Costa Rica 3-Uruguay 1, congratulations with bird videos

This video is about a male resplendent quetzal in the Savegre valley in Costa Rica.

Like favourites and reigning football world champions Spain lost 1-5 to the Netherlands: tonight underdogs Costa Rica won unexpectedly 3-1 against Uruguay. Uruguay had won the World Cup twice, and was #4 at the last World Cup.

To congratulate Costa Rica, here are three videos, one per goal, about the beautiful birds in Costa Rica.

This video is called Amazing hummingbirds – Costa Rica.

And this video is called Toucans of Costa Rica.

Talking about wildlife in Costa Rica: there will be more of my reports about it, but sorting out photos took longer than expected. But Costa Rican wildlife reports will be back at this blog.

Uruguayan dictatorship torture general on trial

This video says about itself:

May 28, 2010

Tens of thousands of Uruguayans including President Jose Mujica marched in silence on May 20th demanding to know the fate of victims of the US-backed military dictatorship which led the country from 1973 to 1985.

From daily The Morning Star in Britain:

Dictatorship general appeals jail sentence

Friday 10 May 2013

The first general convicted of human rights violations during Uruguay’s dictatorship has appealed his 28-year prison sentence, his lawyer has confirmed.

General Miguel Dalmao was found guilty on Wednesday of the 1974 murder of literature professor and communist activist Nibia Sabalsagaray.

Nibia Sabalsagaray

Gen Dalmao’s lawyer dismissed the verdict as “speculation” and said he’d already launched an appeal on Thursday.

Uruguay’s military junta had previously accepted his claim that 24-year-old Ms Sabalsagaray hanged herself with a handkerchief from an iron peg in the wall just four inches above her head.

Her family were banned from seeing her body but a medical student reported signs of torture and inconsistencies with suicide.

Gen Dalmao has been in hospital for months and is unlikely to serve his sentence.

Pre-dinosaur mesosaurs’ live birth

Despite the fact that the mesosaur embryos were dated to around 280 million years ago, researchers found them in a remarkably well preserved condition

From Discovery News:

Live Birth Predates Dinos

Analysis by Jennifer Viegas

Mon Dec 10, 2012 06:31 AM ET

Producing living young, and not external eggs, is a form of birth that could date back to 280 million years ago or even earlier, a new study suggests.

Called viviparity, this form of birth is used by humans, but clearly we were far from being the first to evolve it.

The study, published in the December issue of Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology, focuses on mesosaurs, which were among the world’s first aquatic reptiles. They lived in what are now South America and South Africa at a time when these two landmasses were united and part of the giant supercontinent Pangaea.

Mesosaurs, and even their earlier ancestors, possibly “were not able to produce hard shelled eggs, at least for the first several million years of their evolution,” lead author Graciela Piñeiro, a paleontologist at Uruguay‘s Facultad de Ciencias, told Discovery News. “After the recent discovery of mesosaur embryos, we can state with a high degree of confidence that embryo retention developed early in amniote evolution, given that mesosaurs are among the basal-most reptiles and that they date from the Early Permian around 280 million years ago.”

Piñeiro and colleagues Jorge Ferigolo, Melitta Meneghel and Michel Laurin recently discovered the exceptionally well-preserved mesosaur embryos at sites in Uruguay and Brazil. The environmental conditions at the locations allowed for the preservation of soft tissues, nerves and blood vessels, she said.

Giving birth in this manner and laying eggs each come with advantages and disadvantages. Eggs with hard, mineralized shells, such as those associated with today’s chicken eggs or those of dinosaurs, are believed to help reproduction on dry land. But many terrestrial animals, including humans, do not lay eggs, so there must be other benefits to viviparity.

“We think that the retention of the eggs may have appeared in amniotes as a useful strategy to avoid predation and increase survivorship chances for the embryos,” Piñeiro said.

Parental care often then follows. There is even some evidence that mesosaurs provided such care, because adults and juveniles have been associated together in the fossil record.

