Finnish salmon sex life, new research


This video from Finland is called Small salmon in Teno river (Kuusiniemenväylä) 2016.

From the University of Helsinki in Finland:

Size matters in the sex life of salmon

June 23, 2020

Summary: For Atlantic salmon, size matters when it comes to love. Larger males and females that may spend up to four years at sea produce many more babies, but they are very rare compared to younger fish.

Every summer, tens of thousands of Atlantic salmon migrate from the Barents Sea to the Teno River, Finland, to spawn in the streams where they were born. This journey is a feat of endurance: salmon stop feeding and must navigate fast-flowing water, leap over obstacles, and avoid predators, hooks, and fishing nets to arrive at their spawning grounds.

The marathon doesn’t stop there though: once they arrive at their spawning grounds, they must fight for the possibility to mate with members of the opposite sex. Who are the winners of this evolutionary competition? It turns out that the largest fish produce the most offspring, but there are far fewer of these fish on the spawning ground battling for reproductive success than their younger — and smaller — competitors, according to researchers at the University of Helsinki and the Natural Resources Institute Finland.

The study, recently published in the scientific journal Molecular Ecology, is part of a long-term monitoring program. A small piece of fin tissue was removed for genetic fingerprinting of more than 5000 adults and juveniles before they were released back into the wild. Adults were also fitted with a unique identification tag after a few scales were carefully sampled. The scales are particularly valuable, as they record annual growth cycles, much like tree rings.

“Great care was taken to not harm the fish,” explains Dr. Kenyon Mobley, lead author of the article. “In fact, we have recaptured adults returning to spawn several years later and juveniles returning to spawn as adults.”

Larger salmon have more offspring

Most salmon in Teno River spend between one and four years at sea before migrating back to breed. The more time salmon spend at sea, the larger they grow. Females generally take between 2-3 years to mature, but most males return after just one year at sea.

Mobley’s study showed that for every year spent at sea, females gain over 4 kilograms of body weight and produce 60% more offspring. Males, on the other hand, gain nearly 5 kilograms of body weight and produce 200% more offspring for every year they spend at sea.

However, spending more time at sea comes with a significant cost. Very few of these older larger fish return to spawn. “This is presumably because spending more time at sea exposes fish longer to predators, fishing, and diseases, and thus a higher risk of death before having a chance to spawn,” explains Mobley.

“Knowing the reproductive contributions of different sized fish in this river section can help us to develop more accurate models of offspring production. These are needed for developing Teno salmon management guidelines,” says Professor Jaakko Erkinaro from Natural Resources Institute Finland. “It also helps our ongoing research aimed at predicting how many large adults may survive at sea to return to spawn,” Mobley adds.

Larger salmon have more mating partners

Like most animals in nature, salmon are not monogamous and can have up to eight mating partners, the study shows. Having more mating partners ensures successful fertilization of eggs and passing on their genes to the next generation.

Nearly all females captured in the study produced offspring, mating on average with more than two males, and gained 35% more mates for each year they spent at sea. Males have, on average, less than one mate, indicating that many males are excluded from mating presumably through strong competition by bigger males. For each year spent at sea, males gain 60% more mates. This means that larger salmon, in particular males, have a distinct advantage when it comes to finding mates.

Where are the females?

In the study population, females are a rare commodity. There are up to seven males for every female at the spawning ground near the entrance of the Utsjoki River. This pattern is consistent across all years of the study. Having a high number of males likely increases fights among males for opportunities to mate with the few available females. Why so few females return to this particular site remains a mystery, as other locations in the Teno River have a more balanced mix of males and females.

Early life-history affects female reproduction

Prior to entering the sea, juvenile salmon usually spend between 3-5 years in freshwater. The researchers were surprised to find that the longer the females stay in freshwater, the fewer years they spend at sea, and return to spawn at a much smaller size. Because these females are smaller, they have fewer eggs and produce less offspring. Males, on the other hand, do not seem to be affected by spending more time in freshwater.

“These results show how overlooked aspects of salmon life-history are important to the long-term conservation of these fish,” said Mobley.

COVID-19 update, worldwide


This 24 June 2020 video from the USA says about itself:

Outbreak at San Quentin: COVID Is Skyrocketing in CA Prisons. Why Haven’t More People Been Released?

