Baby pterosaurs could already fly

This October 2018 video says about itself:

Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to take to the skies. Learn about the anatomical features that made their flight possible, how large some of these creatures grew, and which species was named after a vampire legend.

From the University of Leicester in England:

Baby pterodactyls could fly from birth

Discovery shows extinct flying reptile had the remarkable ability to fly from birth

June 12, 2019

A breakthrough discovery has found that pterodactyls, extinct flying reptiles also known as pterosaurs,

Pterodactylus really is only one pterosaur species among many (the earliest one discovered).

had a remarkable ability — they could fly from birth. This discovery’s importance is highlighted by the fact that no other living vertebrates today, or in the history of life as we know it, have been able to replicate this. This revelation has a profound impact on our understanding of how pterodactyls lived, which is critical to understanding how the dinosaur world worked as a whole.

Previously, pterodactyls were thought to only be able to take to the air once they had grown to almost full size, just like birds or bats. This assumption was based on fossilised embryos of the creatures found in China that had poorly developed wings.

However, Dr David Unwin, a University of Leicester palaeobiologist who specialises in the study of pterodactyls and Dr Charles Deeming, a University of Lincoln zoologist who researches avian and reptilian reproduction, were able to disprove this hypothesis. They compared these embryos with data on prenatal growth in birds and crocodiles, finding that they were still at an early stage of development and a long way from hatching. The discovery of more advanced embryos in China and Argentina that died just before they hatched provided the evidence that pterodactyls had the ability to fly from birth. Dr David Unwin said: “Theoretically what pterosaurs did, growing and flying, is impossible, but they didn’t know this, so they did it anyway.”

Another fundamental difference between baby pterodactyls, also known as flaplings, and baby birds or bats, is that they had no parental care and had to feed and look after themselves from birth. Their ability to fly gave them a lifesaving survival mechanism which they used to evade carnivorous dinosaurs. This ability also proved to be one of their biggest killers, as the demanding and dangerous process of flight led to many of them dying at a very early age.

The research has also challenged the current view that pterodactyls behaved in a similar way to birds and bats and has provided possible answers to some key questions surrounding these animals. Since flaplings were able to both fly and grow from birth, this provides a possible explanation as to why they were able to reach enormous wingspans, far larger than any historic or current species of bird or bat. How they were able to carry out this process will require further research, but it is a question that wouldn’t have been posed without these recent developments in our understanding.

Dr Deeming added: “Our technique shows that pterosaurs were different from birds and bats and so comparative anatomy can reveal novel developmental modes in extinct species.”


Painter Frida Kahlo, first voice recording discovered?

This 13 June 2019 video says about itself:

Frida Kahlo‘s only known voice recording possibly found in Mexico

The National Sound Library of Mexico has unearthed what they believe could be the first known voice recording of Frida Kahlo, taken from a pilot episode of 1955 radio show El Bachiller, which aired after her death in 1954. The episode featured a profile of Kahlo‘s artist husband Diego Rivera. In it, she reads from her essay Portrait of Diego.

Weaver birds’ duet singing and brains

This video says about itself:

White-browed Sparrow-Weaver (Zimbabwe) building a nest. These noisy and social cuties were always around at Nakavango Conservation Centre. May 2015.

From the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Germany:

The brains of birds synchronize when they sing duets

Vocal control areas in the brain of weaver birds fire in time when they sing together

June 12, 2019

When a male or female white-browed sparrow-weaver begins its song, its partner joins in at a certain time. They duet with each other by singing in turn and precisely in tune. A team led by researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen used mobile transmitters to simultaneously record neural and acoustic signals from pairs of birds singing duets in their natural habitat. They found that the nerve cell activity in the brain of the singing bird changes and synchronizes with its partner when the partner begins to sing. The brains of both animals then essentially function as one, which leads to the perfect duet.

White-browed sparrow-weavers (Plocepasser mahali) live together in small groups in trees in southern and eastern Africa. Each bird has a roosting nest with an entrance and an exit. The dominant pair will have a breeding nest which is easily recognisable by the fact that one passage is closed to prevent eggs from falling out. In addition to the dominant pair, there are up to eight other birds in the group that help build nests and raise the young. All group members defend their territory against rival groups through duets of the dominant pair and choruses together with the helpers.

White-browed sparrow-weavers are one of the few bird species that sing in duet. It was assumed that some cognitive coordination between individuals was required to synchronise the syllables in the duet, however the underlying neuronal mechanisms of such coordination were unknown.

