Ancient trilobites’ social life, new research


This June 2017 video from the USA says about itself:

Trilobites are famous not just because they were so beautifully functional, or because they happened to preserve so well. They’re known the world over because they were everywhere!

From the CNRS in France:

Arthropods formed orderly lines 480 million years ago

October 17, 2019

Researchers studied fossilized Moroccan Ampyx trilobites, which lived 480 million years ago and showed that the trilobites had probably been buried in their positions — all oriented in the same direction. Scientists deduced that these Ampyx processions may illustrate a kind of collective behavior adopted in response to cyclic environmental disturbances.

Though our understanding of the anatomy of the earliest animals is growing ever more precise, we know next to nothing about their behaviour. Did group behaviour arise recently or is it primeval? To answer this question, researchers from the CNRS, the University of Poitiers, UBO, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University*, Cadi Ayyad University (Marrakech, Morocco), and the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) studied fossilized Moroccan Ampyx trilobites, which lived 480 million years ago. They showed that the trilobites had probably been buried in their positions — all oriented in the same direction, in orderly lines, maintaining close contact with each other through their long spines — during storms.

By comparing this observation with the behaviour of living animals such as North American spiny lobsters, the scientists deduced that these Ampyx processions may illustrate a similar kind of collective behaviour — adopted in response to cyclic environmental disturbances like storms or to chemical signals associated with reproduction.

This example would seem to suggest that group behaviour is of ancient origin and, from an early date, likely conferred an evolutionary advantage on the first animals, allowing them to survive environmental stress and improve their reproductive chances.

*- From the Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon: Terre, Planètes, Environnement (CNRS / ENS de Lyon / Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1), the Laboratoire Géosciences Océan (CNRS / Université Bretagne Occidentale / Université Bretagne Sud), and the Institute of Chemistry of Materials and Media of Poitiers (IC2MP (CNRS / Université de Poitiers).

News on the far right, update


This 1 June 2019 video says about itself:

Germany: Counter-protest dwarfs neo-Nazi march in Chemnitz

Far-right activists were met with scores of counter-protesters as they marched through Chemnitz on Saturday, marking ‘The Day of the German Future.’ Around 250 neo-Nazi protesters marched through the city centre, carrying flags of Imperial Germany and shouting xenophobic slogans such as ‘Germany for Germans, foreigners out‘. The protest was countered by around a 1,300-strong rally who attempted to disrupt the march, even scuffling with the police at one point. Despite tensions, an escalation was averted.

It took YouTube more than a week to take action against a propaganda video on its site produced by the Atomwaffen Division (AWD) — the neo-Nazi terrorist organization under FBI investigation and linked to five murders in the United States: here.

It took YouTube a lot less time to censor a non-violent anti-fascist video.

Germany Shooter ‘Would Have Killed More People’ With Access To Better Guns. The man accused of shooting two people to death in Halle, Germany, this week shares a lot of characteristics with American mass shooters: He’s a bigot with delusions of grandeur, and is part of an online community that fervently supports his hate. But there’s one thing that set him apart: here.

How the German synagogue shooter’s manifesto follows a far-right playbook [Vice]

Jury hangs on hate crime charges against racist New Jersey police chief [HuffPost]

‌A far-right candidate jolts the Canadian election [New York Times]

Flying squirrel at Cornell USA bird feeder


This video from New York State in the USA says about itself:

Flying Squirrel Is Early Morning Visitor To Cornell Lab FeederWatch Cam – Oct. 15, 2019

Thanks the Cornell Lab FeederWatch cam’s new night vision feature, we can now see all the visitors who stop by the feeder after the sun goes down! Watch this flying squirrel zip onto the platform, where it would stay feasting for about 10 minutes before venturing out of view.

The Cornell Lab of Ornithology writes:

Since 2012, the Cornell Lab FeederWatch cam has been known for its binge-worthy broadcast of our feathered friends from the Treman Bird Feeding Garden right outside our visitor center. We’re excited to announce that the cam you know and love has just received a 4K ultra high definition facelift! Tune in now for crisp, colorful views of your favorite Northeastern feeder birds in the highest resolution available. Thanks to the new cam’s night vision capabilities, you can stay up late and see all the action after the sun goes down (including late-nite visits from flying squirrels, see below). Watch cam here.

Neanderthal discovery on Naxos island, Greece


This 14 April 2018 video, in English with Greek subtitles, says about itself:

Carter’s Corner #6 – Neanderthals on Naxos!

From McMaster University in Canada:

Scientists find early humans moved through Mediterranean earlier than believed

October 16, 2019

An international research team led by scientists from McMaster University has unearthed new evidence in Greece proving that the island of Naxos was inhabited by Neanderthals and earlier humans at least 200,000 years ago, tens of thousands of years earlier than previously believed.