As coronavirus rapidly spreads through California’s overcrowded prisons, 400 people have tested positive for the virus at San Quentin State Prison. Advocates and incarcerated people warn conditions behind bars make it nearly impossible to stop the virus once it enters. We speak with Adnan Khan, executive director of Re:Store Justice, an organization that advocates for policy and alternative responses to violence and life sentences. He links inhumane prison conditions to the mass uprising in the streets against systemic racism and state violence. “There are literally millions of people in prison based on the ‘credible testimony’ and written reports of the very police that we’re seeing brutalize protesters, brutalize and shoot at media and nurses during these peaceful protests,” he says.

The COVID-19 pandemic and the global plight of refugees and migrant workers. 24 June 2020. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to tear through the global population, the disease is having an especially devastating impact on the tens of millions of displaced people throughout the world: here.

USA: As the pandemic spirals out of control, Trump attacks testing, holds indoor rally in Phoenix. By Barry Grey, 24 June 2020. The deadly back-to-work drive is bipartisan, with Democratic governors and mayors taking the lead in reopening businesses and forcing workers back on the job without any real protection.

This internet petition says about itself:

To: European Commission President Ursula Von Der Leyen

#Right2Cure: No profit on pandemics. Vaccine and treatment for all.

Faced with a pandemic, everyone has the right to a cure. A collective threat requires a collective response.

Researchers around the world are developing vaccines and treatments, often using huge sums of public money. Intellectual property rights, such as patents, should not be allowed to limit the rapid accessibility of vaccines and treatments for all. We want to ensure guaranteed access to Covid-19 related diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines.

Big pharmaceutical companies should not profit from this pandemic at the expense of people’s health. In the 1990s, multinational drug companies used patents for HIV treatments in order to charge exorbitant prices for their products. Millions of lives were lost.

The South African government, led by Nelson Mandela, overrode patents making use of compulsory licensing, and gave way to affordable and quality generic equivalents.

The EU too must put public health before private profit.

The European Commission must guarantee that anti-pandemic vaccines and treatments become a global public good, freely accessible to everyone.

From daily News Line in Britain today:

Removing 2-metre rule risks second wave, warn unions

DESPITE announcing yesterday a seven-day rolling average of 130 people a day dying from Covid-19, Tory PM Johnson announced measures to ‘safely ease the lockdown in England’.

Johnson said: ‘We can change the two-metre rule from the 4th July. This rule makes it impossible for large parts of the economy in particular hospitality. So we are reducing the two-metre rule to a one-metre rule. …

Before Johnson spoke, the Unite union warned that downgrading the two-metre social distancing rule risked causing ‘more outbreaks’ of coronavirus within the meat-processing sector.

The union said it was ‘inevitable’ that some low paid meat factory workers on ‘exploitative contracts’, who should be self-isolating, will continue working because they are only entitled to statutory sick pay (SSP) of £95.85 a week.

Unite national officer Bev Clarkson said: ‘Many employers are barely taking notice of the two-metre social distancing rule as it is. Any downgrade for the meat industry in the current environment will simply give irresponsible bosses the excuse they need to do away with social distancing entirely. Put simply, it will risk more outbreaks at factories across the country.’

General Secretary of USDAW the shop workers union, Paddy Lillis said: ‘The safety of our members and the public is our top priority, so USDAW worked with the British Retail Consortium on joint safety guidance for shops based on the 2-metre rule.

‘Reducing the 2-metre rule in stores could be disastrous for our members and send a message to the public that social distancing is over.

‘There is plenty of evidence to show that 2-metre separation is at least twice as safe as 1-metre. Independent SAGE warns that the risk of transmission is still too high to reduce social distancing rules indoors.

‘Covid-19 is still a killer disease that is at large in our communities. Retail has adapted well to the new circumstances. It is not necessary to change the 2-metre rule and it certainly shouldn’t be done without full discussion and agreement.’

All schools in England to open in September. By Tom Pearce, 24 June 2020. The government’s decision to return to the full opening of schools has been taken without any systematic review of the impact of the wider reopening of the economy.

More than 1,500 COVID-19 infections at pork processing plant in Germany. By Marianne Arens and Peter Schwarz, 24 June 2020. The Tönnies Group, Germany’s largest meat processing firm, has a long record of putting profits before the health and safety of its workforce.

Australia: Coronavirus infections spike in Melbourne’s working-class suburbs. By Patrick O’Connor, 24 June 2020. Victoria’s Chief Health Officer Brett Sutton declared that the state was at a “tipping point.”