Miniature transmitters enable recording under natural conditions

“White-browed sparrow-weavers cannot develop their complex social structure in the laboratory. We were therefore only able to investigate the mechanisms of the duet singing in the natural habitat of the birds,” says Cornelia Voigt, one of the three lead authors of the study. Because of this, researchers and technicians at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen developed mobile microphone transmitters to record the singing in the wild. These weigh only 0.6 g and were attached to the bird like a backpack.

With another newly developed transmitter, weighing only 1 g, the scientists could also make a synchronous record of the brain activity in the birds while they were singing in their natural environment. An antenna placed near the birds’ tree recorded up to eight of these signals in parallel. With the help of an external sound card and a laptop, the singing and the brain signals were synchronously recorded with millisecond precision. “The technology we have developed must withstand the extreme conditions of the Kalahari Savannah in northern South Africa,” says Susanne Hoffmann, a scientist in the Department of Behavioural Neurobiology. “The electronics for recording the signals were stored in a car. During the day, it got so hot that the laptop almost began to glow. But the recordings all worked well, even when the birds and their transmitters were caught in one of the few downpours.”

Brain activity of the duetting birds synchronizes

Lisa Trost, also a scientist in the department, says: “Fortunately, the procedure for fixing the implants for neuronal measurements on the heads of the birds did not take long. After complete recovery, the respective bird was quickly returned to the group and did not lose its social status. All birds sang in the tree immediately after their return.” The researchers recorded almost 650 duets. In many cases, the males began with the song and the partner joined in after some introductory syllables. The syllables between the duetting pair followed each other without delay and in perfect coordination. The coordination was so precise that analysis showed only a 0.25s delay between the duetting partners’ singing bouts.

The singing of songbirds is controlled by a network of brain nuclei, the vocal control system. In one of these nuclei, the HVC, the call of the partner bird triggers a change in neuronal activity in the bird that began singing. This, in turn, affects its own singing. The result is a precise synchronization of the brain activity of both birds. “The rhythmic duet of the individuals is achieved through sensory information that comes from the partner,” says Manfred Gahr, who led the study. The brains of the partners form a network that functions like an extended circuit to organize the temporal pattern for the duet. The researchers suspect that similar mechanisms are also responsible for coordinating movement during social interactions in humans (e.g. dancing with a partner).

“Until now, this kind of study has only been performed in the laboratory. Measuring the activity of nerve cells in the field using wireless transmitters is much less stressful for the birds,” says Susanne Hoffmann. “We hope this study has laid the foundation for the further development of neuroethology.”

Climate change increases risk of wars

This 12 June 2019 video from the USA says about itself:

Climate Change Concentration Camps

Family separation is one of the most controversial actions the Trump administration has taken and now the victims of climate change may be the next locked in cages.

Climate change refugees are on their way and the Trump administration is preparing for them by housing migrants where Japanese Americans were interned during WWII.

Is Donald Trump creating Climate Change Concentration Camps?

This 10 June 2019 video from Stanford University in the USA says about itself:

Synthesizing views from experts in different fields, a new study led by Katharine Mach, Director of the Stanford Environment Assessment Facility, and co-authored by Kenneth Schultz, Professor of Political Science at Stanford, finds that climate has affected the risk of armed conflict to date and its impact is expected to increase substantially with future warming.

As a Dutch general remarked, climate change is a major factor in causing war in Syria.

From Stanford University in the USA:

How much does climate change affects the risk of armed conflict

As global temperatures climb, the risk of armed conflict is expected to increase substantially

June 12, 2019

Intensifying climate change will increase the future risk of violent armed conflict within countries, according to a study
published today in the journal Nature. Synthesizing views across experts, the study estimates climate has influenced between 3% and 20% of armed conflict risk over the last century and that the influence will likely increase dramatically.

In a scenario with 4 degrees Celsius of warming (approximately the path we’re on if societies do not substantially reduce emissions of heat-trapping gases), the influence of climate on conflicts would increase more than five times, leaping to a 26% chance of a substantial increase in conflict risk, according to the study. Even in a scenario of 2 degrees Celsius of warming beyond preindustrial levels — the stated goal of the Paris Climate Agreement¬ — the influence of climate on conflicts would more than double, rising to a 13% chance.

