Rare great knot in England


This is a great knot video.

From Wildlife Extra:

Extremely rare bird draws a huge crowd in Norfolk

A great knot, a small wader you might normally expect to see in Australia, drew around 400 ardent birdwatchers to the Breydon Water estuary near Great Yarmouth in Norfolk this week.

The species has only been seen three times before in the UK – first in Shetland in 1989, then on Teeside in 1996 and, most recently, at Skippool in Lancashire in 2004.

Most of the latter sightings were so distant, however, that that bird was nicknamed the ‘great dot’.

Great knots breed in the tundra of Siberia and winter on the coasts of southern Asia and Australia, travelling between the two in large flocks. Somewhere on its migration, this bird strayed off course, lost its companions and ended up in East Anglia.

Like other calidrids, such as sandpipers, stints and dunlin, the great knot probes mudflats and beaches with its sensitive bill searching for mollusc prey. This specialised bill contains numerous nerve-endings known as Herbst corpuscles to enable the bird to sense the tiny movements of prey buried in the wet mud.

This particular great knot, oblivious to its legions of admirers behind rows of telescopes, enjoyed the delicacies of Norfolk coastal mud for a few days before moving on.

Rare spectacled warbler in England


This 2 June 2014 video from England is called Spectacled Warbler and Twitch, Burnham Overy, 02/06/2014.

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Otters in Norfolk, England


This video is called Wild otters in Thetford, Norfolk.

By Peter Frost in England:

The otter‘s welcome return

Saturday 5th April 2014

PETER FROST tracks an otter in the backwaters of the Broads National Park and uncovers an interesting quirk of history

The tiny electric launch, the Electric Eel moved silently away from the jetty at How Hill on the river Ant in the heart of the Norfolk Broads National Park. We soon left the main river taking a tiny reed-fringed backwater.

The park ranger spotted it first – they always do – something slender, sleek and shiny swimming across the river. First guess was a mink, common enough to be a real pest in these waters.

It moved fast and looked bigger than a mink. As it scrambled on to the bank the whiskers and bright button nose made it plain this was that rarest of Broadland’s mammals – the wonderful otter (Lutra lutra).

After years of living on the brink of extinction in Britain, otters have made a dramatic comeback, and not just in the Broads.

You have a greater chance of seeing an otter on our riverbanks than at any time for half a century. Today otters are being spotted in virtually every river in every county.

Back in the 1970s, otters were nearly extinct. They have made an extraordinary comeback – and one linked to other improvements in our rivers, streams, canals and other water courses.

Otters are playful and affectionate with their young, they float on their backs with pups on their stomachs. You may be lucky and see one sitting on the river bank meticulously eating a fish. A large dog otter or a pregnant female might eat as much as four pounds (2kg) of fish a day.

Much of the otter‘s popularity can be traced back to two important books about the species – Henry Williamson‘s 1927 novel Tarka the Otter and Gavin Maxwell‘s Ring of Bright Water.

Maxwell’s book, first published in 1960, was made into a popular film in 1969 when otters had almost disappeared from both English and Welsh rivers and were quite rare in the Scottish rivers where Maxwell had set his book and film. The film and book helped to win over public opinion in favour of the otter.

At this time the few surviving otters were still being hunted with packs of hounds. The murderous so-called sport was not made illegal until 1978.

Another major factor in the otters’ decline was the widespread use of DDT and other agricultural chemicals. They drained from farmland and poisoned waterways.

Those chemicals accumulated in fish and amphibians and poisoned the otter at the top of the riverbank food chain.

These chemicals, along with untreated sewage and industrial pollution, effectively killed our rivers.

The rivers too were being dredged and straightened, while banks were being tidied up and steel and concrete pilings were installed, replacing the soft otter-friendly reed fringes. It is hard to dig a holt in a concrete bank.

Those of us who wanted to see British otters had to journey north to Orkney, Shetland or the Highlands.

Banning DDT and the gradual improvement in river water quality started to make the news, although it was usually the return of fisherman’s salmon that made the headlines. But as the salmon returned, so did the otter.

Today even lucky city folk might see an otter on a early morning canal towpath walk.

European mink in the Netherlands: here.

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Natterjack toad mating season on Terschelling island


This video from Norfolk in England is called Hunt for the Natterjack Toad.

The Dutch Wadden Sea Society reports that the natterjack toads of Terschelling island have woken up from their hibernation.

In the Koegelwieck nature reserve, in central Terschelling, each night there is a massive concert by male natterjack toads. This is audible even on the beach and in Den Hoorn village, kilometres away.

Another good natterjack spot on Terschelling is the Groene strand beach in the west of the island.

In the Netherlands as a whole, natterjack toads are and threatened. Not so on Terschelling: the related species, the European toad, common in the continental Netherlands, does not occur there.