Shipwreck Coral Reefs, video


This 24 June 2020 video says about itself:

Exploring Shipwreck Coral Reefs

Next on Blue World, Jonathan learns how to dive without a scuba tank by holding his breath a long time! But first, he investigates shipwrecks that are turning into coral reefs. All of this today on Jonathan Bird’s Blue World!

Racism and police update


This 23 June 2020 video says about itself:

Brandon Saenz: Dallas Protester Lost an Eye After Police Shot Him with “Less Lethal” Projectile

As a new Amnesty International report documents at least 125 instances of police violence against Black Lives Matters protesters in 40 states from May 26 to June 5, we speak with Brandon Saenz, a 26-year-old Black man shot in the face by Dallas police with so-called less-lethal ammunition that shattered his left eye and fractured his face. We also speak with his lawyer, Daryl Washington, about how he has since helped to win a 90-day preliminary injunction against the police use of chemical agents and rubber bullets in Dallas.

OFFICER FIRED MONTHS AFTER BREONNA TAYLOR KILLING Detective Brett Hankison, one of the Louisville, Kentucky, police officers who fatally shot Breonna Taylor in March, was officially fired on Tuesday — more than three months after her death. Hankison was one of three officers who entered Taylor’s home under a “no-knock” warrant on March 13 for a narcotics investigation unrelated to her. They shot the 26-year-old Black woman several times. The two other officers involved have been placed on administrative leave. None of the three officers has been charged. [HuffPost]

PROBE INTO POLICE ATTACK ON PROTESTERS BEFORE TRUMP POSED WITH BIBLE The inspector general of the Interior Department is launching an investigation into law enforcement attacks on protesters ordered by Attorney General William Barr outside the White House before Trump walked to a nearby church to hold up a Bible for a photo-op. The Office of the Inspector General “confirmed that it is investigating the Trump administration’s excessive use of force” against the protesters, Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) said. [HuffPost]

The greatest trick racism ever pulled was convincing England it doesn’t exist.

This 23 June 2020 video says about itself:

Cédric Chouviat: French police investigated over death of delivery driver

A delivery driver in Paris who died after a traffic stop in January was heard shouting “I’m suffocating” in footage seen by French media. Cédric Chouviat, a 42-year-old father-of-five, reportedly said he couldn’t breathe seven times in 22 seconds as the officers appeared to pin him down.

By Steve Sweeney, 24 June 2020:

Paris cops spark another ‘I can’t breathe’ case

Video of delivery-driver dad-of-5’s suffocation mirrors US police brutality

POLICE brutality has come under the spotlight in France again after footage emerged of a delivery driver pleading for his life as he struggled for breath while being restrained following a traffic stop.

Cedric Chouviat was heard repeatedly shouting “I’m suffocating” and telling officers he couldn’t breathe at least seven times in 22 seconds after he was pulled over in the capital Paris in January.

The father-of-five died two days later in hospital after falling into a coma. A coroner ruled the cause of his death as asphyxia and a broken larynx.

None of the four officers involved in the incident have been suspended but last week they were taken into custody and interviewed over the incident as part of judicial investigations. Charges could be brought in the coming weeks.

Initial reports from their lawyer said that Mr Chouviat was pulled over because he was on his mobile phone and had a dirty licence plate.

Video footage shows him being pinned face down to the ground while appealing for his life.

His family have accused police of unjustified violence. Witnesses say that officers held Mr Chouviat in a chokehold, a dangerous and much-criticised restraint technique.

A recent decision by the French government to ban its use was overturned after police unions held demonstrations in support of their right to use the violent act on citizens.

Lawyers for the family have asked for the incident to be reclassified as “willful violence resulting in death.”

Last week the Morning Star reported on an incident in which Paris police smashed a nurse’s head against a tree repeatedly before dragging her into custody by her hair during a protest by health workers.

Nearly 300 investigations were opened into police violence last year during the yellow-vest anti-government protests.

The interior ministry admitted in May 2019 that 2,448 protesters had been injured during the demonstrations. It is believed that at least 24 people were blinded in an eye and 283 sustained head injuries as police used rubber bullets and other weapons to disperse crowds.