At least some mesosaurs even had the added challenge of giving birth and raising young in extremely salty water.

“In Uruguay, mesosaurs may have first colonized the shallow water environment of the Mangrullo Formation, which under the establishment of arid climatic conditions that increased evaporation became like a salty marsh where just a few opportunistic organisms could tolerate the anoxic bottom conditions generated by the accumulation of high amounts of organic matter,” Piñeiro explained.

When infant mesosaurs entered the world, they possibly even had a salt gland and other anatomical adaptations already in place, allowing them to survive the otherwise challenging conditions.

There is also compelling evidence that giant, carnivorous, four-flippered reptiles known as plesiosaurs gave birth to live young as well. Robin O’Keefe of Marshall University and team discovered a big embryonic marine reptile contained in the fossil of its 15.4-foot-long mother, which lived 78 million years ago.

“The embryo is very large in comparison to the mother,” O’Keefe said, “much larger than one would expect in comparison with other reptiles. Many of the animals alive today that give birth to large, single young are social and have maternal care. We speculate that plesiosaurs may have exhibited similar behaviors, making their social lives more similar to those of modern dolphins than other reptiles.”

Migratory bird conservation in Uruguay

This video is from the Laguna da Rocha in Uruguay.

From BirdLife:

Southern Cone Grasslands Alliance activities support shorebird conservation in Uruguay

Wed, Apr 11, 2012

Annually, Buff-breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis and American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica undertake some of the longest journeys of any migratory birds in the world, from their breeding grounds in the tundra of North America (Canada and Alaska) to wintering sites in the grasslands of Southern South America. Aves Uruguay (BirdLife in Uruguay) and partners have secured approximately 3000 hectares for both species of shorebirds through good management practices of the natural grasslands.

Both species have suffered significant population declines due to habitat loss on their migration and wintering grounds and through hunting (in the Caribbean, and historically in North and South America). Their primary wintering grounds are the Southern Cone or Pampas grasslands of South America, and Laguna de Rocha in Uruguay is one of the few sites globally where they can be found in large numbers on a regular basis.

Were prehistoric mesosaurs viviparous?

This is a Brazilian video on a mesosaur discovery.

From Huffington Post in the USA:

Fossil Suggests Prehistoric Reptile Birthed Live Young

Posted: 04/ 5/2012 7:49 am Updated: 04/ 5/2012 7:49 am

Fossilized embryos unearthed recently in South America are having a big impact on paleontologists’ ideas about prehistoric reptiles’ way of life.

The little fossils suggest that some reptiles could have been “viviparous,” meaning that instead of laying eggs, they gave birth to live young.

The fossils are what’s left of aquatic reptiles that lived about 280 million years ago—prehistoric animals that scientists call mesosaurs, not to be confused with mosasaurs, which were also a marine reptile.

One of the fossils, found in Brazil, preserves of a baby mesosaur still inside its mother. Another fossil, unearthed in Uruguay, shows an embryo not inside a mother but on its own.

The finds were described in the March issue of the journal Historic Biology.

“I received a big shock when I realized that what I had collected was indeed a very small, curled mesosaur, the smallest I have seen ever,” study co-author Dr. Graciela Piñeiro, associate professor of paleontology at Facultad de Ciencias told USA Today by e-mail about the Uruguayan fossil. She said it was “exquisitely preserved.”

Researchers said in the study they also found at least 26 small bones, believed to be late embryos, and larger mesosaur skeletons.

Just last year, scientists reported that “whale-like” marine reptiles, plesiosaurs, birthed live young. The report came after the fossil of a pregnant plesiosaur was analyzed.

Apologies for Salvadorean, Uruguayan dictators’ crimes

By Bill Van Auken in the USA:

Latin American governments “apologize” for dictatorships’ crimes

20 January 2012

El Salvador’s President Mauricio Funes this week delivered a formal apology in the name of the Salvadoran state for one of the most horrific crimes of that country’s 12-year civil war: the El Mozote massacre of December 1981.