“Appreciating the role of climate change and its security impacts is important not only for understanding the social costs of our continuing heat-trapping emissions, but for prioritizing responses, which could include aid and cooperation,” said Katharine Mach, director of the Stanford Environment Assessment Facility and the study’s lead author.

Climate change-driven extreme weather and related disasters can damage economies, lower farming and livestock production and intensify inequality among social groups. These factors, when combined with other drivers of conflict, may increase risks of violence.

“Knowing whether environmental or climatic changes are important for explaining conflict has implications for what we can do to reduce the likelihood of future conflict, as well as for how to make well-informed decisions about how aggressively we should mitigate future climate change,” said Marshall Burke, assistant professor of Earth system science and a co-author on the study.

Finding consensus

Researchers disagree intensely as to whether climate plays a role in triggering civil wars and other armed conflicts. To better understand the impact of climate, the analysis involved interviews with and debates among experts in political science, environmental science, economics and other fields who have come to different conclusions on climate’s influence on conflict in the past.

The experts, who also served as co-authors on the study, agree that climate has affected organized armed conflict in recent decades. However, they make clear that other factors, such as low socioeconomic development, the strength of government, inequalities in societies, and a recent history of violent conflict have a much heavier impact on conflict within countries.

The researchers don’t fully understand how climate affects conflict and under what conditions. The consequences of future climate change will likely be different from historical climate disruptions because societies will be forced to grapple with unprecedented conditions that go beyond known experience and what they may be capable of adapting to.

“Historically, levels of armed conflict over time have been heavily influenced by shocks to, and changes in, international relations among states and in their domestic political systems,” said James Fearon, professor of political science and co-author on the study. “It is quite likely that over this century, unprecedented climate change is going to have significant impacts on both, but it is extremely hard to anticipate whether the political changes related to climate change will have big effects on armed conflict in turn. So I think putting nontrivial weight on significant climate effects on conflict is reasonable.”

Planning ahead

Reducing conflict risk and preparing for a changing climate can be a win-win approach. The study explains that adaptation strategies, such as crop insurance, post-harvest storage, training services and other measures, can increase food security and diversify economic opportunities, thereby reducing potential climate-conflict linkages. Peacekeeping, conflict mediation and post-conflict aid operations could incorporate climate into their risk reduction strategies by looking at ways climatic hazards may exacerbate violent conflict in the future.

However, the researchers make clear there is a need to increase understanding of these strategies’ effectiveness and potential for adverse side effects. For example, food export bans following crop failures can increase instability elsewhere.

“Understanding the multifaceted ways that climate may interact with known drivers of conflict is really critical for putting investments in the right place,” Mach said.

Medical and military leaders have come together to warn that climate change not only spells a global health catastrophe, but also threatens global stability and security: here.

Global climate change presents a serious national security threat that could affect Americans at home, impact U.S. military operations and heighten global tensions, according to a study released today by a blue-ribbon panel of retired admirals and generals: here.

The National Intelligence Council has completed a new classified assessment that explores how climate change could threaten US security in the next 20 years by causing political instability, mass movements of refugees, terrorism, or conflicts over water and other resources in specific countries: here.

US military operations to protect oil imports coming from the Middle East are creating larger amounts of greenhouse gas emissions than once thought, new research from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln shows: here.

A single nuclear warhead could cause devastating climate change, resulting in widespread drought and famine that could cost a billion lives, warn researchers: here.

Greenland‘s vast ice sheet has long been home to Project Iceworm, an abandoned Cold War-era U.S. Army initiative designed to deploy ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads against the Soviet Union. When the project was shuttered in 1967, military planners expected that any materials left on site would be safely frozen in ice and snow in perpetuity. Now, melting ice in a changing Arctic has remobilized some toxic waste at one Project Iceworm site and threatens to do the same at other project sites: here.

Rare and fragmented chalk grasslands may take at least half a century to recover from the damage done to them by military training, according to new research published in the British Ecological Society’s Journal of Applied Ecology. Dr Rachel Hirst and colleagues found that, while neutral (mesotrophic) grasslands took between 30 and 40 years to re-establish after disturbance during military training, areas of chalk grassland took at least 50 years to recover: here.

Asiatic golden cats’ colours, new research

This 2017 video is called Rarest cats in the world: Asian Golden Cat.