Yellow-crowned night-heron in Bermuda


This video says about itself:

Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Passes By Cahow Cam On Nonsuch Island, Bermuda – June 24, 2020

This Yellow-crowned Night-Heron lives up to its name while passing by the cahow burrow entrance in the early morning hours of June 24. Yellow-crowned Night-herons were introduced to Bermuda in the 1970s to help control a land crab population which had exploded following the extinction of the endemic Bermuda Night-Heron in the 1600s following human colonization.

Both the 2017-2018 cam burrow and the original 2013-2014 burrow are visible, as well as this above-ground view of Nonsuch Island (where the cams are based).

Coronavirus disaster in the Americas


This 24 June 2020 video says about itself:

Chile‘s President Sebastian Piñera is being accused of breaking his own government’s coronavirus rules.

He attended the funeral of his 104-year-old uncle, former Archbishop Bernardino Piñera , along with more than 30 others, 10 more than is allowed. The ceremony included live music and photographers.

More than 250,000 people are known to have contracted the disease in Chile.

Al Jazeera’s Lucia Newman reports from Santiago, Chile.

Ex-Archbishop Piñera died from COVID-19. On August 21, 2019, Chile’s nuncio Ivo Scapolo announced that the Vatican had launched an investigation into claims that Piñera sexually abused at least one child 50 years prior.

JUDGE ORDERS BOLSONARO TO WEAR MASK A Brazilian judge ordered President Jair Bolsonaro to wear a mask in public after the right-winger attended political rallies without one in the middle of the world’s second-worst coronavirus outbreak. Federal Judge Renato Borelli ruled in a decision made public on Tuesday that Bolsonaro was subject to a fine of 2,000 reais ($387) a day if he continued to disobey a local ordinance in the federal district meant to slow the pandemic. [Reuters]

TRUMP SPENDS RALLY DOWNPLAYING VIRUS, MAKING RACIST JOKES Speaking in a state where coronavirus cases are repeatedly setting daily infection records, and following the news that U.S. cases surged 25% last week, President Donald Trump told a crowd of young Arizona supporters that everything was under control. “Someday it’ll be recognized by history,” he said of his pandemic response. This is “hopefully the end of the pandemic,” Trump told about 3,000 college students, most of whom did not wear masks. He then turned to his repeated racist joke, saying “COVID-19, I said that’s an odd name,” after calling the virus “Wuhan”, and “kung flu”. [HuffPost]

Trump Made a Racist Joke in a Phoenix Megachurch and the Crowd Went Wild: here.

TRUMP’S CORONAVIRUS CONFESSION IS BEING USED IN ATTACK ADS Trump’s own words from this weekend’s rally in Tulsa, Oklahoma, are being used against him in a series of new attack ads from his critics on both the left and the right. Trump said he ordered his advisers to “slow the testing down” for coronavirus infections so the U.S. wouldn’t have so many cases ― an order that would fly in the face of medical advice. Progressive PAC MeidasTouch called it “mass murder on a national scale.” Meanwhile, ex-Trump aide Sebastian Gorka has boasted about not wearing COVID-19 “burqas.” [HuffPost]

TRUMP USES PANDEMIC TO PUSH ANTI-IMMIGRATION AGENDA Trump is using the coronavirus pandemic to justify a crackdown on immigration that puts vulnerable migrants at risk, separates families, and could deepen the current economic crisis. Since declaring a national emergency over COVID-19 in March, Trump has halted refugee resettlement, deported unaccompanied children fleeing violence and abuse, suspended some categories of legal immigration, closed the border to asylum-seekers and repeatedly pushed back court hearings for people awaiting them in Mexico. On Monday, he restricted legal immigration even further via executive order as he ramps up his struggling reelection campaign. [HuffPost]

Corporate Democrats lose New York primary elections


This 23 June 2020 video from the USA says about itself:

Watch Jamaal Bowman‘s POWERFUL de facto victory speech as it appears he has defeated incumbent Representative Eliot Engel.

Eliot Engel is a veteran establishment Democratic party politician. Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. Like Donald Trump, he supported the wrecking of President Obama’s Iran nuclear deal. He voted for George W Bush’s Iraq war. In 2014, he spoke along with Islamophobic extremist Pamela Geller at a rally.

In April 2020, he falsely claimed that he had helped to fight COVID-19 in New York City, while in fact, he had not been to New York since March.

Recently, he said that that the only criticized police brutality against Black Lives Matter protesters because he had to fight the primary election against Jamaal Bowman.

