Martians did not build Egyptian pyramids, Mayan tombs


This video from the USA says about itself:

Orson WellesWar Of The Worlds – Radio Broadcast 1938 – Complete Broadcast.

The War of the Worlds was an episode of the American radio drama anthology series Mercury Theatre on the Air. It was performed as a Halloween episode of the series on October 30, 1938 and aired over the Columbia Broadcasting System radio network. Directed and narrated by Orson Welles, the episode was an adaptation of H. G. Wells‘ novel The War of the Worlds.

The first two thirds of the 60-minute broadcast were presented as a series of simulated “news bulletins”, which suggested to many listeners that an actual alien invasion by Martians was currently in progress. Compounding the issue was the fact that the Mercury Theatre on the Air was a ‘sustaining show’ (it ran without commercial breaks), thus adding to the program’s quality of realism.

Although there were sensationalist accounts in the press about a supposed panic in response to the broadcast, the precise extent of listener response has been debated. In the days following the adaptation, however, there was widespread outrage. The program’s news-bulletin format was decried as cruelly deceptive by some newspapers and public figures, leading to an outcry against the perpetrators of the broadcast, but the episode secured Orson Welles’ fame.

So, according to recent research, it is possible that long ago, simple forms of life could live on planet Mars.

However, there is no evidence (yet) that any simple living beings used that opportunity.

Still far less than zero evidence exists of not so simple beings, like the Martians described in H.G. Wells’ science fiction book War of the Worlds, living on the red planet or elsewhere in outer space and going to planet Earth.

From the Columbus Dispatch in the USA:

Archaeology | No evidence of aliens helping ancient cultures

Sunday January 26, 2014 10:20 AM

Did aliens visit Earth in ancient times? It’s possible.

The late Carl Sagan once argued that there was a “statistical likelihood that Earth was visited by an advanced extraterrestrial civilization at least once during historical times.”

A statistical likelihood is one thing. Is there any reliable evidence that any such thing ever actually happened?

None whatsoever.

So why do 2 out of 4 Americans believe there are signs that aliens have visited Earth in the past? I think there are two reasons. First and most fundamentally, when most people see a wonder of the ancient world, such as the Egyptian pyramids, they can’t imagine how our so-called primitive ancestors possibly could have built it.

Second, there are charlatans out there willing to take advantage of that lack of imagination by making exuberant claims that various cultural achievements in antiquity could have been accomplished only with the help of friendly aliens.

In the current issue of Skeptic magazine, documentary filmmaker Chris White shoots down a few of the most popular claims of past alien intervention.

For example, ancient alien enthusiasts find it unbelievable that Egyptians could have carved the huge stone blocks used to build the pyramids, especially since they didn’t have iron tools. Yet there is abundant archaeological evidence that shows teams of stonemasons used simple hammer stones to shape the blocks.

But fans of ancient aliens say that even if Egyptians somehow shaped the enormous blocks of stone, no mere humans could have moved them into place.

The truth, however, is indeed out there.

White explains that there are many ancient carvings that show “Egyptians using wooden sleds to move … blocks the size and shape of the ones used for the pyramids.” It is amazing what our ancestors could achieve with creativity, determination and a large workforce.

Believers in ancient aliens frequently point to an engraved stone slab from a Mayan tomb, which they claim depicts an astronaut at the controls of a spacecraft.

If you take the time to study the symbolism of the Mayan religion, however, it is clear that the “spacecraft” actually is the primordial world tree with a celestial bird perched in its upper branches. And the barefoot “astronaut” really is the deceased Mayan king descending into the underworld.

These examples are typical of what is offered as evidence of ancient aliens. The purveyors of this nonsense assume our ancestors were ignoramuses. If they accomplished some great thing, then aliens must have helped them.

Champions of ancient astronauts look through volumes of prehistoric art and cherry-pick images that bear — at best — only a superficial resemblance to something that could be construed as alien technology.

They give no thought to what those images represented in their original cultural contexts. Using this method, an Egyptian carving of a lotus flower can be reinterpreted as an electric light bulb, and a South American sculpture of a sucker-mouth catfish can be imagined to be a delta-wing fighter jet.

Archaeologists don’t take these views seriously, but by ignoring them, we allow 3 out of 4 Americans to buy into a fantasy.

Bradley T. Lepper is curator of archaeology at the Ohio Historical Society.

Unbelievable story: A man is suing NASA for (allegedly) failing to investigate alien life: here.

Physicists from the FOM Foundation and the University of Amsterdam have discovered that the ancient Egyptians used a clever trick to make it easier to transport heavy pyramid stones by sledge. The Egyptians moistened the sand over which the sledge moved. By using the right quantity of water they could halve the number of workers needed. The researchers published this discovery online on 29 April 2014 in Physical Review Letters. Read more here.

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‘Mars was habitable long ago’


This video says about itself:

12 March 2013

NASA’s Curiosity rover found oxygen, water, sulfate and other elements in a rock sample from Mars.

From Space.com:

Ancient Mars May Have Been Habitable for Hundreds of Millions of Years

by Mike Wall, Senior Writer | January 23, 2014 02:01pm ET

Mars may have been capable of supporting microbial life for hundreds of millions of years in the ancient past, new findings from a long-lived Red Planet rover suggest.