You can hear a natterjack toad call here (click on “Roep” on the right side of the page).

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Prehistoric human discovery in England


This video from Britain says about itself:

The earliest human footprints outside Africa found in Norfolk | Natural History Museum

7 Feb 2014

A series of footprints that were left by early humans over 800,000 years ago have been discovered by a team of scientists led by the British Museum, Natural History Museum and Queen Mary University of London.

The footprints left in ancient estuary muds were found at Happisburgh in Norfolk and are direct evidence of the earliest known humans in northern Europe. Find out more about the discovery: here.

Archaeological finds from Happisburgh and other locations around the country feature in our Britain: One Million Years of the Human Story exhibition, open between 13 February and 28 September 2014: here.

From Associated Press:

Million-year-old footprints found

Last updated 15:42 08/02/2014

They were a British family on a day out — almost a million years ago.

Archaeologists have announced the discovery of human footprints in England that are between 800,000 and 1 million years old — the most ancient found outside Africa, and the earliest evidence of human life in northern Europe.

A team from the British Museum, London’s Natural History Museum and Queen Mary college at the University of London uncovered imprints from up to five individuals in ancient estuary mud at Happisburgh on the country’s eastern coast.

British Museum archaeologist Nick Ashton said the discovery — recounted in detail in the journal PLOS ONE — was ‘‘a tangible link to our earliest human relatives.’’

Preserved in layers of silt and sand for hundreds of millennia before being exposed by the tide last year, the prints give a vivid glimpse of some of our most ancient ancestors.

They were left by a group, including at least two children and one adult male. They could have been be a family foraging on the banks of a river scientists think may be the ancient Thames, beside grasslands where bison, mammoth, hippos and rhinoceros roamed.

University of Southampton archaeology professor Clive Gamble, who was not involved in the project, said the discovery was ‘‘tremendously significant”.

‘‘It’s just so tangible,’’ he said. ‘‘This is the closest we’ve got to seeing the people. ‘‘When I heard about it, it was like hearing the first line of (William Blake’s hymn) Jerusalem — ‘And did those feet, in ancient time, walk upon England’s mountains green?’ Well, they walked upon its muddy estuary.’’

The researchers said the humans who left the footprints may have been related to Homo antecessor, or ‘‘pioneer man,’’ whose fossilised remains have been found in Spain.

That species died out about 800,000 years ago. Ashton said the footprints are between 800,000 — ‘‘as a conservative estimate’’ — and 1 million years old, at least 100,000 years older than scientists’ earlier estimate of the first human habitation in Britain.

That’s significant because 700,000 years ago, Britain had a warm, Mediterranean-style climate. The earlier period was much colder, similar to modern-day Scandinavia. Natural History Museum archaeologist Chris Stringer said that 800,000 or 900,000 years ago Britain was ‘‘the edge of the inhabited world.’’

‘This makes us rethink our feelings about the capacity of these early people, that they were coping with conditions somewhat colder than the present day,’’ he said.

‘‘Maybe they had cultural adaptations to the cold we hadn’t even thought were possible 900,000 years ago. Did they wear clothing? Did they make shelters, windbreaks and so on?

”Could they have the use of fire that far back?’’ he asked.

Scientists dated the footprints by studying their geological position and from nearby fossils of long-extinct animals including mammoth, ancient horse and early vole.

John McNabb, director of the Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins at the University of Southampton — who was not part of the research team — said the use of several lines of evidence meant ‘‘the dating is pretty sound.’’

Once uncovered, the perishable prints were recorded using sophisticated digital photography to create 3-D images in which it’s possible to discern arches of feet, and even toes.

Isabelle De Groote, a specialist in ancient human remains at Liverpool John Moores University who worked on the find, said that from the pattern of the prints, the group of early humans appeared to be ‘‘pottering around,’’ perhaps foraging for food. She said it wasn’t too much of a stretch to call it a family.

‘‘These individuals travelling together, it’s likely that they were somehow related,’’ she said. Research at Happisburgh will continue, and scientists are hopeful of finding fossilised remains of the ancient humans, or evidence of their living quarters, to build up a fuller picture of their lives. The footprint find will form part of an exhibition, ‘‘Britain: One Million Years of the Human Story,’’ opening at the Natural History Museum next week.

The footprints themselves, which survived for almost 1 million years, won’t be there. Two weeks after they were uncovered, North Sea tides had washed them away.

The oldest human footprints ever discovered outside of Africa have already been washed away: here.

London’s Natural History Museum is holding an exhibition until September 28, 2014, on the human occupation of Britain. It focuses on the Palaeolithic period, which covers about 99 percent of human history from the earliest known use of stone tools about 2.6 million years ago to approximately 10,000 years ago: here.

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