The findings, published today in the journal Science Advances, are based on years of excavations and challenge current thinking about human movement in the region — long thought to have been inaccessible and uninhabitable to anyone but modern humans. The new evidence is leading researchers to reconsider the routes our early ancestors took as they moved out of Africa into Europe and demonstrates their ability to adapt to new environmental challenges.

“Until recently, this part of the world was seen as irrelevant to early human studies but the results force us to completely rethink the history of the Mediterranean islands,” says Tristan Carter, an associate professor of anthropology at McMaster University and lead author on the study. He conducted the work with Dimitris Athanasoulis, head of archaeology at the Cycladic Ephorate of Antiquities within the Greek Ministry of Culture.

While Stone Age hunters are known to have been living on mainland Europe for over 1 million years, the Mediterranean islands were previously believed to be settled only 9,000 years ago, by farmers, the idea being that only modern humans — Homo sapiens — were sophisticated enough to build seafaring vessels.

Scholars had believed the Aegean Sea, separating western Anatolia (modern Turkey) from continental Greece, was therefore impassable to the Neanderthals and earlier hominins, with the only obvious route in and out of Europe was across the land bridge of Thrace (southeast Balkans).

The authors of this paper suggest that the Aegean basin was in fact accessible much earlier than believed. At certain times of the Ice Age the sea was much lower exposing a land route between the continents that would have allowed early prehistoric populations to walk to Stelida, and an alternative migration route connecting Europe and Africa. Researchers believe the area would have been attractive to early humans because of its abundance of raw materials ideal for toolmaking and for its fresh water.

At the same time however, “in entering this region the pre-Neanderthal populations would have been faced with a new and challenging environment, with different animals, plants and diseases, all requiring new adaptive strategies,” says Carter.

In this paper, the team details evidence of human activity spanning almost 200,000 years at Stelida, a prehistoric quarry on the northwest coast of Naxos. Here early Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and earlier humans used the local stone (chert) to make their tools and hunting weapons, of which the team has unearthed hundreds of thousands.

Reams of scientific data collected at the site add to the ongoing debate about the importance of coastal and marine routes to human movement. While present data suggests that the Aegean could be crossed by foot over 200,000 years ago, the authors also raise the possibility that Neanderthals may also have fashioned crude seafaring boats capable of crossing short distances.

This research is part of the Stelida Naxos Archeological Project, a larger collaboration involving scholars from all over the world. They have been working at the site since 2013.

For more on the project, visit the Stelida Naxos Archeological Project’s website.

How big dinosaurs survived heat


This 16 September 2018 video says about itself:

The Biggest Dinosaurs Of All Time

Dinosaurs are some of the biggest land-dwelling animals to ever exist on Earth. When you picture a dinosaur, you might imagine a 13-meter long T. rex or a Titanosaur the size of an airplane. But the first dinosaurs would have only come up to your knee. It turns out that sauropods, like Brontosaurus, developed special adaptations that allowed them to tower over the competition.

From Ohio University in the USA:

Huge dinosaurs evolved different cooling systems to combat heat stroke

Researchers use 3D imaging to discover multiple heat exchangers in dinosaur heads

October 16, 2019

Different dinosaur groups independently evolved gigantic body sizes, but they all faced the same problems of overheating and damaging their brains. Researchers from Ohio University’s Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine show in a new article in the Anatomical Record that different giant dinosaurs solved the problem in different ways, evolving different cooling systems in different parts of the head.

“The brain and sense organs like the eye are very sensitive to temperature,” said Ruger Porter, Assistant Professor of Anatomical Instruction and lead author of the study. “Animals today often have elaborate thermoregulatory strategies to protect these tissues by shuttling hot and cool blood around various networks of blood vessels. We wanted to see if dinosaurs were doing the same things.”

Many of the famous gigantic dinosaurs — such as the long-necked sauropods or armored ankylosaurs — actually evolved those big bodies independently from smaller-bodied ancestors. “Small dinosaurs could have just run into the shade to cool off,” said study co-author Professor Lawrence Witmer, “but for those giant dinosaurs, the potential for overheating was literally inescapable. They must have had special mechanisms to control brain temperature, but what were they?”

The answer turned out to be based in physics, but still part of our everyday experience. “One of the best ways to cool things down is with evaporation,” Porter said. “The air-conditioning units in buildings and cars use evaporation, and it’s the evaporative cooling of sweat that keeps us comfortable in summer. To cool the brain, we looked to the anatomical places where there’s moisture to allow evaporative cooling, such as the eyes and especially the nasal cavity and mouth.”

To test that idea, the team looked to the modern-day relatives of dinosaurs — birds and reptiles — where studies indeed showed that evaporation of moisture in the nose, mouth, and eyes cooled the blood on its way to the brain.

Porter and Witmer obtained carcasses of birds and reptiles that had died of natural causes from zoos and wildlife rehabilitation facilities. Using a technique developed in Witmer’s lab that allows arteries and veins to show up in CT scans, they were able to trace blood flow from the sites of evaporative cooling to the brain. They also precisely measured the bony canals and grooves that conveyed the blood vessels.

