Dinosaurs, male or female?


This video says about itself:

Dinosaur mating rituals | Walking with Dinosaurs in HQ | BBC

Watch the savage and deadly mating rituals that signaled which Diplodocus had earned the right to mate.

Broadcast in 1999, Walking with Dinosaurs set out to create the most accurate portrayal of prehistoric animals ever seen on the screen. Combining fact and informed speculation with cutting-edge computer graphics and animatronics effects, the series took two years to make.

From Queen Mary University of London in England:

Can we really tell male and female dinosaurs apart?

May 12, 2020

Scientists worldwide have long debated our ability to identify male and female dinosaurs. Now, research led by Queen Mary University of London has shown that despite previous claims of success, it’s very difficult to spot differences between the sexes.

In the new study, researchers analysed skulls from modern-day gharials, an endangered and giant crocodilian species, to see how easy it is to distinguish between males and females using only fossil records.

Male gharials are larger in size than females and possess a fleshy growth on the end of their snout, known as a ghara. Whilst the ghara is made from soft tissue, it is supported by a bony hollow near the nostrils, known as the narial fossa, which can be identified in their skulls.

The research team, which included Jordan Mallon from the Canadian Museum of Nature, Patrick Hennessey from Georgia Southern University and Lawrence Witmer from Ohio University, studied 106 gharial specimens in museums across the world. They found that aside from the presence of the narial fossa in males, it was still very hard to tell the sexes apart.

Dr David Hone, Senior Lecturer in Zoology at Queen Mary University of London and author of the study, said: “Like dinosaurs, gharials are large, slow-growing reptiles that lay eggs, which makes them a good model for studying extinct dinosaur species. Our research shows that even with prior knowledge of the sex of the specimen, it can still be difficult to tell male and female gharials apart. With most dinosaurs we don’t have anywhere near that size of the dataset used for this study, and we don’t know the sex of the animals, so we’d expect this task to be much harder.”

In many species, males and females can look very different from each other. For example, antlers are largely only found in male deer and in peacocks, males are normally brightly-coloured with large, iridescent tail feathers whereas females are much more subdued in their colouration. This is known as sexual dimorphism and is very common within the animal kingdom. It is expected that dinosaurs also exhibit these differences, however this research suggests that in most cases this is far too difficult to tell from the skeleton alone.

Dr Hone said: “Some animals show extraordinarily high levels of sexual dimorphism, for example huge size differences between males and females. Gharials sit somewhere in the middle as they do possess these large narial fossa that can help with identification. Our study suggests that unless the differences between the dinosaurs are really striking, or there is a clear feature like the fossa, we will struggle to tell a male and female dinosaur apart using our existing dinosaur skeletons.”

The new research also challenges previous studies that have hinted at differences between the sexes in popular dinosaur species such as the Tyrannosaurus rex (T. rex), and led to common misconceptions amongst the general public.

“Many years ago, a scientific paper suggested that female T. rex are bigger than males. However, this was based on records from 25 broken specimens and our results show this level of data just isn’t good enough to be able to make this conclusion,” Dr Hone added.

Baby turtles benefit from coronavirus lockdown


This 12 May 2020 video says about itself:

With beaches clear of tourists amid ongoing closures, millions of baby turtles are making their way to the sea 🐢❤️

In US news and current events today, millions of baby Olive Ridley Turtles have hatched on the shore and are making their way back to the ocean in larger numbers than previous years.

The coronavirus pandemic has prompted worldwide lockdowns, effectively clearing beaches of tourist foot traffic.

Footballers oppose Russian roulette with their lives


This 2017 video from England says about itself:

Danny Rose | The Ultimate Compilation | Tottenham 2016-17 (HD)

Video of some of the best passes, assists, tackles, interceptions, goals (you name it), from one of our excellent full-backs, Danny Rose.

From daily The Morning Star un Britain today:

ENGLAND and Tottenham defender Danny Rose has again criticised the level of punishment that countries receive for racist abuse, describing it as “bollocks”.

And England defender says that people are at risk if league returns

In an Instagram Live discussion with musician Don E, the left-back, currently on loan at Newcastle, said that he would try and “write someone off” if racism occurred when his side was losing a match.

It was just one of a number of issues that the outspoken Rose talked freely about. On the prospect of a Premier League resumption, he admitted: “I don’t give a fuck about the nation’s morale, people’s lives are at risk.”

A reaction to British Conservative Prime Minister Boris Johnson wanting to play Russian roulette with the health and lives of footballers; and of workers.

Rose has spoken out before about the racist abuse he received when playing for England in Montenegro last March, when he and several team-mates were subjected to monkey chants.

The Montenegro FA received a €20,000 (£17,253) fine and were ordered to play a game behind closed doors; Rose says not enough is being done. …

Translated from Dutch NOS radio today:

Rose, a 29-time England international and hired by Newcastle from Tottenham Hotspur, was particularly angry about a remark by British Prime Minister Boris Johnson. He said that the return of football would provide a “much-needed boost to the nation”.

32,000 corona deaths

“I don’t give a fuck about the nation’s morale, people’s lives are at risk”, Rose fumed in conversation with singer Don-E via Instagram Live. “There shouldn’t even be talk of a return of football until the COVID-19 numbers drop.”

The coronavirus pandemic has caused many victims in the United Kingdom. In fact, with over 32,000 deaths and 223,000 infections, the British are the hardest hit country in Europe.

On Sunday, Raheem Sterling also expressed his concerns about a restart of the competition. The Manchester City and English team attacker insisted that the decision about a return of the Premier League should not be made just for football reasons.

This 10 May 2020 video shows Raheem Stirling on the coronavirus crisis.

The intention is to rapidly complete the remaining 92 Premier League matches on neutral ground from June. Players would be tested extensively, but club doctors do not think they can guarantee the health of the footballers.

Aston Villa and England defender Tyrone Mings and Norwich City talent Todd Cantwell also made themselves heard on social media. Mings with a sarcastic post on Twitter, while Cantwell once again pointed out that footballers are human too.

UK rail worker dies of coronavirus after being spat at while on duty. Family of Belly Mujinga, a ticket officer in London, voice concerns over lack of PPE: here.