Racist United States policemen want race war

Tyshawn, 9, (left) and his brother Tyler, 11, (right) of Baltimore, hold signs saying ‘Black Lives Matter’ and ‘I Can't Breathe’ as they sit on a concrete barrier near a police line as demonstrators protest along a section of 16th Street that has been renamed Black Lives Matter Plaza, in Washington DC yesterday

By Steve Sweeney, 25 June 2020:

Three US cops sacked after calling for race war so they can ‘slaughter’ black people

THREE US cops have been sacked after dash-cam footage caught them saying they hoped that the Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests trigger a race war so they could “slaughter” black people.

Kevin Piner, James Gilmore and Jessie Moore were fired from the Wilmington Police Department (WPD) in North Carolina on Wednesday following an internal probe.

A report seen by the Morning Star said they were caught after a monthly audit of dash-cam footage exposed the trio encouraging racial violence, including the execution of a black magistrate who Mr Moore said deserved “a bullet in her head.”

OAKLAND SCHOOL BOARD VOTES TO ELIMINATE ITS POLICE DEPARTMENT The school board in Oakland, California, unanimously voted to dismantle the school district’s police department — the latest to cut ties with law enforcement amid nationwide anti-racism protests. All seven board members voted in favor of the “George Floyd Resolution to Eliminate the Oakland School Police Department.” Oakland Unified School District has its own police department, with over 120 officers and other personnel. [HuffPost]

This 7 June 2020 video from New York City is called Crown Heights Black Lives Matters Solidarity March.

Young Hasidic Jews mobilized their community for Black Lives Matter. Now they’re organizing online. By Irene Connelly, June 24, 2020.

Jewish demonstration for Black Lives Matter

Saving rare British butterflies, how?

This June 2014 video from Britain says about itself:

Duke of Burgundy butterfly

Duke of Burgundy is found mainly in central southern England. Patrick Barkham gives an introduction to this beautiful species.

From the University of York in England:

Agricultural conservation schemes not enough to protect Britain’s rarest butterflies

June 23, 2020

Conservation management around the margins of agriculture fail to protect butterfly species at greatest risk from the intensification of farming, a new study says.

The research, from the University of York, says the subsidised schemes are likely to help common, more mobile grassland species like the Ringlet (Aphantopus hyperantus) or the Meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) but not rarer species like the Duke of Burgundy (Hamearis lucina) or the Dingy skipper (Erynnis tages).

Agri-environment schemes financially reward farmers managing land in ways which aim to reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture. Common options include setting aside small areas of land out of production, including leaving grassland strips at the edges of agricultural fields.

The study examined whether these strips helped support insects including grassland butterfly populations. It used ecological models to look at whether the schemes improved butterfly survival locally and also if set aside land helped species expand their range and move across landscapes. This expansion is important so that species can move in response to climate change.

Katie Threadgill, PhD student from the Department of Biology said: “These kind of set aside schemes help mobile, common butterfly species move across landscapes but they do not help all species.

“The greatest benefits were seen in species which were either highly mobile or which live in high densities. High density species which could travel further were already successful expanders regardless of set-asides although expansion rates were still improved when set-asides were added. Overall, set-aside strips did increase rates of range expansion across landscapes by up to 100% for some species but they did not boost long term butterfly survival locally.

Prof Jane Hill, who co-supervised the project added: “Small-scale set-asides have the potential to improve connectivity, which will help some species move to cope with climate change, and connect up habitat patches for others.”

The study concluded that set-asides are unlikely to benefit low dispersal, low density species which are probably at greatest risk from agricultural intensification.

Katie Threadgill added: “Our results suggest that small set-aside strips alone are not an appropriate solution for preventing extinctions in the long term, but can provide other benefits”

COVID-19 in the USA, update

This 25 June 2020 video from the USA says about itself:

As the US state of Florida emerges from its coronavirus shutdown, it is experiencing an alarming surge in COVID-19 cases.

Health experts warn Florida, with more than 100,000 cases, could become the next virus epicentre.

Governor Ron DeSantis calls his plan to reopen “smart, safe and step by step,” but critics say he has lost control.

Al Jazeera’s Andy Gallacher reports.