“The handy thing about blood vessels is that they basically write their presence into the bones,” Porter said. “The bony canals and grooves that we see in modern-day birds and reptiles are our link to the dinosaur fossils. We can use this bony evidence to restore the patterns of blood flow in extinct dinosaurs and hopefully get a glimpse into their thermal physiology and how they dealt with heat.”

“The discovery that different dinosaurs cooled their brains in a variety of ways not only provides a window into the everyday life of dinosaurs, it also serves as an exemplar of how the physical constraints imposed by specific environmental conditions have shaped the evolution of this diverse and unique group,” said Sharon Swartz, a program director at the National Science Foundation, which funded the research. “Using a combination of technological innovation and biological expertise, these researchers were able to take a direct reading from the fossil record that provides new clues about how dinosaur skeletal form and function evolved.”

This team of current and former members of WitmerLab at Ohio University has previously looked at other cases of dinosaur physiology. In 2014 and 2018, former doctoral student Jason Bourke led projects involving Porter and Witmer on breathing and heat exchange in pachycephalosaurs and ankylosaurs, respectively. Most recently, former lab doctoral student Casey Holliday led a project with Porter and Witmer that explored blood vessels on the skull roof of T. rex and other dinosaurs that also might have had a thermoregulatory function.

The new study by Porter and Witmer is a more expansive, quantitative study that shows that “one size didn’t fit all” with regard to how large-bodied dinosaurs kept their brains cool. That is, they had different thermoregulatory strategies. The researchers looked at bony canal sizes in the dinosaurs to assess the relative importance of the different sites of evaporative cooling based on how much blood was flowing through them.

A key factor turned out to be body size. Smaller dinosaurs such as the goat-sized pachycephalosaur Stegoceras had a very balanced vascular pattern with no single cooling region being particularly emphasized. “That makes physiological sense because smaller dinosaurs have less of a problem with overheating,” Porter said. “But giants like sauropods and ankylosaurs increased blood flow to particular cooling regions of the head far beyond what was necessary to simply nourish the tissues.” This unbalanced vascular pattern allowed the thermal strategies of large dinosaurs to be more focused, emphasizing one or more cooling regions.

But although sauropods like Diplodocus and Camarasaurus and ankylosaurs like Euoplocephalus all had unbalanced vascular patterns emphasizing certain cooling regions, they still differed. Sauropods emphasized both the nasal cavity and mouth as cooling regions whereas ankylosaurs only emphasized the nose. “It’s possible that sauropods were so large — often weighing dozens of tons — that they needed to recruit the mouth as a cooling region in times of heat stress,” Porter said. “Panting sauropods may have been a common sight!”

One problem that the researchers encountered was that many of the theropod dinosaurs — such as the 10-ton T. rex — were also gigantic, but the quantitative analysis showed that they had a balanced vascular pattern, like the small-bodied dinosaurs.

“This finding had us scratching our heads until we noticed the obvious difference — theropods like Majungasaurus and T. rex had a huge air sinus in their snouts,” Witmer said. Looking closer, the researchers discovered bony evidence that this antorbital air sinus was richly supplied with blood vessels. Witmer had previously shown that air circulated through the antorbital air sinus like a bellows pump every time the animal opened and closed its mouth. “Boom! An actively ventilated, highly vascular sinus meant that we had another potential cooling region. Theropod dinosaurs solved the same problem…but in a different way,” concluded Witmer.

The researchers are now expanding the project to include other dinosaur groups such as duck-billed hadrosaurs and horned ceratopsians like Triceratops to explore how thermoregulatory strategies varied among other dinosaurs and how these strategies may have influenced their behavior and even their preferred habitats.

The research was funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) grants to Witmer (part of the Visible Interactive Dinosaur Project), as well as by the Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine.

German nazis pretend to be police


This May 2016 video says about itself:

Germany: NPD rally mourns defeat and ‘occupation’ of Nazi Germany

The far-right National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD) held a rally in the German town of Demmin, Sunday, to commemorate the defeat of Nazi Germany and the country’s occupation, 71 years after the Red Army’s victory over Nazi Germany in 1945.

The far-right rally commemorated the Nazi loss and fall of the town … on May 1, 1945, … following the Red Army capture of the town from Nazi forces.

Translated from the Kronen Zeitung daily in Austria today:

The self-proclaimed vigilante group “Schutzzone” has been active in Germany for some time. They call themselves “the eyes and ears of the police” and claim to offer Germans security. Behind the movement is the far-right small party NPD (National Democratic Party of Germany), which is meanwhile a thorn in the side of the police. Because more and more members of that “protection zone” are hunting foreigners – and also give the impression of cooperating with the police.

A bit like the bodyguards of French President Macron, who pretend to be police in order to beat up May Day demonstrators.

Some “Schutzzone” NPD nazis in Döbeln town boast that they have ‘driven away foreigners stinking of cannabis’.