16-TERM DEMOCRAT ON THE ROPES IN NEW YORK A progressive upstart led longtime Rep. Eliot Engel in the closely watched Democratic primary for New York’s 16th Congressional District early today, with the outcome inconclusive. With less than 20% of precincts reporting, Bronx middle school principal Jamaal Bowman led Engel by more than 25 percentage points. Bowman delivered a triumphant speech to supporters gathered at an outdoor, riverside restaurant. [HuffPost]

From British daily The Independent today:

Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who won a shock primary victory two years ago and swiftly rose to national political stardom, looks set to win a second term in Congress.

The 30-year-old progressive defeated a number of centrist primary challengers from her own party, paving the way for re-election in New York’s 14th district, a safe Democratic seat that covers the Bronx and Queens.

An increase in postal ballots due to the coronavirus means that many thousands of votes will not be counted until next week. But with early results showing Ms Ocasio-Cortez with a more than 50 per cent lead, the Associated Press called the race on Tuesday evening. …

Her own primary victory in 2018 against 10-term incumbent Joe Cowley,

Crowley, not Cowley

then the fourth-ranking Democrat in the House, was one few saw coming. Ms Ocasio-Cortez, a graduate of Boston University, was working behind the bar in a restaurant in New York’s Union Square when she launched her run. She took office at 29 years old, making her the youngest woman to ever serve in congress.

She did not go alone. The Bronx native was part of a wave progressive Democrats who unseated long-term, centrist incumbents. The arrival in Washington of AOC and “the Squad” — Reps Ocasio-Cortez, Ilhan Omar, Ayanna Pressley and Rashida Tlaib — marked a leftward shift in Democratic party politics. Each of them advocated for more radical solutions to America’s ills and the excesses of Donald Trump’s presidency.

The question waiting to be answered by many of the primary races in New York on Tuesday was whether AOC’s arrival on the national stage was a harbinger of things to come, or an anomaly. And whether progressives could continue to pull the Democratic Party to the left at a time of national crisis and in a presidential election year that saw the archetypal establishment politician, former vice president Joe Biden, easily win the nomination.

This year, several races in New York have set up long-shot challenges to long-term incumbents that mirror AOC’s breakthrough campaign. One, in particular, could serve as a measure of progressive Democrats’ strength.

Jamaal Bowman, a former Bronx middle school principal who has been described as “the next AOC”, poses a serious threat to 73-year-old Eliot Engel, a 16-term congressman who was first elected in 1988. Democratic Party elders firmly closed ranks around Engel — Hillary Clinton, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and New York governor Andrew Cuomo all endorsed him.

Bowman, however, secured the nod from AOC: “Not only is Jamaal a profound community leader, but I believe he’d make a fantastic colleague in the United States House of Representatives,” she said.

Due to the high number of absentee ballots being cast in the New York primaries — a result of the coronavirus pandemic — results from close races may not be known for another week. But early results showed Bowman far ahead of Engel. A win for him would suggest that the progressive wave is by no means over. …

Her most serious primary challenger in this election was a former TV anchor and former Republican Michelle Caruso-Cabrera, who has received substantial backing from large-dollar donors.

Michelle Caruso-Cabrera lived in a high-priced apartment in Trump International Hotel and Tower in Manhattan for years.

Back in Queens, she has played a balancing act between the national stage and local issues. The district that AOC represents is one of the most diverse in the state of New York. Of its 650,000 residents, 50 percent are Hispanic, 17 percent Asian and 23 percent white, according to 2016 census figures. It also has the fifth-highest percentage of service-sector workers in all congressional districts.

Cierra Johnson, 34, happened to be passing by when AOC stopped in Astoria on Tuesday. She had spent the morning volunteering for the campaign, handing out flyers. Her husband is Bolivian and recently lost the opportunity to obtain a Green Card due to a ban by the Trump administration. She said she was drawn to AOC because “she was willing to stand up and fight.”

Nurseryfish video


This 20 June 2020 video says about itself:

Nurseryfish Dads Give Their Young a Headstart… Literally

Happy Father’s day! Today we’re talking about the fintastic Nurseryfish, which is one of the best dads you can fish for.

Thanks to Dr. Tim Berra for teaching us more about these amazing fish as well as providing such awesome pictures!

Hosted by: Hank Green

These fish live in Asia and Australia.

