Bahrain human rights violations continue

Bahrain Continues to Delay Human Rights Investigations: here.

This video is called Asma Darwish’s Hunger Strike in Bahrain.

From A Safe World for Women:

Bahraini Activist Asma Darwish

Interview by Joanne Michele, Safeworld Correspondent

On the 22nd of May, 2011 a Bahraini photographer, Mohammad Darwish, was arrested by the authorities.

The authorities refused to give any information to his family and on the 4th of June, his sister, Asma Darwish, went on hunger strike.

Asma was no stranger to human rights issues in Bahrain. Her husband Hussain Jawad was a member of the Bahrain Center for Human Rights and Amnesty International and had himself been arrested three times. She herself was well known to the media and became a regular contact for the media through twitter under the name of @eagertobefree.

Her father-in-law, Mohammad Hassan Mohammad Jawad (Parweez), an independent human rights activist was arrested on March 22 and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. Parwees was 65 and was the oldest political prisoner in Bahrain. When he was arrested he was tortured and held in solitary confinement for 4 months.

When we first spoke in December, Asma’s 16-year old cousin had just been released after two months in prison. He’d been arrested for watching, but not participating in, the protests, and was exposed to torture. Moreover, another cousin and uncle are both political prisoners, having been sentenced to 10 and 5 years, respectively.

Bahrain has the highest rate of drug-related deaths in the Arabian Peninsula, according to a United Nations (UN) report: here.


Panamanian crocodile-like camel fossils discovered

This video from the USA says about itself:

Fossilized camel toe bone unearthed during Florida training dig for OVIASC members.

By Jennifer Viegas:

Fossils of Crocodile-Like Camel Found

Mon Mar 5, 2012

Camels with long, crocodile-like snouts once lived near what is now the Panama Canal, suggests a new study.

The camels lived 20 million years ago and are now considered to be among the oldest known animals from Panama.

“They were probably browsers in the forests of the ancient tropics. We can say that because the crowns are really short,” lead author Aldo Rincon, a University of Florida geology doctoral student, said in a press release.

Rincon and his team are working with the Panama Canal Authority and scientists at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute to make the most of a five-year window of excavations during Panama Canal expansions that began in 2009.

The new fossil camels, Aguascalietia panamaensis and Aguascalientia minuta, extend the distribution of mammals to their southernmost point in the ancient tropics of Central America.

Excavations are often difficult in the tropics because the lush vegetation prevents access. That’s not such a bad thing, considering that these species-rich areas contain some of the world’s most important ecosystems, including rain forests that regulate climate systems and serve as a vital source of food and medicine.

“We’re discovering this fabulous new diversity of animals that lived in Central America that we didn’t even know about before,” said co-author Bruce MacFadden, vertebrate paleontology curator at the Florida Museum on the UF campus and co-principal investigator on the NSF grant funding the project.

“The family originated about 30 million years ago and they’re found widespread throughout North America, but prior to this discovery, they were unknown south of Mexico.”

The two new fossil camels, found in the Las Cascadas formation, belong to an evolutionary branch of the camel family separate from the one that gave rise to modern camels.

Camels belong to a group of even-toed ungulates that includes cattle, goats, sheep, deer, buffalo and pigs. Other fossil mammals discovered in Panama from the early Miocene have been restricted to those also found in North America at the time.

While researchers are sure the ancient camels were herbivores that likely browsed in forests, they are still analyzing seeds and pollen to better understand the environment of the ancient tropics.

“People think of camels as being in the Old World, but their distribution in the past is different than what we know today,” MacFadden said. “The ancestors of llamas originated in North America and then when the land bridge formed about four to five million years ago, they dispersed into South America and evolved into the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuña.”

The study was published in the latest Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.

See also here.

Several slender-limbed, small camelid taxa of the Oligocene and Miocene are grouped together in Stenomylinae: all known members of this group were evidently cursorial, gazelle-like camelids of grassland habitats, and they’ve often been termed ‘gazelle camels’: here.

The feeding habits of mammals haven’t always been what they are today, particularly for omnivores, finds a new study. Some groups of mammals almost exclusively eat meat — take lions and tigers and other big cats, for example. Other mammals such as deer, cows and antelope are predominantly plant-eaters, living on a diet of leaves, shoots, fruits and bark. But particularly for omnivores that live on plant foods in addition to meat, the situation wasn’t always that way, finds a new study by researchers working at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center in Durham, North Carolina: here.

DNA extracted from bones collected in the Yukon show that North America’s last camel was a close relative of Old World camels and not llamas as previously thought. Although they are now extinct in North America, camels first evolved there more than 40 million years ago. Living camels are now limited to the Old World (dromedary and Bactrian camels), and South America (llamas, guanacos, and alpacas). For much of the Cenozoic however, camels were common and diverse in North America. One of the last camels to live in North America was Camelops, which went extinct about 13,000 years ago: here.

An ancient fourteen-foot tall camel was excavated by paleontologists at the University of Louisiana. This specimen is the most complete giant camel fossil to date. Researchers at the University of Louisiana in Lafayette excavated a giant camel found in Oregon back in 2015. The specimen is the most complete fossil of Megatylopus, an extinct large camel that lived from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (13.6-1.8 million years ago). This particular specimen is thought to be around 7 million years old and 4 meters (14 feet) tall. A study done by Mendoza and his team estimate Megatylopus camels to weigh around 1698 kg (3700 lbs): here.

Squacco heron photograph

9 February 2012 in the Gambia.

Squacco heron, the Gambia, 9 February 2012

This photo shows a squacco heron.

In Africa, this species is a winter migrant from southern Europe and western Asia.

July 2012. Birders have been gathering at WWT Welney in Norfolk this week to see an extremely rare squacco heron. The reason why it has turned up in the UK is unknown as these birds normally spend the summer in Southern Europe: here.

More squacco heron photos: here.

New Cambodian lizard species discovery

Lygosoma veunsaiensis, an iridescent skink new to science found in the Veun Sai-Siem Pang Conservation Area in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Photo: © Gabor Csorba

From Wildlife Extra:

March 2012: A new species of skink has been discovered in Cambodia. The lizard is characterized by its very short legs, long tail and striking iridescent skin. The skink was found during a Rapid Assesment Programme expedition in northeast Cambodia led by Fauna & Flora International (FFI), in partnership with Conservation International (CI) in 2010.

The skink has now been named Lygosoma veunsaiensis to honour the Veun Sai-Siem Pang Conservation Area in Ratanakiri where it was found. It is the latest in a string of new species discovered in this area, including Walston’s tube-nosed bat and the northern yellow-cheeked gibbon.

See also here.