Vulture-killing drug kills eagles as well


This video says about itself:

Vanishing Vultures

31 May 2011

The Indian sub-continent had the highest density of vultures in the world – 85 million in total. However, over the past few years 99% have disappeared – mostly due to the use of the veterinary drug Diclofenac.

The loss of such an important scavenger has had devastating effects – putrefying decomposing carcasses are thought to be the cause of anthrax and rabies outbreaks. The extinction of this species would have global health consequences.

From BirdLife:

New study shows vulture-killing drug kills eagles too

By Martin Fowlie, Wed, 28/05/2014 – 11:45

The results of tests carried out on two Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis found dead in Rajasthan, India, have shown some worrying results.

Both birds had diclofenac residue in their tissues and exhibited the same clinical signs of kidney failure as seen in vultures.

Scientists now fear that all species in this genus, known as Aquila (which includes Golden A. chrysaetos and Spanish Imperial Eagle A. adalberti), are susceptible to diclofenac. With fourteen species of Aquila Eagle distributed across Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and North America, this means that diclofenac poisoning should now be considered largely a global problem.

Dr Toby Galligan, RSPB conservation scientist and one of the authors of the paper published in BirdLife’s journal Bird Conservation International, said: “In light of recent developments in Europe, our findings take on an even more worrying meaning. All Aquila eagles, like the Spanish Imperial Eagle, are opportunistic scavengers and therefore could be at risk of diclofenac poisoning. As we have seen in South Asia, wherever free-ranging livestock is treated with diclofenac, population declines in vultures and eagles can occur. The European Commission needs to recognise this problem and impose a continent-wide ban on veterinary diclofenac before it can impact on our birds.”

Worryingly, it was announced in March that the drug had been authorised for manufacture and use in Italy and Spain and had been distributed to other European countries. Since then, a coalition of organisations including the Vulture Conservation Foundation, the RSPB (BirdLife in the UK) and BirdLife have been campaigning for this decision to be reversed.

Ivan Ramirez, Head of European Conservation at BirdLife stated, “The findings strengthen the case for banning veterinary diclofenac across Europe and for the enforcement of bans in South Asia to stop the illegal misuse of human diclofenac to treat livestock.”

Find out more about our campaign to ban diclofenac in Europe

Enhanced by Zemanta

Moroccan bird news


This video is about Rüppell’s Vultures (Gyps rueppellii).

From Moroccan Birds blog:

Saturday, May 24, 2014

3 Rüppell’s Vultures at Tétouan (24-05-2014)

Live from the field at Tetouan, northern Morocco

Now: we are surrounded by 3 Rüppell’s Vultures and 32 Griffon Vultures roosting near Tetouan (just 5 Km north of the town). A local Black-winged Kite (Elanus caeruleus) mobbing the vultures.

Details later. Rachid & Mohamed

The importance of Fouwarate marshland (Northwest of Morocco) for wintering and breeding of Ardeidae.

Abstract:

Due to its location within the East-Atlantic flyway, the Site of Biological and Ecological Interest commonly known as SIBE of Marshland of Fouwarate is considered as a key stopover area for migratory waterbirds. An ornithological monitoring carried out during a complete hydrological cycle (2009-2010) showed that the site encompasses eight Ardeidae species of which five are breeding. Four species have an unfavorable status in the territory of European Union and five species have patrimonial value in Morocco. In addition, the wintering numbers of two species exceed the threshold of 1% of the regional population (Ramsar criteria) while six species exceed the threshold of 1% of the national population. This attributes to this site a great national and international importance for the conservation for the conservation of threatened waterbirds, not to mention the role it can play in promoting environmental education and ecotourism in the region. However, the wetland is under high pressures due to different human activities (embankment, agriculture and industry), which requires urgent actions to protect and conserve its ecological values: here.

Study of the migratory waders phenology in the lagoon and salines of Sidi Moussa (Morocco).

Abstract:

Monthly counts of waders were conducted from March 2010 to February 2012 in Sidi Moussa lagoon and adjacent salines. In total 24 species were identified, including three regular breeding species in the site (Glareola pratincola, Charadrius alexandrinus and Himantopus himantopus). The most abundant species are Calidris alpina, Charadrius hiaticula, Charadrius alexandrinus, Pluvialis squatarola, Himantopus himantopus and Tringa totanus. The analysis of migration patterns of the species did not show significant variations between years in contrast to the trends in total numbers of waders that showed marked variations between the different seasons of the annual cycle of the species. The highest numbers are recorded during the autumn passage. Numbers will subsequently decrease and stabilize during the wintering season. Prenuptial movements are not well detected. A slight increase in numbers was noticed in February marking the beginning of the return passage. Some species can leave on the site small flocks of summering individuals. This is the case of Dunlin which shows a strong correlation with the total numbers and the Redshank with an early summering (May). Both breeding species, Black-winged Stilt and the Kentish Plover evolve differently in the site. When no seasonal variation was noted for the first species, migration passages are well marked for the second and numbers stabilize during the wintering and summering. The Grey Plover numbers noted during the summer show significant differences with those recorded during other seasons of the annual cycle, marked by certain stability. For Ringed Plover, numbers recorded in summer showed significant differences only with those of the autumn passage: here.

