Polish Triassic amphibian burrowing discovery

Skeleton of Metoposaurus diagnosticus krasiejowensi in the Krasiejów museum in Poland

Not only news today about living amphibians … but also about their very distant relatives, extinct since over 200 million years.

From the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology:

Giant Triassic amphibian was a burrowing youngster

Krasiejów, Poland was a vastly different place 230 million years ago during the Triassic Period. It was part of a giant continent called Pangea, had a warm climate throughout the year, and was populated by giant amphibians that weighed half a ton and were 10 feet long. Metoposaurus diagnosticus was one of these giant amphibians, and its environment had only two seasons: wet and dry. Like modern amphibians, Metoposaurus needed water for its lifestyle, but the extremely long dry season in Triassic Krasiejów drove this species to burrow underground and go dormant when water was scarce.

The burrowing behavior of Metoposaurus was recently discovered by Dorota Konietzko-Meier of the University of Opole, Poland and the University of Bonn, Germany, and P. Martin Sander also of the University of Bonn and was recently published in a study in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. This study examined both the overall structure of the skeleton of Metoposaurus as well as the microscopic structure of its bones.

The broad, flat head, broad flat arm bones, wide hands, and large tail of Metaposaurus diagnosticus led the investigators to conclude that this species swam in ephemeral lakes during the wet season and used its broad, flat head and forearms to burrow under the ground when the dry season began. The authors also examined cross-sections of the bones of Metoposaurus looking for growth rings, called annuli. These annuli are similar to tree rings, where a band of light and a band of dark indicate one year of growth. In other early amphibians one annulus usually consists of a broad zone of rapid growth (wet season) followed by a thin band of slow growth (dry season), but in Metoposaurus, a period of prolonged slow growth was followed by a cessation of growth during the dry season. According to lead author Dorota Konietzo-Meier, “The histology of Metoposaurus long bones seems to be unique. In our interpretation it corresponds to the two-seasonal climate with a short, more favorable wet season and a long dry part of the year when life conditions were worse.”

Dr. Michel Laurin from the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle who was not involved with this study, commented, “This interpretation is interesting, but problematic in some respects. This animal was much larger than any extant burrowing species I know of, and if it dug, I suspect that the snout and tail played a far greater role than the limbs, as we observe in most extant aquatic vertebrates.”

These annuli also give an estimate of age. Co-author P. Martin Sander said, “A common problem with these large amphibians is that you can’t tell from the shape of their bones if they are grown or not; sometimes the youngsters get described as a different species from the grown-ups”. This technique solves that problem. It turns out that all of the specimens preserved at Krasiejów were juveniles. The smallest specimen was only one year old, while the largest specimen was four. Adulthood in these large amphibians was usually reached around year seven. The authors do not know if this mode of life was unique to juveniles or if adults also burrowed.

Sander concludes, “It amazes me time and again how much we can learn from these extinct animals. The techniques we used have been around since the 1840s, but only in the last 20 years have researchers asked the right questions and drawn comparisons with living animals.”



Founded in 1940 by thirty-four paleontologists, the Society now has over 2,000 members representing professionals, students, artists, preparators, and others interested in VP. It is organized exclusively for educational and scientific purposes, with the object of advancing the science of vertebrate paleontology.

The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology

The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (JVP) is the leading journal of professional vertebrate paleontology and the flagship publication of the Society. It was founded in 1980 by Dr. Jiri Zidek and publishes contributions on all aspects of vertebrate paleontology.

For complimentary access to the full article, visit: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ujvp20/current (on or after September 3, 2013)

The article appears in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 35(5), published by Taylor and Francis.

Citation: Koneitzko-Meier, Dorota and P. Martin Sander. 2013. Long Bone Histology of Metaposaurus diagnosticus (Temnospondyli) from the Late Triassic of Krasiejów (Poland) and its Paleobiological Implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 35(5):1-16.

Good Dutch European bison news

Kraansvlak European bison, photo by Ruud Maaskant

Translated from Yvonne Kemp in the Netherlands:

Wisent group in Kraansvlak quadrupled in five years

Published by ARK on Friday, July 26th, 2013

In 2007, in the dunes of Zandvoort, the first Dutch European bison project started. This European bison group has quadrupled and now consists of 24 animals. The majority of these animals were born in the wild nature of the Kraansvlak.