INFECTION RATE SET TO SURGE PAST EARLY PEAK New coronavirus cases reported each day in the U.S. are reaching levels unseen since the initial height of the pandemic as states lift restrictions and people ditch social distancing measures. New cases have topped 30,000 each day this week and are on track to surpass mid-April’s record peak. Infections began to decline last month under restrictive lockdowns, but President Donald Trump began goading followers to protest the restrictions and go back to work. [HuffPost]

FEDS SET TO CUT TESTING FUNDS AS CASES SOAR COVID-19 testing centers across five states are set to lose federal funding next week after the Trump administration decided not to extend the program that established them. As a result, testing sites across Colorado (1), Illinois (2), New Jersey (2), Pennsylvania (1) and Texas (7) will likely close if those states are unable to replace the funding. Assistant Secretary for Health Brett Giroir said the program that originally funded 41 such sites across 48 states would end next week. [HuffPost]

Every state is reopening. Just seven meet these basic criteria to do so safely.

DOZENS OF SECRET SERVICE AGENTS TOLD TO QUARANTINE AFTER TULSA RALLY Dozens of Secret Service agents have been instructed to self-quarantine after two agents who attended Trump’s rally in Tulsa, Oklahoma, on Saturday tested positive for the coronavirus. The Secret Service told agents who worked at the Tulsa campaign event to stay home for 14 days. The Secret Service field office in Tulsa also reportedly arranged for a testing session at a hospital to determine if local agents contracted the virus while working during the event. [HuffPost]

I’ve been sick with COVID-19 for over three months. Here’s what I want you to know.

My 5-year-old wears a mask. Why can’t you?

Novak Djokovic’s folly is a lesson to the world.

Nick Cordero’s wife sees him for the first time since his coronavirus hospitalization.

Saving birds from power line death

This June 2015 video from the USA is called Birds of prey need power line protection.

From Oregon State University in the USA:

Better way to keep birds from hitting power lines

June 24, 2020

Suspended, rotating devices known as “flappers” may be the key to fewer birds flying into power lines, a study by Oregon State University suggests.

The findings by researchers in OSU’s College of Agricultural Sciences are important because around the globe both the number of power lines and concern over bird fatalities are on the rise.

Research has documented more than 300 species of birds dying from hitting power lines, with one study estimating that more than 170 million perish annually in the United States and another estimating the global death toll to be 1 billion per year. There’s also the problem of power outages that bird strikes can cause.

Conservation managers and utilities many years ago developed flight diverters, basically regularly spaced devices that make the lines more visible, as a step toward reducing the number of birds flying into the lines.

The most common types are the PVC spirals, which are durable and easy to install, but how well they actually work isn’t well understood. Though they’ve been in use for nearly four decades, strike rates remain high for a number of species.

OSU researchers Virginia Morandini and Ryan Baumbusch were part of an international collaboration that compared the effectiveness of three types of flight diverters: yellow PVC spiral; orange PVC spiral; and a flapper model with three orange and red polypropylene blades with reflective stickers.

OSU researchers Virginia Morandini and Ryan Baumbusch were part of an international collaboration that compared the effectiveness of three types of flight diverters: yellow PVC spiral; orange PVC spiral; and a flapper model with three orange and red polypropylene blades with reflective stickers.

The flapper hangs from a power line and its blades, 21 centimeters by 6.2 centimeters, rotate around a vertical axis.

The three-year study took place in southern Spain, and almost 54 kilometers of power lines were used in the research. Ten kilometers were marked with yellow spirals, 13 kilometers were marked with orange spirals, another 13 had flappers, and 16 kilometers had no markers, thus serving as a control. All three flight diverter types were spaced every 10 meters.

Field workers combed the area under the lines every 40 days for evidence of birds killed by power lines and found a total of 131 such birds representing 32 species.

The research suggested the flappers were responsible for a 70% lower average death rate compared to the control. The findings also showed the spirals were better than no diverters, but significantly less effective than the flappers.

“Colored PVC spiral is the most commonly used flight diverter by far, but the flapper diverter was the one showing the largest reduction in mortality with the lowest variation across different power lines, habitats and bird communities,” Morandini said. “We suggest to consider the flapper as the first choice when installing bird flight diverters, recommending to increase future research in testing its material durability and resistance against vibrations and color loss.”

The flappers and PVC spirals have comparable materials and production costs, researchers say, with flappers being easier and faster to install.

That’s important because power companies must keep a line discharged during the diverter installation process — losing money because electricity is not flowing through the line — so the time required to install diverters is the most important factor when considering costs.

