northwestern. The method involves dissolving shell samples to separate calcium from various other elements, followed by analysis with a mass spectrometer.

“We can measure calcium isotope variations with high precision,” Jacobson said. “And those isotope variations are like fingerprints to help us understand what happened.”

Using this method, the team found surprising information.

“We expected to see some changes in the shells’ composition, but we were surprised by how quickly the changes occurred,” Linzmeier said. “We also were surprised that we didn’t see more change associated with the extinction horizon itself.”

A future warning

The researchers said that understanding how the Earth responded to past extreme warming and CO2 input can help us prepare for how the planet will respond to current, human-caused climate change.

“To some degree, we think that ancient ocean acidification events are good analogs for what’s happening now with anthropogenic CO2 emissions,” Jacobson said. “Perhaps we can use this work as a tool to better predict what might happen in the future. We can’t ignore the rock record. The Earth system is sensitive to large and rapid additions of CO2. Current emissions will have environmental consequences.”

Brad Sageman and Matthew Hurtgen, both professors of Earth and planetary sciences at Northwestern, are co-senior authors of the paper.

The study, “Calcium isotope evidence for environmental variability before and across the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction,” was supported by the Ubben Program for Climate and Carbon Science at Northwestern University, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation (award number 2007-31757) and the National Science Foundation (award numbers EAR-0723151, ANT-1341729, ANT-0739541 and ANT-0739432.

Antarctic penguins, Robert Falcon Scott till today


This 13 January 2018 video is called Antarctica Ross Sea. Part 21. Cape Adare. Adélie Penguins mating.

By Carolyn Gramling, December 6, 2019 at 10:00 am:

‘A Polar Affair’ delves into a centurylong cover-up of penguin sex

A new book surveys penguin biology and Antarctic exploration history

A Polar Affair
Lloyd Spencer Davis
Pegasus Books, $29.95

On March 29, 1912, British explorer Robert Falcon Scott wrote the final diary entry of his ill-fated quest to reach the South Pole. That same day, more than 350 kilometers away, naval surgeon and zoologist George Murray Levick was hunkered down within a snowbank at Cape Adare, observing Adélie penguins.

Levick had accompanied Scott to Antarctica, but was not one of the five expedition members on the final trek to the pole. The return journey claimed the lives of all five. Levick survived the expedition, however, and in 1914, published a manuscript summarizing his observations — the first scientific descriptions of Antarctic penguins.

But he left something out.

During his months observing Adélie penguins, which included an entire breeding cycle, Levick witnessed the birds engaging in same-sex mating rituals. He also saw the birds engage in a variety of other sexual behaviors that in humans we might call promiscuity, infidelity, even prostitution. Levick recorded these scandalous details in a second manuscript, “The sexual habits of the Adélie penguin”, in 1915. But the manuscript was stamped “Not for Publication” and remained unpublished for nearly a century.

In 2012, the manuscript resurfaced in a scientific journal. Penguin biologist and author Lloyd Spencer Davis, who had thought he was the first to record same-sex behavior in Antarctic penguins in 1996, was dismayed and intrigued. So Davis embarked on a personal quest to understand how and why Levick’s observations had been buried in the first place — seemingly by his own wishes.

The result of that quest is Davis’ book A Polar Affair, an entertaining, chatty and sometimes salacious romp through polar exploration history, penguin biology and Victorian mores.

Each of the book’s five sections opens with a brief essay — Homosexuality, Divorce, Infidelity, Rape, Prostitution — that highlights how tempting it can be, whether in Victorian or modern times, to view penguin sexual behaviors through an anthropomorphic lens.

But the driving force of A Polar Affair isn’t really to understand these sexual behaviors, Davis writes. Instead, what he really wants to understand is “why Murray Levick would discover the dirty side of penguins and then try to cover it up.”

Davis delves into Levick’s personal history, hunting down his field notes and retracing his long, frostbitten months studying Cape Adare’s penguin colony.

Davis’ investigations are interspersed with a sweeping history of polar exploration that is by turns fascinating and frustrating. He also includes stories from his own penguin studies. The narrative meanders through the exploits of a wide-ranging cast of explorers who have since lent their names to bits of Antarctica’s geography, from James Clark Ross to Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen.