In 2007, in Kraansvlak, in the Kennemerduinen area, the first three bison were released. The initial group was complete after a further three European bison from Poland were added a year later. Last May, three French bison bulls joined the group to bring fresh blood. The rest of the herd consists of animals born in Kraansvlak.

Wisent studbook

Since 2009, every year calves were born in Kraansvlak. They are named and included in the European bison studbook. It contains all the bison in the world about which official data are available. The studbook is for coordinating bison conservation. The European bison is still an endangered species after it became almost extinct in the early 20th century.

This year, the calves were born earlier than before and the counter stands now on no fewer than six calves. The little ones love playing with each other and are often seen by scientists and foresters. Project partners PWN and ARK Nature are proud that with the bison project in the dunes of Kraansvlak they are contributing significantly to give these impressive animals a better future.

French integration

On May 22 this year, an important event took place in Kraansvlak. That day, unrelated bison bulls were imported from France. The first few weeks the animals were given a chance to get used to the Dutch dune culture; apart from the herd. Then they could start to look for the herd. For interested parties that was an exciting moment: how would the animals behave towards each other?

It soon became clear that few barriers exist in bison country. The bulls joined the herd and even occasionally join the adult bull for a walk. The mating season is coming later this year. That will be exciting again. For how will the cows then feel about the French males? We’ll probably know next year as the first Dutch / French bison calf will be born.

Vroege Vogels TV this summer already visited the herd with its young calves and French bulls.

More information about the bison can be found at www.wisenten.nl.

Wolf and dolphin languages, new research

This video says about itself:

A Man Among Wolves

Jul 17, 2012

Shaun Ellis has joined a pack of wolves, living and behaving like them. Abandoned at birth, three wolf pups are raised by Shaun who then teaches them the ways of the wild. As they grow up, he feeds, sleeps and breaths the same air as his wolves and in return they give him a place in the pack. Seeing the world as a wolf, Shaun takes a step further and comes up with a plan to help wild wolves threatened in Poland.

From the BBC:

22 July 2013 Last updated at 02:19

Wolf howl identification technology excites experts

By Michelle Warwicker, BBC Nature

Individual wild wolves can be recognised by just their howls with 100% accuracy, a study has shown.

The team from Nottingham Trent University, UK, developed a computer program to analyse the vocal signatures of eastern grey wolves.

Wolves roam huge home ranges, making it difficult for conservationists to track them visually.

But the technology could provide a way for experts to monitor individual wolves by sound alone.

“Wolves howl a lot in the wild,” said PhD student Holly Root-Gutteridge, who led the research.

“Now we can be sure… exactly which wolf it is that’s howling.”

The team’s findings are published in the journal Bioacoustics.

This video says about itself:

May 24, 2011

Turn the volume up and listen what the Bottlenose dolphins are talking about. Amazing sounds, whistles, clicks and squeaks. Even now I can feel the sonar going through my body just by watching this.

Also from the BBC:

22 July 2013 Last updated at 23:02 GMT

Dolphins ‘call each other by name’

By Rebecca Morelle, Science reporter, BBC World Service

Scientists have found further evidence that dolphins call each other by “name”.

Research has revealed that the marine mammals use a unique whistle to identify each other.

A team from the University of St Andrews in Scotland found that when the animals hear their own call played back to them, they respond.

The study is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr Vincent Janik, from the university’s Sea Mammal Research Unit, said: “(Dolphins) live in this three-dimensional environment, offshore without any kind of landmarks and they need to stay together as a group.

“These animals live in an environment where they need a very efficient system to stay in touch.”

Signature whistles

It had been-long suspected that dolphins use distinctive whistles in much the same way that humans use names.

Previous research found that these calls were used frequently, and dolphins in the same groups were able to learn and copy the unusual sounds.

But this is the first time that the animals response to being addressed by their “name” has been studied.

To investigate, researchers recorded a group of wild bottlenose dolphins, capturing each animal’s signature sound.

They then played these calls back using underwater speakers.

“We played signature whistles of animals in the group, we also played other whistles in their repertoire and then signature whistles of different populations – animals they had never seen in their lives,” explained Dr Janik.

The researchers found that individuals only responded to their own calls, by sounding their whistle back.