Save vultures from killer veterinary ‘medicine’


This video says about itself:

Ban Veterinary Diclofenac Now!

from BirdLife Europe

Monday, April 28, 2014 8:20 AM

This video shows different vulture species in the way that they should be portrayed; as vital, majestic birds who keep the balance in our delicate ecological cycle. It also presents and explains the risks associated with the use of veterinary diclofenac to vultures.

BirdLife writes about this:

Diclofenac: a Vulture killer – watch this new video

By Elodie Cantaloube, Tue, 29/04/2014 – 08:25

Diclofenac is an anti-inflammatory drug whose veterinary use has been the main cause of the catastrophic 99% decline of several species of vultures in South Asia. Despite this tragic experience and while alternative safe drugs exist, it has now been confirmed that the vulture-killer drug is commercially available for veterinary purposes in at least two EU countries; Italy and Spain.

This new video commissioned by BirdLife and the Vulture Conservation Foundation and produced by Ran Levy-Yamamori presents the case, linking the threat in Europe with the Asian catastrophe, and appeals for urgent action. It also shows vulture species in the way that they should be portrayed; as vital, majestic birds who keep the balance in our delicate ecological cycle.

BirdLife, its Partners in Italy (LIPU) and Spain (SEO/BirdLife) and the Vulture Conservation Foundation have recently launched a campaign calling on the EU to ban veterinary diclofenac. Support our call now!

For more information, visit our website or contact Elodie Cantaloube, Media and Communications Officer at Birdlife Europe.

Enhanced by Zemanta

Rare griffon vulture in the Netherlands, video


This is a video about a griffon vulture, a rare species in the Netherlands.

Jan de Jong made this video on 6 April 2014 in Zaltbommel.

Enhanced by Zemanta

European Union threatens European vultures


This video says about itself:

Vanishing Vultures

31 May 2011

The Indian sub-continent had the highest density of vultures in the world – 85 million in total. However, over the past few years 99% have disappeared – mostly due to the use of the veterinary drug Diclofenac.

The loss of such an important scavenger has had devastating effects – putrefying decomposing carcasses are thought to be the cause of anthrax and rabies outbreaks. The extinction of this species would have global health consequences.

The films were premiered at the British Council in 2006, and have since been broadcast in 15 different languages on the national network – along with special screenings for the Prime Minister and other key politicians.

There has been an immediate reaction from the public and national press. The films also appeal to farmers – many, previously unaware of the problem, have now switched to a safer alternative to the drug.

Manufacture and sale of the drug Diclofenac has been banned with immediate effect nationwide – to give the remaining 1% of vultures a fighting chance for survival.

From BirdLife:

Vulture killing drug now available on EU market

By Rebecca Langer, Wed, 05/03/2014 – 10:09

Diclofenac is a powerful anti-inflammatory drug that has wiped out vulture populations in India, Pakistan and Nepal. Now, a repeat of this ecological disaster is threatening Europe. Despite the fact that safe alternative drugs are readily available, Diclofenac has been authorised for use on domestic animals in Italy, and in Spain where 80% of European vultures live, and is now becoming widely available on the EU market. According to experts in SEO/BirdLife (BirdLife in Spain), RSPB (BirdLife UK) and the Vulture Conservation Foundation, this may cause a European mass die off of endangered and ecologically valuable wildlife.

Vultures have long suffered from unfavourable public opinion in Europe, but as species that are built to do the dirty work of ecological recycling, they are essential to the health and well-being of ecosystems. In Europe, four rare vulture species exist and are continuing to face threats to their survival. Egyptian Vulture is listed as Endangered by BirdLife on behalf of the IUCN Red List of Species while Cinerous Vulture is listed as Near Threatened. Fortunately, thanks to decades of conservation efforts and millions of euros invested, vulture populations are recovering. The introduction of Diclofenac now puts these efforts and investments in jeopardy.

In India, Pakistan and Nepal, Diclofenac was regularly used in the 1990’s to treat cattle. When the animals died, Diclofenac remained in the body and was eaten by vultures, causing their almost immediate death. In about 10 years, the vulture populations in these countries has declined by 99%, bringing some of the most common and iconic large birds of the Indian subcontinent to the verge of extinction. This also led to serious human health consequences as the availability of unconsumed carrions led to an increase in stray dogs and spread of diseases such as rabies. Thanks to joint campaign efforts from the RSPB and its partner SAVE, Diclofenac has been banned in India and we are beginning to see signs of recovery for the Indian vulture population.

The EU and its Member States have a legal obligation to conserve vultures under the EU Birds Directive and EU Veterinary Drugs legislation that require avoiding ecological damage. An immediate ban on veterinary Diclofenac is needed to protect our vultures from the fate of their Asian cousins, and would also send a crucial signal encouraging African countries to stop the spread of Diclofenac, which is already affecting the highly endangered populations of African vultures.