From the Zoological Society of London in England:

The benefits of being different

Six different ‘color morphs’ of the Asiatic golden cat discovered in India’s Arunachal Pradesh

June 12, 2019

Six different colour morphs of the elusive Asiatic golden cat have been discovered in Northeast India — with the findings being hailed as “an evolutionary puzzle” — as the world’s greatest number of different coloured wild cat species in one area are reported.

The Indian scientists from international conservation charity ZSL (Zoological Society of London) and UCL discovered the colour morphs, during a wide-scale camera trapping study covering both community forests and protected areas across Dibang Valley, Northeast India.

The study, published on 7 June 2019 in the Ecological Society of America’s journal Ecology, aimed to uncover a greater understanding of human-wildlife interactions in the region but discovered a group of entirely different-looking animals on their camera traps — with an inkling they were all the exact same species.

The finding is said to spark more questions than it answers. However, understanding how this remarkable phenomenon takes hold in a population, may help scientists grasp how quickly species can adapt and evolve to changing environments. This would advise scientists of the resilience of the species to climate change or habitat degradation and destruction.

Colour morphs are not classed as different subspecies as they may live in the same area and even interbreed. However, if differences in their behaviour prevented them from interbreeding — this could represent the beginning of the evolutionary process into separate subspecies. A more well-known example of a colour morph is the melanistic (dark coloured) morph (aka black panther) of the common leopard (Panthera pardus).

Within the six colour morphs recorded, an entirely new colour morph was also found in one of the community-owned forests. The now named “tightly-rosetted” morph after the leopard-like rosettes tightly spaced on their gray coat, now sits alongside the already known: cinnamon, melanistic, gray, golden, and ocelot (due to its ocelot-like markings) types.

ZSL scientists believe that the wide variation displayed in the cat’s coats provides them with several ecological benefits. It enables them to occupy different habitats at different elevations — from wet tropical lowland forests to alpine scrubs — and provides camouflage while hunting different prey such as tropical pheasants or Himalayan pika (a small mountain-dwelling rabbit-like mammal).

Colour morphs are thought to arise from random genetic mutations and take hold in the population through natural selection. In this region, scientists suspect that the phenomenon is driven by competition with other big cats such as tigers (Panthera tigris) and clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). Being melanistic in the misty mountains during nocturnal hunts, for example, may mean they are better concealed from their prey; making them more efficient predators.

Dr Sahil Nijhawan, the India-based lead author and British Academy Fellow at ZSL’s Institute of Zoology and UCL said: “According to evolutionary theory, if a colour morph is not beneficial for a species survival — over time, it should die out in the population. The fact that we have so many different colour morphs persisting in Dibang Valley shows there must be some ecological advantages to the variety of colours.

“We now know Dibang Valley hosts the world’s most diverse range of colour morphs of a wild cat species ever reported in one site, but we are only just starting to understand this rare ecological phenomenon. We need more studies that shed light on such unique adaptations and the benefits they provide to species, especially in a world where they must adapt quickly.”

Theresa May awards knighthood to racist bureaucrat

Rally in Brixton, London, England  in support of the Windrush Generation

From daily News Line in Britain:

‘INSULTING KICK IN THE TEETH FOR WINDRUSH GENERATION!’ –David Lammy MP condemns knighthood to ‘architect of Windrush policy’

13th June 2019

AS A PARTING shot and final ‘kick in the teeth’ to the Windrush Generation, Theresa May has awarded a knighthood to the Home Office official who was the architect of her ‘Hostile Environment’ policy against workers who emigrated to Britain from Commonwealth countries.

It was May who, as Home Secretary in 2012, declared that her aim was to ‘create, here in Britain, a really hostile environment for illegal immigrants’.

May’s department then sent out vans with messages telling ‘undocumented migrants’ to ‘go home’ emblazoned across them.

It was then under her premiership that the Windrush scandal subsequently erupted, when it finally came out that thousands of Commonwealth citizens had been targeted for deportation, with Home Office hit squads rounding them up, locking them up, deporting them, or leaving seriously ill people too afraid to access proper healthcare in case it led to their removal from the UK.

The health service was also recruited to implement May’s ‘hostile environment’, with seriously ill cancer and other patients denied NHS care unless they could prove they were ‘entitled’ to it.

Glyn Williams, the Home Office’s Head of Migration Policy between 2010 and 2013, and the current Director General for Border, Immigration and Citizenship, has been appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath for ‘public service’, in the Queen’s Birthday Honours list under May’s recommendation.