The team believes the dolphins are acting like humans: when they hear their name, they answer.

Dr Janik said this skill probably came about to help the animals to stick together in a group in their vast underwater habitat.

He said: “Most of the time they can’t see each other, they can’t use smell underwater, which is a very important sense in mammals for recognition, and they also don’t tend to hang out in one spot, so they don’t have nests or burrows that they return to.”

The researchers believe this is the first time this has been seen in an animal, although other studies have suggested some species of parrot may use sounds to label others in their group.

Dr Janik said that understanding how this skill evolved in parallel in very different groups of animals could tell us more about how communication developed in humans.

Here is what you should do if you find a stranded dolphin, according to the Institute for Marine Mammal Studies.

Spitsbergen songbirds

Snow buntings are the only songbirds which one might expect to see and hear regularly on the Svalbard archipelago.

However, they are not always the only passerines there.

The book Birds and Mammals of Svalbard, has, on pages 190-191, a list of no less than 59 songbird species, recorded once or more on the islands.

The Internet version of that book does not have that list.

The site svalbardbirds.com has a more extensive bird species list, also probably more up to date. That list includes 64 passerine species.

Most of them have been seen less or far less than twenty times on this Arctic archipelago. Some of them only on Bear Island, halfway between continental Norway and Spitsbergen.

Let us look at some species which are more frequent than that, though far less frequent than snow buntings.

A few barn swallows visit each year.

There is one breeding record of a house martin couple.

This video is about a house martin nest in urban Poland.

Once, there has been a meadow pipit nest on Bear Island, Birds and Mammals of Svalbard says. Svalbardbirds.com says that these birds have nested more than once in Svalbard, though still irregularly; and not only on Bear Island.

Both sources agree that white wagtails visit the archipelago in small numbers, and have nested there once.

Northern wheatears visit regularly, and nest irregularly.

This is a northern wheatear video from Poland.

Starlings visit fairly regularly, and have nested once on Bear island.

Blackbird and fieldfare visit in most years, but don’t nest as far as people know.

Redwings have nested on Svalbard more than once.

Mealy redpolls breed irregularly.

Arctic redpolls probably nest annually; at least according to Svalbardbirds.com.

Lapland buntings may nest irregularly, Svalbardbirds.com says.

This video from Norway says about itself:

Singing Lapland Bunting (Longspur). Bunting female and fledgling. Bunting and Dunlin calling together on the same rock.

Auschwitz nazi arrested in Germany

This video is called A Walk Through Auschwitz I Concentration Camp.

By Elisabeth Zimmermann in Germany:

Former guard in Nazi concentration camp arrested in Germany

15 May 2013

At the start of May, 93-year-old Hans Lipschis was arrested in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Lipschis is a former guard at the Nazi extermination camp in Auschwitz who lived virtually undisturbed for decades after the Second World War in Germany, and then in the US between 1956 and 1983.

His name was recently fourth on the list of the top 10 most wanted Nazi war criminals of the Simon Wiesenthal centre. Born Antanas Lipsys in Lithuania in 1919, he worked as a guard at Auschwitz between 1941 and the beginning of 1945. In this function he was instrumental in the murders of thousands of overwhelmingly Jewish prisoners. The state prosecutor in Stuttgart released this information as the reason for the arrest.

Antanas Lipsys joined the SS in 1941 and became a member of the sixth company of the SS-Totenkopf Sturmbann (death head unit). He was granted German citizenship in 1943 under the name Hans Lipschis. The main task of the “death head units” was the supervision and administration of the concentration camps. They were responsible for the smooth running of the Nazi regime’s mass extermination machine.

As with tens of thousands of Nazi henchmen and collaborators, Lipschis was able to cover up his crimes in the SS and live at first undisturbed in the German Federal Republic after the war. In 1956, he emigrated with his wife and two children to the US. When his previous activities as a guard in a concentration camp were uncovered, he was deported in 1983. Since then, he has lived untroubled by the German authorities in Baden-Württemberg.

The background to the arrest of Lipschis was the trial of a former guard in the Sobibor concentration camp, John Demjanjuk. Demjanjuk was sentenced to five years imprisonment two years ago by a Munich court for accessory to murder in the case of more than 28,000 Jews in occupied Poland.

