Missing link dinosaur nests-bird nests discovery

This video from Canada says about itself:

First feathered dinosaur from North America introduced by Darla Zelenitsky

26 October 2012

Canadian researchers discover fossils of first feathered dinosaurs from North America.

From Science magazine:

Missing link between dinosaur nests and bird nests

By Sid Perkins

25 November 2015 2:00 pm

The links between dinosaurs and birds keep getting stronger: skeletal structures, feathers—and now nests. Whereas some dinosaurs buried their eggs crocodile-style, a new analysis suggests that other dinosaurs built open nests on the ground, foreshadowing the nests of birds.

Interpreting the fossil record is always tough, but analyzing trace fossils such as nests is especially daunting. Those structures, and the materials used to make them, usually aren’t preserved, says Darla Zelenitsky, a paleobiologist at the University of Calgary in Canada. When paleontologists do find a nestlike structure that includes material such as sticks or other vegetation, the question arises: Was this stuff part of the original nest, or just carried there with the sediment that buried the nest and helped preserve it?

To gain insight into dinosaur nesting habits, Zelenitsky and her colleagues studied the most durable parts of nests—the eggs themselves. (Being largely made of the mineral calcium carbonate, they’ve got a head start on fossilization and are sometimes incredibly well preserved.) In particular, the team looked at the size and arrangement of small pores in the ancient shells, because those details are telling in modern creatures.

In crocodiles’ buried nests, the heat needed to incubate the eggs comes from decomposition of overlying organic matter or the sunlight absorbed by the soil. Plus, in buried nests airflow is somewhat limited, thus requiring eggs to be relatively porous to help increase the flow of oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of the eggs. But birds that brood in open nests can get by laying eggs with fewer or smaller pores.

So the team compared the porosity of eggshells from 29 species of dinosaurs (including large, long-necked herbivores called sauropods; bipedal meat-eaters called theropods; and duck-billed dinosaurs) with that of shells from 127 living species of birds and crocodiles.

Most of the dinosaur eggs were highly porous, suggesting that they buried their eggs to incubate them, the researchers report online today in PLOS ONE. But some of the dinosaur species in one group—a subset of well-evolved theropods considered to be the closest relatives of modern-day birds—laid low-porosity eggs, which suggests they incubated their eggs in open nests.

“This is a well done paper; the results make a lot of sense,” says Luis Chiappe, a vertebrate paleontologist at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. The findings, he says, line up other studies suggesting that some birdlike dinosaurs were warm-blooded, which would have enabled them to incubate eggs in an open nest rather than depend on rotting vegetation or sunlight. Chiappe adds that the trend toward open nests could have allowed some dinosaurs to take another step toward birdlike nesting by moving their nests into the trees.

But considering only two types of nests—open versus buried—may be too simplistic, suggests Anthony Martin, a paleontologist at Emory University in Atlanta. Some dinosaurs—like a few of today’s birds—may have nested in burrows, which could have offered the stable temperature and protection from predators of a buried nest but resulted in low-porosity shells. Also, covered nests come in different types: Loose vegetation piled atop a buried nest can have a lot of airflow through it, allowing eggs to have relatively small pores, whereas eggs buried in soil or similar materials might not breathe as well and thus require larger pores, he notes. Nevertheless, Martin adds, the team’s study “is a good first start toward answering the question about what early dinosaur nests looked like.”

See also here.

The findings were published online on Nov. 25 2015 in the journal PLOS ONE.

Pentagon whitewash of hospital bombing rejected by Doctors Without Borders

This 4 October 2015 video is called Kunduz attack may amount to war crime – UN Human Rights chief.

Translated from NOS TV in the Netherlands:

MSF/Doctors Without Borders: Kunduz report leaves important questions unanswered

Today, 20:08

MSF is shocked by the investigation report by the US military about their bombing of an MSF hospital in the Afghan city of Kunduz. According to MSF director Christopher Stokes the findings just cause more questions.

Stokes finds it shocking that US troops launched an attack without having a view of the target and without having a list of buildings that should not be attacked.