Early expeditions led to key innovations to manage challenges such as the bitter cold and ever-present nutrient deprivation. And many of those innovations, we learn, came to bear in the 1911–1912 race to the South Pole between Robert Falcon Scott and Norwegian Roald Amundsen. (Amundsen got there first, beating Scott by about one month.) This rich and often intimate history can be riveting stuff. But much of it is also well-trodden ground, and at times, I found myself flipping ahead, wanting to get back to Levick and his penguins.

Other digressions, though, particularly Davis’ discussions of whether there are evolutionary benefits to penguins’ same-sex mating or nonmonogamous behaviors, are fascinating. Is same-sex mating a case of mistaken identity, in that male and female penguins are monomorphic, looking much alike? Is promiscuity among penguins related to the female’s inclination to build a stronger nest, one that is shored up by stones earned through offering sex?

These are questions with which Davis and other penguin biologists still wrestle. And A Polar Affair doesn’t come to a tidy answer for why Levick suppressed his most startling findings. But the book’s unique approach to polar exploration history makes for an engaging read. And by the end, Davis does come to terms with his need to understand his predecessor and with his own dismay at being scooped a century ago. The journey in discovery, he suggests, was satisfying. “It doesn’t really matter who was the first to see a bit of male-on-male action in penguins,” he writes, “any more than it probably matters who was first to stand on an arbitrary piece of ice and drive a flagpole into it.”

Antarctica, beauty and climate change


This 21 October 2019 video says about itself:

See Antarctica Like Never Before | National Geographic

Here at the bottom of the world, a place all but free of human settlement, humanity is scrambling one of the ocean’s richest wildernesses. Fossil-fuel burning thousands of miles away is heating up the western peninsula faster than almost anywhere else. (Only the Arctic compares.) Hear National Geographic photographer Cristina Mittermeier share her love and fears for this beautiful place.

‘Emperor penguins need more protection’


This 2018 video says about itself:

Emperor Penguin Mourns the Death of Chick | BBC Earth

A huddle of penguins is formed to protect each other from the cold – but young chicks can end up crushed or frozen.

From the British Antarctic Survey:

Study recommends special protection of emperor penguins

October 8, 2019

In a new study published this week (Wednesday 9 October) in the journal Biological Conservation, an international team of researchers recommends the need for additional measures to protect and conserve one of the most iconic Antarctic species — the emperor penguin (Aptenodyptes forsteri).

The researchers reviewed over 150 studies on the species and its environment as well as its behaviour and character in relation to its breeding biology. Current climate change projections indicate that rising temperatures and changing wind patterns will impact negatively the sea ice on which emperor penguins breed; and some studies indicate that emperor populations will decrease by more than 50% over the current century. The researchers therefore recommend that the IUCN status for the species be escalated to ‘vulnerable’; the species is currently listed as ‘near threatened’ on the IUCN Red List. They conclude that improvements in climate change forecasting in relation to impacts on Antarctic wildlife would be beneficial, and recommend that the emperor penguin should be listed by the Antarctic Treaty as a Specially Protected Species.

Lead author Dr Philip Trathan, Head of Conservation Biology at British Antarctic Survey, says:

“The current rate of warming in parts of the Antarctic is greater than anything in the recent glaciological record. Though emperor penguins have experienced periods of warming and cooling over their evolutionary history, the current rates of warming are unprecedented.”

“Currently, we have no idea how the emperors will adjust to the loss of their primary breeding habitat — sea ice. They are not agile and climbing ashore across steep coastal land forms will be difficult. For breeding, they depend upon sea ice, and in a warming world there is a high probability that this will decrease. Without it, they will have little or no breeding habitat.”

Greater protection measures will enable scientists to coordinate research into the penguins’ resilience to a range of different threats and stressors.

Dr Peter Fretwell, remote sensing specialist at British Antarctic Survey and co-author says:

“Some colonies of emperor penguins may not survive the coming decades, so we must work to give as much protection as we can to the species to give them the best chance.”

The UK, supported by a number of other countries whose researchers have engaged in this scientific work, notified the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at its 2019 meeting, held in Prague in July, that Emperor Penguins were threatened through the loss of their breeding habitat and that further protections should be developed. A similar paper has also been submitted to this year’s Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, which meets in Hobart later this month, where the UK is also supporting a number of proposals to extend the coverage of Marine Protected Areas in the Southern Ocean.