He had the key position in the Home Office when the hostile environment policy was developed and designed to make staying in the UK as difficult as possible for people without ‘leave to remain’.

It emerged last year that many people have been wrongly detained, denied legal rights and threatened with deportation.

At least 83 were wrongly deported, with many being born British subjects who had arrived before 1973 from Caribbean countries.

Last year, Williams sat alongside May’s successor as Home Secretary, Amber Rudd, while she was grilled by the Commons home affairs select committee over removal targets.

Rudd subsequently resigned after ‘inadvertently’ misleading MPs.

Responding to the news on Twitter, David Lammy, Labour MP for Tottenham, wrote: ‘No words. Shameless. Insulting kick in the teeth for the Windrush generation. The government hasn’t even confirmed how many British citizens were deported, imprisoned and denied their rights. Where are the knighthoods for the Windrush citizens abused by hostile environment?’

Other Twitter users were even more graphic.

‘Well that’s just a way to punch non EEA citizens who migrated or want to migrate legally with their families and loved ones right in the face. Horrifying to see this man being honoured. The reason why my husband’s mother cannot stay with us.’ – Uzma (@uzziwozzi)

‘Action should have consequences but it seems that for those in politics whose actions destroy lives the opposite is true’….#Windrush – Minnie rolfe (@Minnierolfe1)

‘You can colour me disgusted … but totally and utterly, unsurprised.’ – Duncan Watkinson – ??- ?? (@dunkinzo)

‘This is a disgrace. He’s getting rewarded for racist policies that have ruined people’s lives. This is so messed up.’ — UK Uncut (@UKuncut)

‘In UK racism reaps it own rewards. Chief architect of the #Tory “hostile environment” policy, racially targeting black people for illegal deportation, is given a Queens Award for ethnic cleansing services to the nation. Sickening.’ — Mr Lee Jasper (@LeeJasper)

Williams was one of a number of May’s allies to be listed – which drew calls of hypocrisy after she previously slammed David Cameron for filling his list with cronies.

Nine other Home Office staff members have been awarded honours this year.

Current Home Secretary Sajid Javid admitted last November that ‘at least’ 11 people who had been wrongly deported had died since returning to the Caribbean.

Javid said officials had also been unable to contact many thought to have been caught up in the scandal, suggesting the toll could be higher.

He said there were 83 cases in which it had been confirmed people were wrongfully removed from the country and officials fear there may be a further 81.

The shadow home secretary, Diane Abbott, called the revelations a ‘complete disgrace’.

Meanwhile, on Monday it was revealed that only 13 Windrush victims have been granted emergency support by the government so far.

Tory leadership contender and Home Secretary Javid trumpeted on Monday that he has apologised to another 49 victims of the scandal.

A total of 67 people have now received personal apology letters from Javid.

He said the experiences of some of the Windrush generation had been ‘completely unacceptable’ and he was ‘committed to right the wrongs of successive governments’.

An estimated 500,000 people now living in the UK have been called the Windrush generation, in reference to the name of a ship which brought workers to the UK from Caribbean countries in 1948.

A review by a Home Office taskforce of 11,800 Caribbean cases in 2018 identified 164 who were deported or detained who might have been resident in the UK before 1973.

The Commonwealth Citizen Taskforce, which is open to all nationalities, was established by the Home Office last year to ‘right the wrongs experienced by the Windrush generation’.

A compensation scheme for those affected opened in April and the government said there was ‘no cap’ on the amount victims could receive.

However, only 13 of the 91 victims who have applied under the scheme have been granted emergency support so far.

Ahead of the first official Windrush Day celebrations, two community organisations, BTWSC/African Histories Revisited and Music Congress, will mark Anti-University Now 2019, British Black Music Month 2019, Spirit Of AJY1987-88 and Windrush Day, by delivering two Windrush-themed presentations as part of this year’s Anti-University Now alternative and radical education festival.

On June 17, music industry and history consultant Kwaku will deliver ‘Windrush, Migration & Reggae’, an interactive presentation which posits that the reggae genre or the global phenomenon that reggae has become, and which was recently accorded a place on UNESCO’s cultural heritage list, may well not have happened had it not been for migration.

Firstly, that involved forced migration of Africans to the Caribbean, followed by voluntary migration within the Caribbean, and from the Caribbean to Britain.