The conviction of Demjanjuk, whose appeal was never heard by the constitutional court due to his death, has created a new basis for the pursuit of former Nazi war criminals, according to investigators.

After a protracted trial, the judge in the Demjanjuk case came to the conclusion that it was sufficient to prove the presence of an accused in a concentration camp to convict him of accessory to murder. Every SS member and guard in a concentration camp was part of the “machinery of murder”, and such camps had been established and existed for no other purpose.

After the conviction of Demjanjuk in 2011, investigators at the Central Office for the Investigation of Nazi War Crimes in Ludwigsburg undertook a new review of files in order to track down more former guards in the concentration camps. According to initial reports, there could be up to 50 such people still alive.

The fact that many who were active in the crimes of the Nazis continue to live in Germany undisturbed seven decades after the liberation of the concentration camps underscores once again how the political and legal authorities systematically prevented the persecution of those collaborating in Nazi atrocities.

Relatively few of the thousands of Nazi war crimes have been dealt with in the courts. Since the end of the war, German authorities have investigated more than 100,000 cases, but only 6,500 guilty individuals have been convicted. And those convicted have received comparatively lenient sentences for the monstrous actions they committed. Those accused usually justified their activities by arguing they were “acting under orders in exceptional circumstances”—a line of argument that the courts were prepared to accept.

In this context, it is a scandal that other SS crimes, like the massacre in Sant’ Anna di Stazzema on August 12, 1944, which claimed the lives of 560 Italian women, men and children, remain unpunished.

The state prosecutor in Stuttgart announced on October 1, 2012, that it would not be initiating charges against any of those who participated in the massacre who are still alive, and that the decade-long investigation would cease. The reason given was that it had been impossible to prove that those accused had committed acts that had not yet “passed the statute of limitations”.

In the meantime, the association for the victims of Sant’ Anna have lodged an appeal with the state prosecutor. The appeal included a report by the Cologne-based historian Carlo Gentile, who is one of the most renowned academics with knowledge of the material surrounding the massacre. This was reported in the Süddeutsche Zeitung on April 15.

The state prosecutor had failed “absolutely” to consider important documents and statements from witnesses, wrote Gentile, and had made “clear mistakes regarding the historical data”. In their assessment of the massacre, they had “paid too little attention to the topography of the location and the time period involved”.

Above all, the massacre at Sant’ Anna could not be viewed as an “isolated episode”. The SS had left a bloody trail through Italy in 1944. Considering the number of massacres of civilians, all the available evidence pointed to a planned and well-organised war crime.

European bison back in Caucasus mountains

This video, recorded in Poland, is called Bison bonasus, European bison.

From Wildlife Extra:

European bison relocated to the Caucasus Mountains

March 2013. Ten bison have been relocated to Tseysky Nature Sanctuary in Russia’s North Ossetia region, and eight more bison were taken to the Teberdinsky Reserve.

In October, 2012 eight bison arrived in four wooden cages at the Teberdinsky reserve having travelled more than 1500 kilometres from the Oksky Reserve in the Ryazan region. Despite the long journey, the bison left the crates quickly and ran deep into the enclosure before beginning to graze on the succulent Caucasus grass.

The bison remained in quarantine in the enclosure for one month before they were released into the wild in the Caucasus Mountains in November. One female bison was provided with a satellite collar so that WWF can track the herd location.

Genetic diversity

Before the arrival of these animals, only 13 bison inhabited the Teberdinsky Reserve. The group is in need of gene refreshments as no new animals have been brought to the sanctuary for more than 40 years.

Tseysky Nature Sanctuary

Also in October, ten bison arrived to Tseysky Nature Sanctuary in North Ossetia from Prioksko-
Terrasny Nature Reserve
near Moscow. There are already more than 40 bison in the sanctuary, but for the long-term conservation of the bison it is necessary to refresh the gene pool of this group and introduce new animals to the herd.

Repopulating Russia with bison

The bison is now listed in the Red Book of Russia as a species threatened with extinction. Since 1996, WWF-Russia with support from WWF-Germany has been implementing a program to create a population of wild bison in the forests of the European Russia.

With the help of this program the number of bison in the Orlov, Bryansk, Kaluga and Vladimir regions of Russia exceeded 150 by 2008. This population is considered sufficient for the population to reproduce itself independently in the wild. After that, in 2009, WWF started to restore the European bison populations in the Caucasus Mountains in the south-west of Russia.

