This video from the USA says about itself:
Volkswagen’s diesel scandal, explained
24 September 2015
Translated from Dutch NOS TV:
“Diesel vans six times dirtier than allowed’
Small vans that run on diesel fuel emit far more pollutants than was previously assumed. A TNO study shows according to daily De Volkskrant that the business cars on average emit six times more nitrogen oxides than the limit of 280 milligrams per kilometer.
Opel Vivaro, Mercedes Sprinter and Renault Trafic are the worst in the test. The Volkswagen Caddy and Peugeot Boxer also emit more than allowed. Only the Mercedes Sprinter Euro IV is within the limit.
The test results had already been published, but without the brand names and models of vans. The Volkskrant, following an appeal to the Open Government Act, could see the entire test. …
The researchers were unable to detect whether in the vans fraudulent software has been used to influence the emissions tests positively.