Diaghilev, dancing, other arts, politics

Serge Diaghilev, photograph by Jan de Sterlecki, 1916

From London daily The Morning Star:

Diaghilev And The Golden Age Of The Ballets Russes 1909-1929

Friday 03 December 2010

Sergei Diaghilev is best known for creating the Ballets Russes, the Russian touring company whose innovatory ballets first shocked then thrilled European audiences in the years leading up to WWI.

Born into the Russian landed aristocracy in 1872 Diaghilev developed an early fascination for the arts of Russia and the European avant-garde. He devoted himself to promoting the avant-garde at home and Russian arts old and new abroad at a time when they were little known in western Europe.

At the turn of the century the Russian avant-garde was influenced by the previously disparaged pre-18th century icons and the Russian empire’s peasant arts, including those of its Islamic provinces.

These non-illusionistic works held a mystery, exoticism and expressive power which paralleled that of other “primitive” art then being discovered by Gauguin, Picasso, Matisse and other pioneers of modernism.

In 1906 Diaghilev amazed audiences in Paris, Berlin and Venice with a large exhibition featuring Russian icons, peasant arts and avant-garde art. He soon followed this with concerts of Russian contemporary music and by 1909 he had merged these influences with innovatory ballet.

The first productions by the Ballets Russes in Paris 1909 caused a sensation. Ballet’s polite traditions were broken. Gone were the naturalistic sets, melodic music and teetering ballerinas in frothy tutus supported by stolid male dancers in classical tunics.

Here was the virtuosity of the charismatic Vaslav Nijinsky leaping, arching, stepping and twisting sinuously as a wild faun to Mikhail Fokine‘s innovative choreography and Igor Stravinsky‘s and Nikolai Rimski-Korsakov‘s swirling music. Leon Bakst’s bold, exotic costumes and sets complemented the raw emotion, sensuality and eroticism the company exuded.

Diaghilev had created innovative total art works which enveloped audiences in complete audio-visual sensory experiences. Much in demand, the company toured a dizzying range of towns and cities across Europe and the Americas ranging from Buenos Aires to Sheffield and from Budapest to Pittsburgh until Diaghilev’s death in 1929, when the Balllets Russes also ceased to exist.

With a finger on the pulse of his age, Diaghilev’s greatest achievement was to understand the expressions of modernity being forged by the avant-garde and to spot and commission a dazzling array of talents.

He collaborated with the leading artists, designers, composers, choreographers, writers and dancers of his era. The Rite of Spring in 1913 was choreographed and danced by Nijinsky, to music by Stravinsky and costumes and sets by Nicholas Roerich. Parade in 1917 had designs by Picasso, music by Erik Satie and a libretto by Jean Cocteau. Such cross-fertilisations ensured that the separate elements of ballet – scenario, choreography, sets, costumes and music – were fused into a spectacle which was greater than the sum of its parts.

The socio-political context of the exhibition is predictably anti-communist. The introductory display quotes the tsar’s rather than the proletariat’s views on the 1905 revolution. Diaghilev’s move to western Europe is attributed to the cessation of imperial patronage caused by this “political upheaval.”

Diaghilev’s cultural stance at the time echoed that of the right wing of the liberal Constitutional Democratic party, formed in 1905. It argued that a cultural elite should function as a bridge between social differences under the guidance of an autocratic state, but this goes unmentioned.

Similarly his statelessness after the formation of the USSR is portrayed as punitive. Yet his reasons for not joining the struggle for socio-political justice, as did other members of the Russian intelligentsia, are not discussed. He had left Russia long before 1917 and the young USSR was rightly suspicious of its mostly hostile emigre bourgeoisie.

But though a political conservative, Diaghilev was an aesthetic progressive. His contribution to European modernism went far beyond his original commitment to promoting an idealised and at times patronising idea of Russian identity.

This V&A exhibition is supplemented by informative music, videos, digital projections and films which complement the original costumes, programmes, posters, paintings, costume and set designs by some of the greatest artists of the 20th century.

One can only marvel at the consumate skill with which craftsmen and craftswomen fashioned costumes from extravagant materials using techniques varying from embroidery, applique, beading, embossing, flossing, flocking and dyeing.

The rhythm, scale and mood of the exhibition varies. There is an intimate display of four of Natalia Goncharova’s alternative set designs for The Firebird unexpectedly and delightfully dwarfed by the production’s gigantic backcloth itself, which hangs in solitary splendour as Stravinsky’s music plays. Picasso’s enormous front curtain for Parade, on which two joyous women running portray unfettered energy and freedom, is also on display.

The ephemerality of ballet makes it a difficult theme for an exhibition.

But this show and its catalogue manage to convey the daring and magic of Diaghilev’s productions by blending careful scholarship, thoughtful curating and brilliant exhibition design into a whole which echoes the drama and creativity of its theme.

Runs until January 9. Tickets can be booked at www.vam.ac.uk.

Critic’s Notebook: Ballet Clings to Racial, Ethnic and National Stereotypes: here.

Most popular New York art exhibitions

This video from the USA is called Picasso in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Behind-the-scenes Tour with the Director.

From ArtsBeat blog in the USA:

August 17, 2010, 6:00 pm

Met’s Picasso Exhibition Is One for the Record Books


Pablo Picasso, you still got it! The Metropolitan Museum of Art said on Tuesday that its recent exhibition of works by that 20th century titan of creativity was its seventh highest-attended show in the museum’s history. The exhibition, called “Picasso in The Metropolitan Museum of Art,” drew 703,256 visitors during its 17-week run from April 19 through Aug. 15, making it the museum’s best attended show since 2001. The Met said that the exhibition, which featured the museum’s complete Picasso holdings of some 300 examples of the artist’s painting, drawing, sculpture and ceramics, drew as many as 10,000 visitors on some busy Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Still, it wasn’t enough to top the Met’s sixth most-attended exhibition, “The Horses of San Marco,” which drew 742,221 visitors over seven months in 1980. Maybe next time, Picasso.