Enhanced by Zemanta

Why vultures deserve respect


This video says about itself:

This bearded vulture has developed an incredibly cunning method of eating carcass bone marrow – although patience is a virtue as this bone breaking technique can take seven years to perfect! Another amazing nature video from the wild African desert. From the BBC.

From the BBC:

31 January 2014 Last updated at 01:58

Seven surprising facts about vultures

By Ella Davies Reporter, BBC Nature

Bald, ugly birds with a gruesome taste for gore or charismatic creatures that do an essential but thankless job in the ecosystem?

However we perceive them, one thing is clear about vultures – they are in trouble.

In India, Nepal and Pakistan populations have plummeted by 95% in the last decade and the pattern is being mirrored across Africa.

The birds are being poisoned through the carcasses they clear up. While some of this is the result of medication in livestock, other cases suggest intentional foul play by poachers that target the birds so they don’t alert wardens to dead rhinos and elephants.

Conservationists such as Simon Thomsett are working to raise awareness of the birds’ plight and change attitudes towards them by highlighting their unique adaptations.

1. Highest flyers

The highest bird flight ever recorded was by a Ruppell’s vulture which impacted an aircraft at 37,000ft over the Ivory Coast in 1973. This is well above the height of Everest (29,029 ft) and the lack of oxygen would kill most other birds.

“Since then studies on this vulture revealed a number of features in their haemoglobin and a number of cardio-vascular adaptations that allow breathing in rarefied atmosphere,” explains Mr Thomsett.

Vultures routinely soar high in the air, using thermals to get a wide view of the plains so they can find food.

2. Africa’s biggest appetites

A vulture’s life

See vultures finding their next meal from seven miles up

How do vultures spot carrion from so far away?

Watch vultures catch a lift using the hot air of thermals

“Every visitor to Africa assumes that the major consumers of wild animals are lions, hyenas, leopards, cheetahs, wild dogs and jackals. But they are not,” says Mr Thomsett.

He gives the Serengeti as an example where the total biomass of dead grazing animals is estimated to exceed 40 million tonnes per year.

“The [mammalian] carnivores can consume only some 36% and the rest is available to vultures. Bacteria and maggots compete with vultures for this resource, but vultures remain the largest consumers.”

Their role as the ultimate recyclers is said to help stop the spread of disease as well as limit populations of other scavengers such as wild dogs.

3. Borders are not boundaries

Vultures can fly considerable distances for a meal; one Ruppell’s vulture was recently recorded travelling north from its nest in Tanzania, across Kenya to a region in Sudan and Ethiopia.

The international team of researchers found that instead of closely following the mass migration of wildebeest through the Masai Mara, the birds sought out their prey in the dry season when they were most vulnerable due to drought.

This border-crossing behaviour has landed the birds in bother, notably when a griffon vulture discovered in Saudi Arabia was accused by local media of being an Israeli spy.

The bird had been tagged by a team at Tel Aviv University as part of a study into their movements and officials reportedly resolved the misunderstanding.

4. Powerful pee

Turkey vultures urinate on their legs and while this sounds unpleasant, scientists suspect the behaviour could be an essential part of their immunity arsenal.

Acid present in the urine could act as a way of sterilising the birds legs after standing in rotting flesh to feed.

5. Powerful expansion

Cape vultures in South Africa were tracked following power lines and pylons to cover a straight-line distance of 620 miles (1000 km).

The journey far outstripped the known range of the birds but using such manmade structures is also fraught with danger.

Whether perching or nesting on pylons, the vultures can become entangled in the lines and risk being electrocuted.

The power lines also run through private farmland and foraging near livestock leaves the birds more vulnerable to poisoning.

6. Varied diet

They might be famed for tucking in to the rotting sinews and viscera of dead animals but not all vultures have a carrion-only diet.

The palm nut vulture, as its name suggests, enjoys a varied menu of palm nuts, figs, fish and occasionally birds. At carcasses it prefers the insects and maggots living on the flesh.

The lappet-faced vulture meanwhile is a large African species with a wing span of up to 2.9m (9.5ft) and has been observed preying on live flamingo chicks.

7. Strong stomachs

Bearded vultures are the only animals known to have a diet of 70-90% bone and their stomach acid allows them to take nutrients from what other species discard.

Vultures are well known for their incredibly strong stomach acid which can destroy bacteria, including cholera and anthrax, that would prove deadly to many other species.

They also carry special antibodies to help them tackle botulism toxins so that even if the illness killed their prey, the vultures can eat it without negative effects.

Cameraman and naturalist Charlie Hamilton-James seeks to better understand the birds in Vultures: Beauty in the Beast on BBC Two at 2100 GMT, Friday 31 January.

More on This Story

Related Stories

WWF aims to save endangered vultures in Pakistan: here.

The plight of India’s vulture populations, and their rapid decline due to the use of the drug diclofenac in cattle, is well documented. What’s less known is revealed in a new documentary (shown tonight, 31 January, in England and Wales and tomorrow, 1 February, in Scotland) in which renowned wildlife photojournalist and cameraman, Charlie Hamilton James, travels to East Africa to learn that vultures there are similarly declining at an alarming rate, but for a different reason: here.

Enhanced by Zemanta