Big prehistoric structure discovery near Stonehenge, England


This video says about itself:

Stonehenge: Neolithic monument found at Durrington Walls (UK) – BBC News – 22nd June 2020

Stonehenge: Neolithic monument found near sacred site on Salisbury Plain (in Wiltshire), at Durrington Walls, just two miles away from Stonehenge.

From the University of Bradford in England:

Massive prehistoric circle near Stonehenge

‘Astonishing discovery’ offers new insights into lives of Neolithic ancestors

June 22, 2020

Summary: Archaeologists have discovered a major new prehistoric monument only a short distance away from Stonehenge. Fieldwork and analysis have revealed evidence for 20 or more massive, prehistoric shafts, measuring more than 10 metres in diameter and 5 metres deep. These shafts form a circle more than 2 kilometres in diameter and enclose an area greater than 3 square kilometres around the Durrington Walls henge, one of Britain’s largest henge monuments, and the famous, smaller prehistoric circle at Woodhenge.

What could be one of the largest prehistoric sites in the UK has been discovered near Stonehenge by a consortium of archaeologists led by the University of Bradford.

A massive 2km-wide ring of prehistoric ‘shafts’ up to 10m across and 5m deep has been discovered around the ‘super henge’ at Durrington Walls and the famous site at Woodhenge. The structures have been carbon-dated to about 2500BC.

Archaeologists believe the circle of shaft marks a boundary around the massive henge at Durrington. It is thought the features, along with an internal post line, could have guided people towards the religious sites and warned others not to cross the boundary.

Prof Vince Gaffney, 50th Anniversary Chair of the School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences in the Faculty of Life Sciences, said it was extraordinary such a major find had been made so close to Stonehenge.

“The area around Stonehenge is amongst the most studied archaeological landscapes on earth and it is remarkable that the application of new technology can still lead to the discovery of such a massive prehistoric structure which, currently, is significantly larger than any comparative prehistoric monument that we know of in Britain, at least.”

“When these pits were first noted it was thought they might be natural features — solution hollows in the chalk. Only when the larger picture emerged, through the geophysical surveys undertaken as part of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, could we join the dots and see there was a pattern on a massive scale.”

Research on the pits at Durrington was undertaken by a consortium of archaeologists led by the University of Bradford as part of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project (https://lbi-archpro.org/cs/stonehenge/), and with the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology, the Universities of Birmingham, St Andrews, Warwick, the University of Wales Trinity Saint Davids, and the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (University of Glasgow).

Researchers have identified up to 20 shafts but estimate there may have been more than 30 originally.

“The size of the shafts and circuit surrounding Durrington Walls is without precedent within the UK. It demonstrates the significance of Durrington Walls Henge, the complexity of the monumental structures within the Stonehenge landscape, and the capacity and desire of Neolithic communities to record their cosmological belief systems in ways, and at a scale, that we had never previously anticipated.”

Dr Nick Snashall, National Trust archaeologist for the Stonehenge and Avebury World Heritage Site, said: “As the place where the builders of Stonehenge lived and feasted Durrington Walls is key to unlocking the story of the wider Stonehenge landscape, and this astonishing discovery offers us new insights into the lives and beliefs of our Neolithic ancestors.

“The Hidden Landscapes team have combined cutting-edge, archaeological fieldwork with good old-fashioned detective work to reveal this extraordinary discovery and write a whole new chapter in the story of the Stonehenge landscape.”

The universities undertaking field research supporting this press release included the University of Bradford with the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology the Universities of Birmingham, St Andrews, Trinity Saint David (University of Wales), Warwick, and the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre. The work was undertaken a part of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project and brought together experts in non-invasive geophysical prospection and remote sensing, and specialists in British prehistory and landscape archaeology in order to carry out research in one of the most important archaeological landscapes in Europe. The outstanding geophysical survey and visualization capabilities of the team has been made possible only because of the unique expertise and combined resources of the wider project partnership. an international collaboration of the Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft (Austria), Amt der Niederösterreichischen Landesregierung (Austria), the University of Vienna (Austria), the Vienna University of Technology (Austria), ZAMG- the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (Austria), Airborne Technologies (Austria), 7reasons (Austria), ÖAW- Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria), ÖAI — Austrian Archaeological Institute (Austria), RGZM Mainz — Römisch‐Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz (Germany), the University of Birmingham in collaboration with the University of Bradford (GB), Arkeologerna of Statens Historiska Museer (Sweden), NIKU — Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage (Norway), and Vestfold fylkeskommune — Kulturarv (Norway).