British Conservative Boris Johnson’s COVID-19 mismanagement, cartoon

British Conservative Prime Minister Boris Johnson's coronavirus mismanagement, cartoon

This cartoon by Citizen Chicane is about British Conservative Prime Minister Boris Johnson‘s coronavirus mismanagement.

Boris Johnson accused of putting business interests before public health: here.

Why is Britain’s coronavirus response so poor? The Covid-19 failure has deep roots within the ideology of successive governments that have been committed to centralised, privatised solutions and hostile to the public sector, says SOLOMON HUGHES.

How carnivorous Venus flytrap plants feed

This video says about itself:

Best Venus Flytrap Trapping Compilation 2018

Footage from the last 12 months, featuring everything from small flies to snails and mealworms getting trapped.

From the University of Freiburg in Germany:

Venus flytrap snapping mechanisms virtually captured

Biomechanical analyses and computer simulations reveal the Venus flytrap snapping mechanisms

June 23, 2020

Summary: The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) takes only 100 milliseconds to trap its prey. Once their leaves, which have been transformed into snap traps, have closed, insects can no longer escape. Using biomechanical experiments and virtual Venus flytraps a team has analyzed in detail how the lobes of the trap move.

Freiburg biologists Dr. Anna Westermeier, Max Mylo, Prof. Dr. Thomas Speck and Dr. Simon Poppinga and Stuttgart structural engineer Renate Sachse and Prof. Dr. Manfred Bischoff show that the trap of the carnivorous plant is under mechanical prestress. In addition, its three tissue layers of each lobe have to deform according to a special pattern. The team has published its results in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA.

The diet of the Venus flytrap consists mainly of crawling insects. When the animals touch the sensory hairs inside the trap twice within about 20 seconds it snaps shut. Aspects such as how the trap perceives its prey and how it differentiates potential prey from a raindrop falling into the trap were already well known to scientists. However, the precise morphing process of the halves of the trap remained largely unknown.

In order to gain a better understanding of these processes, the researchers have analyzed the interior and exterior surfaces of the trap using digital 3D image correlation methods. Scientists typically use these methods for the examination of technical materials. Using the results the team then constructed several virtual traps in a finite element simulation that differ in their tissue layer setups and in the mechanical behavior of the layers.

Only the digital traps that were under prestress displayed the typical snapping. The team confirmed this observation with dehydration tests on real plants: only well-watered traps are able to snap shut quickly and correctly by releasing this prestress. Watering the plant changed the pressure in the cells and with it the behavior of the tissue. In order to close correctly, the traps also had to consist of three layers of tissue: an inner which constricts, an outer which expands, and a neutral middle layer.

Speck and Mylo are members of the Living, Adaptive and Energy-autonomous Materials Systems (livMatS) cluster of excellence of the University of Freiburg. The Venus flytrap serves there as a model for a biomimetic demonstrator made of artificial materials being developed by researchers at the cluster. The scientists use it to test the potential uses of materials systems that have life-like characteristics: the systems adapt to changes in the environment and harvest the necessary energy from this environment.

Venus flytraps catch spiders and insects by snapping their trap leaves. This mechanism is activated when unsuspecting prey touch highly sensitive trigger hairs twice within 30 seconds. A study led by researchers at the University of Zurich has now shown that a single slow touch also triggers trap closure — probably to catch slow-moving larvae and snails: here.

Coronavirus spread by Donald Trump and slaughterhouses

This 24 May 2020 Dutch video is about the COVID-19 outbreak at the Vion corporation slaughterhouse in Groenlo. At least 147 workers there were infected.

Translated from Dutch NOS radio today:

Concerned residents demonstrate at slaughterhouse in Boxtel

Local residents living around the Vion slaughterhouse in Boxtel want the company to close down for the time being. Coronavirus infections [at least 26] have been diagnosed among workers. Residents and organizations will demonstrate at the corporation tomorrow. “We think it is unheard of that meat production is more important than the health of slaughterhouse employees and the inhabitants of Boxtel”, says Mirjam Bemelmans of the action group Close Down Vion. It is not clear yet how many protesters are expected.

Most of the personnel are migrant workers. In addition to the employees, the residents of Boxtel are also at risk, says Bemelmans. They can become infected if, eg, they come into contact with slaughterhouse staff in a supermarket, regional broadcaster Omroep Brabant writes.

The demonstration will be on Friday, at 13-15 o’clock. The organisers write:

We, a coalition of organizations and concerned citizens and residents, believe that Vion should close down immediately to prevent the spread of corona. Vion itself should provide decent and safe housing and care for all employees, and pay and compensate all employees.