The event at Conway Hall in Holborn, central London, will close with a formal acceptance on behalf of the Black Cultural Archives (BCA) by BCA chair Dawn Hill of an International Reggae Day award to the Windrush Generation, for their contributions to Britain’s cultural landscape.

On June 19, Kwaku will present ‘The Windrush Papers’.

This presentation puts Empire Windrush and the early Windrush Generation history into context by referencing circa 1945-1950 contemporaneous history, which contradicts some of the revisionist history currently presented as Windrush facts!

The aim of the event, which takes place at London Action Resource Centre in Whitechapel, east London, is both to celebrate the Windrush history whilst also pointing out historical inaccuracies within the received wisdom of the Windrush narrative.

Both events are free, and family-friendly. For more details or to book:,, and

Climate change threatens South American monkeys

This 2009 video says about itself:

Great video from BBC Earth epic Wild South America. Learn more about the secret life of Bromeliads, a type of plant that thrives in an extreme rainforest environment. Watch as the plant is used as a drinking well for thirsty tree top monkeys and a swimming pool for preening brightly coloured birds.

From the University of Stirling in Scotland:

Monkeys face climate change extinction threat

June 12, 2019

Monkeys living in South America are highly vulnerable to climate change and face an “elevated risk of extinction”, according to a new University of Stirling-led study.

The research, involving an international team of scientists, found that a large percentage of non-human primates — including monkeys, lemurs and apes — are facing substantial temperature increases and marked habitat changes over the next 30 years.

The team, led by Dr Joana Carvalho of Stirling’s Faculty of Natural Sciences, said that New World monkeys — which live primarily in tropical South America — will be particularly affected.

Dr Carvalho said: “Based on our analysis, it is clear that New World monkeys in particular can be considered highly vulnerable to projected temperature increases, consequently facing an elevated risk of extinction.”

The study looked at all 426 species of non-human primates contained within the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List database — and examined their exposure risk to changes in climatic and land use conditions forecast for the year 2050. The authors considered the best-case scenario — slowly declining emissions, with appropriate mitigation measures put in place — and the worst-case scenario, assuming that emissions continue to increase unchecked.

The team identified key regions where future conditions will be particularly bleak for species — with New World monkeys exposed to extreme levels of warming. They said that 86 percent of Neotropical primate ranges will experience maximum temperature increases of greater than 3°C, while extreme warming — of more than 4°C — is likely to affect 41 percent of their ranges, including many areas that presently harbour the highest number of primate species.

Dr Carvalho continued: “Studies that quantify what magnitudes of warming primates are able to tolerate physiologically are lacking. However, we have reason to believe that extreme temperature increases — as those predicted based on the low mitigation scenario — would most likely surpass the thermal tolerance of many species.”

Professor Hjalmar Kuehl, senior author of the study and primatologist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany, said: “Climate-change mitigation measures have not yet been systematically included into on-site management and strategic development of primate conservation.

“Given the timescale on which climate change and resulting impact on primate populations will occur, efforts for integrating climate change mitigation measures need to be enhanced urgently in order to be able to develop and implement appropriate actions.”

The study also suggests that anticipated changes in how humans use the land and alter existing primate habitats will exacerbate the negative effects on primate populations brought about by global warming.

According to the authors, about one quarter of Asian and African primates will face up to 50 percent agricultural crop expansion within their range, while undisturbed habitat is expected to disappear nearly entirely across species’ ranges and will be replaced by some form of human-disturbed habitat.

The authors conclude that “urgent action” is required — in relation to the implementation of climate-change mitigation measures — to avert primate extinctions on an unprecedented scale.

The study also involved Professor Bruce Graham, University of Stirling; Dr Gaëlle Bocksberger, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology; Dr Christoph Meyer, University of Salford; Professor Serge Wich, Liverpool John Moores University; and Hugo Rebelo, Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetics Resources in Portugal.

A Noah’s Ark strategy will fail. In the roughest sense, that’s the conclusion of a first-of-its-kind study that illuminates which marine species may have the ability to survive in a world where temperatures are rising and oceans are becoming acidic. Two-by-two, or even moderately sized, remnants may have little chance to persist on a climate-changed planet. Instead, for many species, “we’ll need large populations,” says Melissa Pespeni a biologist at the University of Vermont who led the new research examining how hundreds of thousands of sea urchin larvae responded to experiments where their seawater was made either moderately or extremely acidic. The study was published on June 11, 2019, in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B: here.