He also points out faltering communication. During the attack, MSF staff have called the US Americans to say that they made a mistake. Yet the Americans continued bombarding. In the bombardments at least thirty people died.

Huge negligence

The series of faults points according to MSF to a massive failure by the US military. The destruction of the hospital can not be brushed aside by the organization as a human error, as the military does .

“It seems that thirty people died and hundreds of thousands of people in Kunduz are now without life-saving care because the hospital was closest to an open field and roughly resembled the description of the target,” writes Stokes.

MSF again calls for an independent investigation. “Research into this terrible event should not only be done by the parties involved in the conflict in Afghanistan.”

Charles Darwin’s writings on the Internet

This 2012 video is called Evolution – Part 1 of 7 – Darwin’s Dangerous Idea (PBS Documentary).

From the American Museum of Natural History in the USA:

Project to Digitize Darwin’s Writings on Evolution Nearly Halfway Complete

by AMNH on 11/24/2014 02:36 pm

Tracing the evolution of Charles Darwin’s thoughts about evolution is becoming an increasingly accessible project, thanks to a growing cache of publicly available digitized Darwin manuscripts on the Museum’s site.

As of today—the 155th anniversary of the publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species—the Museum’s Darwin Manuscripts Project has made available 12,000 high-resolution and color images of manuscript pages, drawings, book abstracts, and other writings, complete with transcriptions that decipher the famous naturalist’s handwriting. By June 2015, the Museum will host more than 30,000 digitized documents written by Darwin between 1835 and 1882.

“These notebooks, marginalia, portfolios, and abstracts were the basis for eight of Darwin’s books, beyond the Origin, that set down, enlarged, and defended the theory of evolution by natural selection,” said Darwin Manuscripts Project Director David Kohn. “In these writings, you can see Darwin as a thinker, a keen-eyed collector, an inspired observer, and a determined experimenter.”

The Darwin Manuscripts Project has been publishing Darwin’s writings since 2007, but the publication and interpretation of the entire corpus will make it possible for visitors to trace the gradual gestation and long maturation of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. The project involves a close collaboration with Cambridge University Library, which holds Darwin‘s archives, and the Darwin Correspondence Project. Content is being simultaneously published by the Cambridge Digital Library.

The 12,000 documents accessible on the site now cover the 25-year period in which Darwin became convinced of evolution; discovered natural selection; developed explanations of adaptation, speciation, and a branching tree of life; and wrote the Origin.

Darwin’s work in creating the Origin of Species encompassed much more than just setting pen to paper and writing the epochal book,” Kohn said. “The Origin was the mature fruit of a prolonged process of scientific exploration and creativity that began toward the end of his Beagle voyage, which first kindled Darwin’s interest in evolution, and that continued to expand in range and deepen in conceptual rigor through numerous well-marked stages.”

The remainder of the manuscripts, which will be available in June 2015, will pick up in the year the Origin was published—1859—and will include the full record of Darwin’s massive experimental research program to substantiate the power of natural selection until his death in 1882.

Corn snakes, why some are white

This video from the USA says about itself:

15 August 2014

The corn snake (Pantherophis gutattus gutattus) is a medium sized non-venomous colubrid that lives in the southeastern United States. Their bright colors, docile temperament, and minimum care requirements make them great for pets but it’s important to note that those you find in the wild are facing a decline in numbers and should be left alone if at all possible.

From Reptiles magazine:

Corn Snake Genome Sequenced, Albinism Mutation Detailed

November 25, 2015

By John Virata

Scientists with the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland have sequenced the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus (Elaphe guttata) genome for the first time, and discovered the mutation in the snake that causes albinism in the species, according to a paper published in Scientific Reports.

“Our aim was to produce ourselves a substantial portion of the missing data by sequencing all genes from several reptilian species. To reach this goal, we used tissues, such as the brain and the kidney, expressing the largest number of genes,” said Athanasia Tzika, researcher in the Department of Genetics and Evolution at UNIGE. “The objective was to obtain a genuine reptilian genomic model that people could rely on,” said Athanasia Tzika. “Here, we covered about 85% of the snake total genome size. There is much additional work ahead.”