Therefore, on the afternoon of Friday, June 26th, we will be at Vion Boxtel entrance to demand that the slaughterhouse closes immediately.

The demonstration has been announced to the municipality. We will, of course, comply with the coronavirus measures.

More info will follow.

The organisers are not only worried about the health of workers and Helmond people, but also about animal welfare.

UPDATE: report of the demonstration. And here.

Also translated from Dutch NOS radio today:

Dozens of U.S. Secret Service members are quarantined after two colleagues have tested positive for the coronavirus. American media report that. The agency wants to neither deny nor confirm the news.

Being secret police …

The two Secret Service officers who tested positive did preparatory work for President Trump’s election meeting in Tulsa last weekend. The rally was controversial, partly due to fears of the virus spreading further. In addition to the two agents, six Trump campaign workers who were involved in the meeting were also infected.

Pacific eelgrass improves wildlife

This May 2018 video from New York state in the USA says about itself:

A planting system that CCE Marine Program Eelgrass team devised to release eelgrass seeds into new eelgrass sites. This system was created to efficiently distribute eelgrass seeds and reduce labor and time.

From the University of Washington in the USA:

Puget Sound eelgrass beds create a ‘halo’ with fewer harmful algae, new method shows

June 24, 2020

Eelgrass, a species of seagrass named for its long slippery texture, is one of nature’s superheroes. It offers shade and camouflage for young fish, helps anchor shorelines, and provides food and habitat for many marine species.

A University of Washington study adds one more superpower to the list of eelgrass abilities: warding off the toxin-producing algae that regularly close beaches to shellfish harvests. Researchers found evidence that there are significantly fewer of the single-celled algae that produce harmful toxins in an area more than 45 feet, or 15 meters, around an eelgrass bed.

“We’re not in the laboratory. The effect we’re seeing is happening in nature, and it’s an effect that’s really widespread within this group of harmful algae. What we see is this halo of reduced abundance around the eelgrass beds,” said Emily Jacobs-Palmer, a research scientist at the UW. She is the lead author of the study published this spring in the open-access journal PeerJ.

Researchers sampled five coastal sites three times in the spring and summer of 2017. Four sites were within Puget Sound and one was in Willapa Bay, on Washington’s outer coast.

In addition to a traditional visual ecological survey at each site, the researchers used a type of genetic forensics to detect species that might not be easily seen or present at the time of the survey.

Scientists put on waders and walked parallel to shore in water less than knee deep while scooping up seawater samples to analyze the environmental DNA, or eDNA, present. This method collects fragments of genetic material to identify organisms living in the seawater.

The researchers sampled water from each site at the same point in the tidal cycle both inside the eelgrass bed and at regular intervals up to 45 feet away from the edge. For comparison they also surveyed a location farther away over bare seabed.

“In the DNA fragments we saw everything from shellfish to marine worms, osprey, bugs that fell in the water,” Jacobs-Palmer said. “It’s quite fascinating to just get this potpourri of organisms and then look for patterns, rather than deciding on a pattern that we think should be there and then looking for that.”

The researchers analyzed the eDNA results to find trends among 13 major groups of organisms. They discovered that dinoflagellates, a broad class of single-celled organism, were scarcer in and around the eelgrass beds than in surrounding waters with bare seabed.

“We were asking how the biological community changes inside eelgrass beds, and this result was so strong that it jumped out at us, even though we weren’t looking for it specifically,” said senior author Ryan Kelly, a UW associate professor of marine and environmental affairs.

The result has practical applications, since certain species of dinoflagellate populations can spike and produce toxins that accumulate in shellfish, making the shellfish dangerous or even deadly to eat.

The phrase “harmful algal bloom” has a formal definition that was not measured for this study. But authors say the trend appeared when the overall dinoflagellate populations were high.

“I have heard people talk about a trade-off between shellfish and eelgrass, in terms of land use in Puget Sound. Now, from our perspective, there’s not a clean trade-off between those things — these systems might be able to complement one another,” Kelly said.

To explore the reasons for the result, the authors looked at differences in water chemistry or current motion around the bed. But neither could explain why dinoflagellate populations were lower around the eelgrass.

Instead, the authors hypothesize that the same biological reasons why dinoflagellates don’t flourish inside eelgrass beds — likely bacteria that occur with eelgrass and are harmful to dinoflagellates — may extend past the bed’s edge.