The journey of the bison to the Caucasus became possible thanks to the cooperation between the Government of North Ossetia – Alania, WWF and OJSC “Northern Caucasus Resorts”.

Poland CIA torture scandal continues

This video says about itself:

Secret prisons in Europe, finds EU special committee

Apr 12, 2012

http://www.euronews.com/ Secret detention centres and an organised system supporting the CIA’s rendition programme were in place in several EU countries, according to the findings of European Parliament special committee.

A report investigating allegations of human rights violations claims arrangements existed in Lithuania, Romania, Poland, Denmark, Finland and Britain.

The European Parliament organised hearings with NGO’s and human rights institutions to gather additional data about the alleged complicity of some EU member-states’ governments in the CIA’s rendition programme.

“Nothing has been done in member states to truly investigate and get to the bottom of the problem. There is an obligation not only not to torture or to be an accomplice in torture. But there is an obligation to investigate, to ensure accountability,” said Gerald Staberock, Secretary General of the World Organisation Against Torture.

Many of the inquiries conducted in recent years by member states have been classified.

Those findings were not made available for the follow up report that the European parliament is preparing. The report’s author says a joined up approach is imperative.

Acknowledging the failures or difficulties members states have had in tackling the problem, the European Union should take this issue into its own hands so that finally, the information can become freely accessible,” said Hélène Flautre, MEP and rapporteur for Civil Liberties Committee.

From Inter Press Service news agency:

Poland Cornered Over Its Secret Prisons

Friday, March 8, 2013 – 09:21

WARSAW, Mar 08 (IPS) – A Polish official investigation into the existence of a secret CIA prison on its territory is being stalled, according to official sources, while pressure on the country to tell the truth mounts.

Various public sources, from Dick Marty’s 2007 Council of Europe report to the recent Globalising Torture study of Open Society Foundations, claim Poland hosted a secret CIA prison used in the extraordinary rendition programme from the end of 2002. Under this programme, the U.S. detained and interrogated terrorism suspects in Europe.

Evidence comes from official sources. The 2004 CIA Inspector General report, which discusses CIA’s treatment of prisoners thought to be linked to Al-Qaeda in the period 2001-2003, details the case of Abd Al-Rahim Al-Nashiri, alleged leader of Al-Qaeda in the Persian Gulf and suspected of organising the bombing of warship USS Cole. Seventeen US servicemen were killed in the attack on the ship in the Yemeni port Aden in October 2000.

According to the report, by November 2002 Al-Nashiri had been detained by the CIA and enhanced interrogation techniques (EIT) were applied on him “through to 4 December 2002.” A heavily redacted further section reads, “two waterboard sessions in November 2002 after which (…) Al-Nashiri was compliant. However, after being moved (…) Al-Nashiri was thought to be withholding information.”

These fragments show Al-Nashiri was moved immediately after Dec. 4 to a new location, where EIT were applied on him again.

Poland seems to be this new location. Documents disclosed by the Polish Border Guards to the Polish Helsinki Foundation show that flight N63MU landed at Polish Szymany airport on Dec. 5, 2002, coming from Thailand (where CIA prisoners were thought to have been taken at first) via Dubai with eight passengers and four crew members; it left Poland with only the four crew.

No other flights – but N63MU to Poland – on which Al-Nashiri could have been moved have been discovered: “We have comprehensive data for 200-300 planes suspected or known to have done renditions – all U.S. registered private jets,” Crofton Black, investigator at UK NGO Reprieve, told IPS. “Having surveyed all these planes, it does appear there is no other relevant movement from Thailand on or around Dec. 5.” Black, however, adds that relevant flights might still be discovered.

In addition to such evidence (which can be brought for other terrorism suspects too), officials from governments and intelligence services of various countries, including Poland and the U.S., interviewed by UN and EU bodies, NGOs and journalists, point to the fact that the Polish site was key to the CIA scheme.

Those sources continue to speak under the condition of anonymity because both Poland and the U.S. refuse to officially reveal details about how rendition functioned.

In Poland, a prosecutors’ investigation started in 2008 has recently taken a dubious turn.

