This graph is about extreme right terrorism in Western Europe and North America, 2002-2017. The 2011 high number of deaths is caused by the attacks by Anders Breivik in Oslo and on Utøya island in Norway then.
Translated from Dutch NOS TV today:
Breivik and Tarrant as heroes: right-wing extremist terrorism on the rise
He was a chosen one of “Saint Tarrant“. Eg, the suspect of last week’s attack on a mosque in Oslo referred to the man who shot dozens of mosque visitors in March in Christchurch, New Zealand. As his example.
The weekend before, a man in the US American border city of El Paso shot 22 people. He had aimed at Latin American immigrants and the suspect of this attack also called Tarrant a source of inspiration.
Statistics suggest that the call for violence against minorities is being followed more often by people like Brenton Tarrant. In Western Europe and the US, the number of attacks by the extreme right extreme nationalist side has risen sharply, according to several studies.
‘Wave of extreme right-wing violence‘
In the USA, after the attacks of September 11, 2001, more deaths have occurred due to extreme right-wing violence than by jihadists. In Europe, … right-wing extremists committed more attacks [than jihadists]. In Western Europe, there were 28 in 2017, the highest number in almost twenty years, according to the Global Terrorism Index.
“There is a wave of extreme right-wing violence in Western Europe: from hate crimes to attacks”, says Daniel Köhler. He is the founder of the German Institute on Radicalization and Deradicalization (GIRDS) and conducted research into extreme right-wing violence in the US and Europe. “We are increasingly seeing individuals such as Breivik and Tarrant becoming role models or heroes for young men who want to storm into a mosque with a weapon.”
According to Köhler, the rise of right-wing extremism in Europe coincides with the refugee crisis. Extremist groups responded to the fear among some of the population about the arrival of millions of refugees in Europe.
Germany took the most refugees and there was a peak in 2015 and 2016 in the number of bombings and arson attacks against immigrants or ethnic minorities. The extremes of specifically this type of violence leveled out afterwards, but the number of incidents of extreme violence by the right-wing extremist side doubled from 2017 to 2018.
Intelligence services in France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the United States and the Netherlands warn of the growing danger of right-wing extremism. The Dutch AIVD concluded that there is a slight upturn in our country, but that it has hardly led to violence. With the exception of, eg, the arson at a mosque in Enschede in 2016.
According to Köhler, conspiracy theories play a crucial role in radicalization. “We know from research that people act violently faster if they strongly believe in it.” Internet forums and social media make it easier to disseminate such theories quickly and anonymously.
The ‘great replacement‘ is seen as one of the most influential conspiracy theories from the right-radical side. The Norwegian Breivik and the Australian Tarrant referred to this replacement theory in their manifestos. The essence of it is that the white population in Europe and the US supposedly would be replaced by an “invasion” of immigrants.
Philip Manshaus (21), the suspect of the attack on the mosque in Oslo, is said to have been an online proponent of this theory. And El Paso suspect Patrick Crusius (21) told police that his attack was a reaction to the “Latin invasion“.
According to Köhler, the anti-immigrant rhetoric of President Trump has a major influence on the increase in right-wing extremism in the US. “He uses language that, from a German perspective, is reminiscent of a National Socialist [nazi] regime. He dehumanizes immigrants and stirs up fear.”
Extremists use this rhetoric as justification for their actions, says the German researcher. As an example, he mentions the man who sent bomb packages to critics of Trump.
The rise of right-wing populist parties in Europe, with a similar message to Trump, has had a similar effect, according to Köhler.
Once again: racists should not be called ‘populists’.