“It was known that there is some antagonistic relationship between eelgrass and algae, but it’s really important that this effect seems to span beyond the bounds of the bed itself,” Jacobs-Palmer said.

The discovery of a “halo effect” by which eelgrass discourages the growth of potentially harmful algae could have applications in shellfish harvesting, ecological restoration or shoreline planning.

“These beds are often really large, and that means that their perimeter is also really large,” Jacobs-Palmer said. “That’s a lot of land where eelgrass is potentially having an effect.”

In follow-up work, researchers chose two of the sites, in Port Gamble on the Kitsap Peninsula and Skokomish on Hood Canal, to conduct weekly sampling from late June through October 2019. They hope to verify the pattern they discovered and learn more about the environmental conditions that might allow the halo to exist.

United States Black Lives Matter and police brutality

This 12 June 2020 video says about itself:

Black Lives Matter Protests Around the World

Protesters of all ages, all races, all backgrounds are showing up at Black Lives Matter protests out of love for their fellow human beings. Out of love for George Floyd. Out of love for Breonna Taylor. Out of love for all of the Black people who have lost their lives because of the color of their skin. You can feel this love when you attend a protest. You can see it on the faces of the people all around you. You can hear it in their voices. Sometimes, it flows through the mass of people like a quiet undercurrent. Sometimes, it’s downright joyful. No matter how it’s expressed, it’s always potent, always powerful. And it’s going to change the world for the better. From New York City to Philadelphia, from Amsterdam to Paris, this is what it is like to attend Black Lives Matter protests.

From daily News Line in Britain, 25 June 2020:

US police committed widespread human rights violations against Black Lives Matter protesters

Police forces across the USA have committed widespread human rights violations against Black Lives Matter protesters, Amnesty International said on Tuesday, as it launched a detailed interactive map of more than 100 incidents of police violence.

Amnesty has documented 125 separate examples of police violence against protesters in 40 states and the District of Columbia between 26 May and 5 June, a period when hundreds of thousands of people in the USA and other countries protested against racism and police violence.

The mapped analysis reveals a dizzying array of violations by police forces across the country in 80% of US states.

In light of disturbing images of US police violence in the week immediately following the police killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis, Amnesty UK called on the UK Government to halt exports of all security and policing equipment to the USA.

However, despite considerable public and political support for the export freeze, the Government has not halted sales.

Amnesty’s new research shows how US law-enforcement officers’ use of unlawful force included beatings, misuse of tear gas and pepper spray, and the inappropriate firing of less-lethal projectiles such as rubber bullets and sponge rounds.

The abuses were committed by a range of security forces – from state and local police departments, to federal agencies and the National Guard.

Amnesty’s mapping shows the violations were not limited to the largest cities.

Local police inappropriately used tear gas against peaceful protesters in Louisville, Kentucky; Murfreesboro, Tennessee; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; and Albuquerque, New Mexico, among other towns and cities.

And in Fort Wayne, Indiana on 30 May, a local journalist lost his eye when police shot him in the face with a tear gas grenade.

Amnesty’s Crisis Evidence Lab gathered almost 500 videos and photographs of protests from social media platforms.

This digital content was then verified, geolocated, and analysed by investigators with expertise in weapons, police tactics, and international and US laws governing the use of force. In some cases, researchers were also able to interview victims and confirm police conduct with local police departments.

While the majority of the protesters have been peaceful, some have used violence.

In many cases, however, rather than respond to individual violations, security forces have used disproportionate and indiscriminate force against entire demonstrations.

Brian Castner, Amnesty International’s Senior Crisis Advisor on Arms and Military Operations, said: ‘The analysis is clear: when activists and supporters of the Black Lives Matter movement took to the streets in cities and towns across the USA to peacefully demand an end to systemic racism and police violence, they were overwhelmingly met with a militarised response and more police violence.

‘The time for applying band-aids and making excuses for a few “bad apples” has passed.

‘What’s needed now is systemic, root-and-branch reform of US policing that brings an end to the scourge of police use of excessive force and extrajudicial executions of black people.

‘Communities should not live in fear of being harmed by the very officers that have sworn an oath to protect them. Officers responsible for excessive force and unlawful killings must always be held accountable.’

Examples of police abuse

On 30 May: a joint patrol of Minneapolis police and Minnesota National Guard personnel unlawfully shot US-manufactured 37/40mm impact projectiles at people peacefully standing on the front porches of their homes.