Until a year ago, the investigation was conducted by the Warsaw prosecutors’ office, under two successive prosecutors. In 2011, Poland’s main daily Gazeta Wyrbocza reported that the first prosecutor reached the point of asking legal experts about the implications of Poland hosting a site where foreign agents tortured prisoners.

In 2012, Polish media reported that the second prosecutor assigned to the case told Zbigniew Siemiatkowski, Poland’s head of intelligence services between 2002 and 2004, that charges would be brought against him for violating international law by allowing the unlawful detention of prisoners in Poland. Siemiatkowski confirmed the charges.

After this news came out, the case was moved to Krakow.

Mikolaj Pietrzak, the Polish lawyer for Al-Nashiri, has won the right to be updated on the investigation since his client was granted victim status by Polish authorities in 2010. Pietrzak told IPS that he had enjoyed good cooperation with the Warsaw prosecutors, having even been granted access to the entire file (including to classified information) by the second investigator. Since the case moved to Krakow, he has seen solely non-classified information and only after significant pressure from his side.

“It is extremely irregular that a case be shifted to three different prosecutors,” Pietrzak said. “And the fact that in the last year nothing has gone forward apparently is a very sad statement about the investigation.”

Piotr Kosmaty, a Krakow prosecutors’ office spokesperson, confirmed to IPS that the case which was supposed to be finalised this February has received a set extension, but the new timeline is not public.

According to Adam Bodnar, head of the legal division at Helsinki Foundation, “all the steps to prolong the investigation are meant to avoid making a formal and conclusive decision in this case.”

“This is a hot potato situation for Polish prosecutors and politicians,” Bodnar told IPS. “They cannot just redeem Poland, that would cause an outcry, but pressing charges against Siemiatkowski or Leszek Miller (former prime minister of Poland between 2001 and 2004) is also impossible in the current political configuration. So they try to prolong it as much as possible.”

Yet sweeping this case under the rug might be impossible for Poland.

Al-Nashiri opened a case against Poland at the European Court of Human Rights, and lawyers for Abu Zubaydah, the first “high value detainee” in the CIA programme who was also allegedly brought to Poland on the same N63MU flight, are preparing a similar case.

According to Pietrzak and Bodnar, even if Poland does not disclose any information to the ECHR (it has refused to do so until now), there is enough evidence to prove the country violated the Geneva Conventions, for not having offered protection to these individuals on its soil and for allowing them to be transferred to the U.S., where they are vulnerable to the death penalty.

Pietrzak, who has at one point seen the full file of the Polish investigation, claims: “This case is going to be very difficult to overturn, becase there is a lot of evidence, and you simply cannot pretend that what is there in the prosecutors’ file doesn’t exist.”

The lawyer says that in case the Polish investigation is closed with no result, as a representative of a victim he has the procedural right to appeal in front of a Polish court. In that case, he can bring all the confidential information he has seen as evidence.

Saving Polish aquatic warblers

This is a video from Belarus about an aquatic warbler.

From BirdLife:

Successfully conserving the Aquatic Warbler

Mon, Jan 14, 2013

Successfully conserving the Aquatic Warbler

OTOP (BirdLife in Poland), Aquatic Warbler singing

The numbers of Aquatic Warblers are declining in Europe mainly due to habitat loss and speeded up by changes in water management. The Polish Society for the Birds Protection (OTOP, Birdlife Partner) started a project to protect Aquatic Warbler back in the 1990s and conservation measures have focused on two big projects financed by the LIFE Programme.

In 2012, OTOP conducted a national Aquatic Warbler count, in which birds were counted not only in the places where conservation measures, like mowing and bush removal are taking place, but also at smaller sites throughout Poland. During these counts, thanks to an enormous effort of over 120 volunteers, OTOP now estimates the population at 3,256 male birds. This result supersedes the count in both 2007 and 2009; so it seems the decline has stopped.

Compared to other countries it appears like the Polish population of Aquatic Warblers is the only one that is stable. In Belarus and Lithuania the population decreased in 2012. Fortunately, conservation measures of restoration or increasing the quality of habitats are being implemented also there. In Germany, after several years of absence, three singing males have been observed in the Lower Odra Valley. Due to lack of research the situation of the species in the Ukraine and Russia is not known at the moment.

For more information, please contact Antoni Marczewski, Responsible for Communications at OTOP (BirdLife in Poland).

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