“Countless acts of barbarism and violations of human rights were committed here,” Funes said in a speech delivered in Meanguerra, a municipality in Morazan Province, where the village of El Mozote was located. The occasion was the 20th anniversary of signing of a peace accord between the government and the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Movement (FMLN).

In reality, the number of victims at El Mozote and its surrounding area is known, placed at 966 through forensic investigations that identified over 700 of those massacred, while the remains of the rest were dismembered or burned beyond recognition. All of the victims were poor, unarmed and unresisting; the majority of those killed were children.

A United Nations-sponsored “truth commission” issued an account of the massacre in 1992, stating: “On 10 December 1981, in the village of El Mozote in the Department of Morazan, units of the Atlacatl Battalion detained, without resistance, all the men, women and children who were in the place. The following day, 11 December, after spending the night locked in their homes, they were deliberately and systematically executed in groups. First, the men were tortured and executed, then the women were executed and, lastly, the children, in the place where they had been locked up….”

More detailed accounts spoke of women—as well as girls as young as ten—being gang-raped and then machine-gunned or bayoneted to death by troops, of children cut to pieces with machetes and hung from trees and bodies piled up and burned.

The government of El Salvador did not act alone in carrying out these crimes. The Atlacatl Battalion was “made in the USA”, a murderous creation of the Pentagon. In its leadership were graduates of the US military’s infamous School of the Americas, then located in Panama; the battalion as a whole received training from US Special Forces units at Fort Bragg, North Carolina before being unleashed on the Salvadoran people. US Special Forces advisors operated with the unit in El Salvador, and, according to some accounts, were present during the December 1981 massacre.

Far from apologizing for the bloodbath carried out by the counterinsurgency battalion that it had organized and trained, Washington defended its actions, claiming that the reports of the El Mozote massacre were nothing more than “communist propaganda”, and that the unit itself was a model of respect for human rights.

What is the significance [of] Funes’s apology on behalf of the state for such crimes?

This is not just a Salvadoran issue. In Uruguay this week, Foreign Minister Luis Almagro announced that the government of President Jose Mujica will stage a similar formal apology for the crimes carried out by the dictatorship that ruled that country between 1973 and 1985.

In Uruguay’s case, the apology is being staged to comply with the decision of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in a case brought by Macarena Gelman—the granddaughter of Argentine poet Juan Gelman—whose entire life was shaped by the savage repression that swept Latin America’s southern cone in the 1970s.

Macarena’s parents were abducted by security forces in 1976 in Argentina, where her father, Juan Gelman’s son Marcelo, was tortured and murdered in a clandestine detention center. Her mother, Maria Claudia Garcia, then just 19 and pregnant, was sent to Uruguay as part of Operation Condor, a joint plan for repression and murder worked out between the region’s dictatorships and the CIA. She disappeared after giving birth to Macarena, who was turned over to a policeman’s family and only learned her true identity in 2000.

Macarena and her grandfather then sought through the Uruguayan courts to discover her mother’s fate and identify who was responsible. They were blocked at every turn by the so-called law of impunity.

In complying with the Inter-American Court’s decision, the Uruguayan government said it would apologize to the Gelmans as representatives of the thousands upon thousands of Uruguayans who were murdered, tortured, disappeared and forced into exile under the dictatorship.

A common thread runs through the formal state apologies in Uruguay and El Salvador. In the first country, President Mujica is a former member of the Tupamaro guerrilla movement, which transformed itself into a political party after the end of the dictatorship. In El Salvador, Funes came to power as the candidate of the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Movement, which went through a similar process after the signing of the Salvadoran peace accords 20 years ago.

Thus, the former Tupamaro Mujica and the candidate of the FMLN Funes are offering formal apologies for repression carried out by military forces that sought the extermination of these two guerrilla movements.