After encountering people recording with their phones, the forces ordered people to ‘get inside’ and then shouted ‘light them up’ before firing.

On 1 June: security personnel from a variety of federal agencies – including National Park Police and the Bureau of Prisons, as well as DC National Guard personnel – committed a range of human rights violations against protesters in Lafayette Square in Washington.

They used riot shields to shove protesters and media workers, misused a variety of crowd control agents, and threw US-manufactured Stinger Ball grenades – which contain pepper spray and explode in a concussive ‘flash-bang’ which sprays rubber pellets indiscriminately in all directions.

The attack, which preceded a photo-op by President Trump in front of a nearby church, was widely reported by media, including a lengthy Washington Post video featuring Amnesty analysis.

This 8 June 2020 Washington Post video is called A video timeline of the crackdown on protesters before Trump’s photo op.

Also on June 1st state and city police in the Center City area of Philadelphia used large amounts of tear gas and pepper spray to remove dozens of peaceful protesters from the Vine Street Expressway.

One protester, Lizzie Horne, a rabbinical student, told Amnesty: ‘Out of the blue, they started breezing pepper spray into the crowd.

‘There was one officer on the central reservation who was spraying as well.

‘Then they started with tear gas. Someone who was right in the front – who had a tear gas canister hit his head – started running back.

‘And we were trying to help him, flushing his eyes and then he just fainted and started having a seizure. He came to pretty quickly.

‘As we were finally lifting him up and start getting him out of the way, they started launching more tear gas; that’s when people started to get really scared.

‘They started gassing in a kettle formation – we were against a big fence that people had to jump over, up a steep hill. The fence was maybe six feet tall.

‘People started putting their hands up – but the cops wouldn’t let up. It was can after can after can. We were encapsulated in gas.

‘We were drooling and coughing uncontrollably. Then the cops came from the other side of the fence and started gassing from that direction.

‘After that, the police started coming up the hill and … they were hitting and tackling people. They were dragging people down the hill and forcing them down on their knees, lining them up kneeling on the central reservation on the highway with their hands in zip ties, and pulling down their masks and spraying and gassing them again.’

Growing calls for major reforms

In a 16 June executive order, President Trump called for incentives to limit the use of chokeholds of the kind that killed George Floyd in Minneapolis on 25 May, as well as a national database on allegations of excessive force by police.

Some state and city police forces have introduced partial reforms since the protests began, such as suspending the use of certain crowd control weapons like tear gas.

In Minneapolis, a majority of the City Council has pledged to disband the police force and replace it with more effective public safety institutions.

Amnesty is demanding comprehensive reforms to US policing to stop police extrajudicial executions of black people and bring accountability for their deaths through independent, impartial investigations that lead to reparations for the victims and survivors.

Amnesty is also insisting that the right to peaceful protest against police violence should be enabled, without the threat of protesters, journalists or bystanders being targeted by further police violence.

Amongst other reforms, Amnesty is calling for:

  • Federal legislation, including the PEACE Act, as well as new state laws to restrict police use of force to what is strictly necessary and proportionate;
  • An end to the ‘qualified immunity’ doctrine, which prevents police from being held legally accountable when they break the law;
  • Federal legislation to demilitarise US police forces.

Human rights standards

Security forces can only resort to use of force at public assemblies when it is absolutely necessary and proportionate to achieve a legitimate law enforcement objective, in response to serious violence threatening the lives or rights of others.

Even then, authorities must strictly distinguish between peaceful demonstrators or bystanders, and any individual who is actively engaged in violence.

The violent acts of an individual never justify the disproportionate use of force against peaceful protesters generally, and force is only justified until the immediate threat of violence toward others is contained.

Any restrictions of public assemblies – including use of force against demonstrators – must not discriminate on the basis of race, ethnicity, political ideology or other categories.

Excessive use of force against peaceful protesters violates both the US Constitution and international human rights law. Law-enforcement agencies at all levels have a responsibility to respect, protect, and facilitate peaceful assemblies.

How dinosaurs survived Arctic cold

This 24 June 2020 video says about itself:

When Dinosaurs Chilled in the Arctic

All told, the Arctic in the Cretaceous Period was a rough place to live, especially in winter. And yet, the fossils of many kinds of dinosaurs have been discovered there. So how were they able to survive in this harsh environment?