What ammonites ate

Baculites grandis shell

By Jennifer Viegas:

Dinosaur-Era Animal’s Last Meal Found in Its Mouth

These creatures, once the most abundant marine animals on Earth, likely went extinct because of a food shortage.

Thu Jan 6, 2011 02:01 PM ET


* The last meal of a Dinosaur-Era ammonite was found still lodged in the marine animal’s mouth.
* High-powered X-rays reveal that ammonites had jaws and a toothed tongue-like structure.
* Ammonites likely went extinct because of a shortage of certain key prey at the end of the Cretaceous Period.

The last supper of an ammonite, a shelled cephalopod relative of squid and octopus, was stuck in the individual’s mouth when it died, described in a new study published in the journal Science. Extremely powerful X-rays revealed that the Baculites ammonite’s final meal was a small snail and three tiny crustaceans.

Ammonites, one of the Dinosaur Era’s most abundant marine animals, first emerged around 400 million years ago before dying out, along with dinosaurs and numerous other animals, 65.5 million years ago.

“Unfortunately we do not know what killed the Baculites,” lead author Isabelle Kruta of Paris’ National Museum of Natural History told Discovery News.

Kruta and her team, however, were able to unveil amazingly vivid details about this specimen, and other ammonites that are all extinct.

In a scientific first, a process called synchrotron X-ray microtomography, which creates cross sections of 3D objects without harming them, was used on several ammonites. Some of the fossils were discovered at a site in Belle Fourche, S.D.

The researchers determined ammonites possessed jaws and a radula, which is like a tongue covered with teeth. In this case, the slender teeth varied from saber- to comb-like.

“Ammonites used their radula to trap the food in the mouth and convey it through the esophagus,” Kruta explained.

This feeding system, along with the last supper remains, suggests that ammonites were adapted for eating small prey, such as small crustaceans and plankton, floating in the water. Although ammonite fossils are readily available, and are even sometimes sold as jewelry, no one previously knew much about their diet and lifestyle.

Now scientists suspect that the meteor impact thought to have wiped out dinosaurs also killed many of the small creatures hunted by ammonites.

In a separate paper also published in Science, paleontologist Kazushige Tanabe of The University of Tokyo proposes that newly hatched ammonites were particularly dependent upon such small prey.

“The abrupt decline of phytoplankton at the end of the Cretaceous led to the collapse of marine food webs and would have greatly affected the survival of newly hatched ammonites,” Tanabe told Discovery News.

“Ammonites are some of the most famous invertebrate animals in Earth’s history,” he added, “yet as biological entities they are poorly understood, largely owing to the absence of a direct living counterpart.”

The new high-resolution 3D images help to solve those mysteries, he said. They also help to explain why one of the world’s most successful animals, in terms of abundance and species longevity, suddenly bit the dust with dinosaurs. If just a single link in the food chain disappears, it can have devastating consequences on many other animals.

“Known predators of ammonites were, for example, mosasaurs and plesiosaurs,” Kruta said. Mosasaurs were large, toothy marine lizards. Plesiosaurs were carnivorous aquatic reptiles. Both groups of animals are now extinct, but it remains unclear how much the ammonite die-off affected their demise.

Kruta and her team hope additional research can help to further unravel what happened to ammonites and other prehistoric animals.

Those answers may come sooner rather than later, as Tanabe believes the new uninvasive X-ray technique “can be widely applicable to other fossilized delicate organismic structures preserved in sedimentary rocks, such as specimens preserved in museum collections.”

See also here.

It’s not very often that Antarctic fossil hunters haul in a whopper from the sea. But the 70-million-year-old ammonite that was spotted in about a meter of water only hours before a research expedition to the Antarctic Peninsula was scheduled to end turned out to be a rare find: here.

ScienceDaily (Apr. 23, 2012) — Ammonites changed their reproductive strategy from initially few and large offspring to numerous and small hatchlings. Thanks to their many offspring, they survived three mass extinctions, a research team headed by paleontologists from the University of Zurich has discovered: here.

They ruled the seas for 300 million years and even today are easy to find as fossils, but it’s only now that we’ve discovered what ammonites ate. It turns out these “shelled squid” relied on tiny plankton, an exclusivity that could have condemned them to extinction. If so, their demise may have opened up the seas to modern plankton-feeders like the huge baleen whales: here.

An international team of researchers, including a University of Virginia professor, has found that two ink sacs from 160-million-year-old giant cephalopod fossils discovered two years ago in England contain the pigment melanin, and that it is essentially identical to the melanin found in the ink sac of a modern-day cuttlefish: here.

Klaus Hönninger discovers new species of Cretaceous squid: here.


Campbell Island snipe video

From Campbell Island, between New Zealand and Antarctica:

Walking back to base on the Beeman Boardwalk tonight at 10pm I had a wonderful surprise. From beside the walkway by my feet I saw a flash of brown and something fluffy landed on the path in front of me. Not sure what it was (wearing no contacts today so everything was looking pretty blurry to me) I grabbed the video camera.

What a surprise when I zoomed in to see the wee Campbell Island Snipe. This tiny strange (but very cute) looking bird was unknown to science until its discovery in 1997. They are usually very cryptic birds, so to see one and have the video camera ready was such a special moment. The sound you hear in the background at the end of the video are the yellow-eyed penguins coming in for the night. I feel that this is my Christmas present from the island.

Campbell Island sea lions: here.

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Religious fundamentalism in the US armed forces

This January 2014 video from the USA is about the Military Religious Freedom Foundation.

Jason Leopold, Truthout: “An experimental, Army mental-health, fitness initiative designed by the same psychologist whose work heavily influenced the psychological aspects of the Bush administration’s torture program is under fire by civil rights groups and hundreds of active-duty soldiers. They say it unconstitutionally requires enlistees to believe in God or a ‘higher power’ in order to be deemed ‘spiritually fit’ to serve in the Army”: here.

Stephen Glain, The Nation: “Late last summer, Mikey Weinstein broke up a fight between Crystal and Ginger, the guard dogs trained to protect him and his family from a violent reckoning with Christian zealots. For the 55-year-old civil rights activist committed to ridding the US military of religious intolerance, it was a refreshingly secular and evenly matched bout. Weinstein is, after all, famously combative, both pugnacious and profane, with the bearing and sensibility of a mastiff. In the end he prevailed and peace was restored, though at the price of some bad scratches on his arms and a hole in his right hand where a well-aimed canine had struck”: here.

Truthout’s reporting on the Army’s so–called “spiritual fitness” test was featured on Thursday by MSNBC host Keith Olbermann on Countdown. Mikey Weinstein, president and founder of the Military Religious Freedom Foundation, discussed Jason Leopold’s report detailing the forced spiritual testing of over 800,000 uniformed soldiers as part of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program: here.