NASA’s Opportunity rover, which celebrates 10 years of Mars exploration on Friday (Jan. 24), has uncovered evidence that benign, nearly neutral-pH water flowed on the Red Planet around 4 billion years ago.

These results, reported today (Jan. 23) in the journal Science, complement the recent work of NASA’s bigger, newer Curiosity rover, which discovered a potentially habitable lake and groundwater system in a different Martian locale dating from about 3.7 billion years ago.

“These [benign] water conditions existed over a long period of time,” said Ray Arvidson, lead author of the new study and Opportunity deputy principal investigator.

Therefore, primitive organisms may have been able to survive on Mars for long stretches during a period when life was getting a foothold on Earth, said Arvidson, director of the Earth and Planetary Remote Sensing Laboratory at Washington University in St. Louis.

“That wouldn’t be a surprise,” he told SPACE.com. “Maybe not globally; [habitable environments] could have occurred here and there regionally. And it may not have been for the whole time continuously. We don’t know.”

Studying ancient rocks

The golf-cart-size Opportunity touched down on Jan. 24, 2004, three weeks after its twin, Spirit. Both robots were tasked with 90-day missions to seek out signs of past water activity on Mars. Spirit was declared dead in 2011, but Opportunity is still going strong.

The rover made the new discovery at an outcrop on the rim of Endeavour Crater, a 14-mile-wide (22 kilometers) hole in the ground that Opportunity reached in August 2011.

NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spotted evidence of exposed, aluminum-rich clay minerals at a site along the rim called Matijevic Hill. Such clays generally form in the presence of benign, mildly acidic water, so the rover team commanded Opportunity to go check out the rock formation.

When Opportunity got there, the rover encountered the oldest rocks it has ever studied on Mars. Fine-grained, layered rocks in the Matijevic outcrop date from Mars’ Noachian period, making them perhaps 4 billion years old, Arvidson said. (It’s tough to date Mars rocks and formations definitively, so such numbers have large uncertainties associated with them, he stressed.)

These clay-enriched rocks are studded with BB-size “spherules” and cut by numerous fractures, through which liquid water flowed long ago, Arvidson said.

“The groundwaters that moved through those fractures were only mildly acidic, and mildly oxidizing to reducing,” he said. “So, the earlier you go, the more clement the conditions were.”

These ancient rocks predate the asteroid or comet impact that created Endeavour Crater, and they’re covered in most places by younger material that bears the signature of hypersalty and much more acidic water — the signature, in other words, of a much less hospitable Mars.

Teaming up with Curiosity

Opportunity’s new results take on deeper meaning when combined with the observations of the 1-ton Curiosity rover, which touched down on a different part of Mars in August 2012.

Curiosity was designed to extend and advance the discoveries of Spirit and Opportunity. It sports 10 different science instruments — a suite crafted specifically to determine if the Red Planet could ever have supported microbial life.

Last month, the Curiosity team announced that an area near the rover’s landing site harbored a large, shallow and potentially habitable lake system during Mars‘ Hesperian era, which follows the Noachian in Red Planet chronology. This lake and its feeder streams likely existed about 3.7 billion years ago, or perhaps even a bit more recently, mission scientists said.

So researchers are starting to get a better idea of the Martian surface’s window of habitability, Arvidson said. It appears that window might have been open — off and on, perhaps, and here and there — for hundreds of millions of years in the distant past.

Liquid water cannot exist for long periods on the surface of present-day Mars, whose atmosphere is just 1 percent as thick as that of Earth. That atmosphere was likely thicker long ago, if lakes and river systems were, indeed, stable for lengthy stretches, Arvidson said.

“One way to do it is to have massive impacts, and to have a [temporarily thicker] atmosphere,” he said. “So it could be that you have multiple impacts over that extended period of time, and collectively they made for a sustained presence of water on the surface and in the shallow subsurface. But we don’t know, at this point, with just two examples.”

THE US National Research Council (NRC) warned space agency Nasa today that its mission to send humans to Mars would fail unless it revamped its strategy. A congressionally commissioned NRC report said that Washington should use “stepping stones” to achieve manned flight to Mars. This could involve building more international co-operation with space-capable countries like China, it noted: here.

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Mars, from long ago till now, video


This video says about itself:

NASA | Mars Evolution

13 nov 2013

Billions of years ago when the Red Planet was young, it appears to have had a thick atmosphere that was warm enough to support oceans of liquid water – a critical ingredient for life. The animation shows how the surface of Mars might have appeared during this ancient clement period, beginning with a flyover of a Martian lake. The artist’s concept is based on evidence that Mars was once very different. Rapidly moving clouds suggest the passage of time, and the shift from a warm and wet to a cold and dry climate is shown as the animation progresses. The lakes dry up, while the atmosphere gradually transitions from Earthlike blue skies to the dusty pink and tan hues seen on Mars today.

See also here.

Nasa’s Maven spacecraft set for Mars mission: here.

Planet Mars, new research


This video says about itself:

Mars Atmosphere Loss Mystery: Probe Will Investigate

July 18, 2013

NASA’s MAVEN mission’s Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer will look at how matter interacts with the solar wind in the Martian atmosphere. This data could reveal why the formally wet Red Planet has become the barren world we see today. — MAVEN mission gallery here.