The Museum said that its seven highest-attended exhibitions have been:

1. “Treasures of Tutankhamun” (Dec. 20, 1978 through April 14, 1979) 1,360,957 visitors
2. “The Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci” (Feb. 7, 1963 through March 4, 1963) 1,077,521 visitors
3. “The Vatican Collections: The Papacy and Art” (Feb. 26, 1983 through May, 12 1983) 896,743 visitors
4. “Painters in Paris: 1895-1950″ (March 7, 2000 through Jan. 14, 2001) 883,620 visitors
5. “Origins of Impressionism” (Sept. 27, 1994 through Jan. 8, 1995) 794,108 visitors
6. “The Horses of San Marco” (Feb. 1, 1980 through Aug. 31, 1980) 742,221 visitors
7. “Picasso in The Metropolitan Museum of Art” (April. 19 through Aug. 15) 703,256 visitors

Picasso sketchbook stolen

This video is called Musée Picasso Paris France.

There has been theft of a Picasso sketchbook from the Picasso Museum in Paris, France.

From Associated Press:

Picasso‘s sketchbook stolen

2009-06-09 19:23

Paris – A police official says a notebook full of Pablo Picasso‘s sketches worth several million euros has been stolen from the Paris museum that bears the painter’s name.

The official says the theft was discovered on Tuesday morning at the Picasso Museum but it was not clear when or how it took place.

Police are not authorized to discuss cases publicly and the official spoke on condition of anonymity.

The museum is dedicated to the Spanish-born painter, a founder of the Cubist movement and leading 20th century artist.

Picasso exhibition in London

This video is about Pablo Picasso‘s works.

From British daily The Morning Star:

Picasso: Challenging the Past

Monday 09 March 2009

Exhibition: CHRISTINE LINDEY witnesses modernism in the making with a return to the very roots.

SO prolific an artist was Pablo Picasso that it makes sense to focus on a single aspect of his output. This exhibition explores how he pitted himself against the past.

This may seem odd since his works have epitomised modernism. When he and Georges Braque invented Cubism a century ago they found the visual language with which to speak of their own day in its own unique way.

Picasso later combined this with expressionist distortion and surrealist surprise to convey the preoccupations and ethos of the first half of the 20th century.

Yet it was the previous century that had shaped him. Born in 1881, Picasso was already 19 when he first visited Paris in 1900.

He was as steeped in the art of the past as were most artists who were educated around that time.

Throughout his life, his conversation was peppered with references to past artists including the Greco-Romans, Poussin, Rembrandt, Velazquez, Goya, Manet, Ingres and Cezanne.

Picasso referred to past art in his subject matter, composition and style, sometimes as subversive taunts to the received orthodoxies which they had come to represent, sometimes as homage and sometimes as a complex and contradictory mix of the two.

For example, Guernica borrows from Poussin‘s, David‘s and Goya‘s moving indictments of the horrors of war while using modernist shallow space and distortions of form and scale to convey a 20th century sense of urgency and heightened emotional impact.

In its original state at the Grand Palais in Paris, the exhibition had the actual works referred to by Picasso hanging alongside his own in a spectacular and enlightening feat of curating.

I looked forward to seeing the exhibition again when it travelled to London. But we only get Picasso’s paintings in the National Gallery, so the exhibition unfortunately misses its own objective.

The display and accompanying booklet do encourage us to go on to look at works by artists who influenced Picasso in the National Gallery’s permanent collection.

But this excludes African and Oceanic art, which were crucial influences. Moreover, it is a lame substitute for truly engaging in a visual dialogue between the old and new.

For example, observing Picasso’s nudes alongside idealised ones which were commissioned by rich men from Titian or Ingres allows one to understand more fully Picasso’s angry cries for truth against the contradictory forces of male desire.

The savage distortions of his late, tormented nudes convey raw physicality while the more lyrical nudes speak of wistful tenderness. None, however, masquerade as mythical goddesses.

Yet the smaller scale and focus of the London exhibition has the unintended consequence of offering us a pleasurably digestible introduction to Picasso’s painting.

Each room includes works spanning his entire career which are organised according to some of his major subjects including self portraits, still lifes, nudes and variations on iconic works from the past.

In this way, the exhibition manages to provide a focused overview of the sheer range of Picasso’s stylistic inventiveness and restless refusal to be straight-jacketed into a single way of seeing.

Subtlety may not have been Picasso’s strongest point, but he was a profoundly humane artist.

He concentrated on the fundamental themes of birth, sex, death, war and peace, seizing them by the jugular and conveying them with the realist’s unblinking refusal to ignore harshness and hardship.

Surprisingly, some of the most powerful works at the exhibition are the still lifes.

Undistracted by the emotiveness of the human form, the cubist figures allow for concentrated experimentation with form, line and space.

The stylistically simpler wartime images, in which human or animal skulls placed next to frugal domestic objects become metaphors for the horrors and privations of nazi occupation, are painful to look at, so powerfully do they convey their meanings.

But Picasso’s political commitment to the Spanish republic and to communism are ignored. So are his sculptures which, together with his prints, are arguably his strongest works, although a few of the latter are displayed free of charge in a separate room where you can peruse them next to two Rembrandt prints which inspired them.

If you can afford to, then go. It is a golden opportunity to study paintings by one of the giants of Modernism.

Exhibition runs until June 7. Price £12 concession/senior £11, Tuesday afternoons £6, unemployed/students £6, under-12s free.