The data compiled by Tzika will be freely available to researchers around the world who are working on developmental and evolutionary studies of reptiles.

UNIGE researcher Suzanne Saenko, working with Swedish scientists identified the mutation responsible for amenalism. The researchers bred a wild corn snake with a captive bred amenalistic corn snake and DNA sequenced all offspring from the cross and identified the malfunctioning gene. The gene OCA2 codes for a receptor located in the membranes of melanosomes, where melanin is found, according to the study. The receptor controls the acidity that enables the synthesis of melanin.

The researchers say that they will look into how some corn snakes are born with modified colors and patterns like longitudinal lines rather than transversal saddles that are typical of the species.

Giraffe ancestry, new research

This video is about giraffes in Africa.

From Science journal:

Odd creature was ancient ancestor of today’s giraffes

By Sid Perkins

24 November 2015 7:15 pm

A distant relative of today’s giraffes was a bit of an odd creature: It was about the size of a bull moose, but it had a long neck that could stretch both up to eat tree leaves and down to eat grass. That’s the conclusion of the first comprehensive analysis of a complete set of fossilized neck bones from the animal, known as Samotherium major. Samotherium, which lived in the open woodlands of Eurasia about 7 million years ago, had a neck about 1 meter long—about half the length of that of today’s giraffes. (And like the vast majority of mammals, from tiny mice to towering giraffes, it had seven neck vertebrae.)

Some scientists have long presumed today’s giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), which includes a handful of subspecies scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, evolved from an animal that looked like its close cousin the okapi (Okapia johnstoni), which lives in the tropical forests of central Africa. The team’s analyses of bones from all three animals bolster that notion—and not just because the neck bones are of a length between the giraffe’s and the okapi’s. For example, ridges and other features that are prominent on the okapi’s neck bones and missing entirely on the giraffe’s are typically present but smaller on Samotherium’s, the researchers report online today in Royal Society Open Science.

See also here.

Gambia bans female genital mutilation

This is a video about Ousmane Sembène‘s film Mooladé, against female genital mutilation. Ousmane Sembène is from Senegal.

Good news now from a country bordering on Senegal.

Translated from NOS TV in the Netherlands:

Gambia bans female circumcision

Today, 13:06

In Gambia female genital mutilation has been banned. President Jammeh said in a speech that it is banned with immediate effect.

Opponents of female circumcision are reluctant because the ban has not yet been legally defined. “President Jammeh’s statement sends a strong signal to the world, but a law is a stronger signal,” said anti-FGM activist Jaha Dukureh. “A law can save countless lives in Gambia.”

Dukureh has long campaigned for this ban in Gambia. …

Earlier this year, Nigeria also introduced a ban. In countries such as Sierra Leone, Liberia and Mali it is still allowed.

Pilot whales asphyxiated by eating flatfish

This video is called Long-Finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala melas).

From PLOS one:

Fatal Asphyxiation in Two Long-Finned Pilot Whales (Globicephala melas) Caused by Common Soles (Solea solea)

November 18, 2015


Long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are rare visitors to the southern North Sea, but recently two individual strandings occurred on the Dutch coast. Both animals shared the same, unusual cause of death: asphyxiation from a common sole (Solea solea) stuck in their nasal cavity. This is a rare cause of death in cetaceans. Whilst asphyxiation has been reported in smaller odontocetes, there are no recent records of this occurring in Globicephala species.

Here we report the stranding, necropsy and diet study results as well as discuss the unusual nature of this phenomenon. Flatfish are not a primary prey species for pilot whales and are rarely eaten by other cetaceans, such as harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), in which there are several reports of asphyxiation due to airway obstruction by soles. This risk may be due to the fish’s flexible bodies which can enter small cavities either actively in an attempt to escape or passively due to the whale ‘coughing’ or ‘sneezing’ to rid itself of the blockage of the trachea.

It is also possible that the fish enter the airways whilst the whale is re-articulating the larynx after trying to ingest large, oddly shaped prey. It is unlikely that the soles entered the airways after the death of the whales and we believe therefore that they are responsible for the death of these animals.