Edible frogs mating season, video


This video is about edible frogs during mating season near Hardenberg in the Netherlands.

Freddy Goosselink made the video.

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New frog species discovery in India


This video from India says about itself:

Breeding Behaviour Part I

27 March 2014

Male and female Kumbara frogs do courtship behaviour by standing on their hind limbs and touching each other. In the clip above, after the initial courtship the female touches the twigs, where it is likely to oviposit later on. The male keeps calling ‘tok tok’ as the female is very close by. After this inspection, female positions herself for the axillary amplexus.

This video from India says about itself:

Breeding Behaviour Part II

15 May 2014

After the axillary amplexus, male and female position themselves upright. Later, female initiates the clockwise rotation with male and she makes a head stand and releases all the eggs. Just a fraction of a second prior to oviposition, male gets separated from amplexus, but sits close to the female that is ovipositing.

And this video says:

Breeding Behaviour Part III

15 May 2014

The male comes back to the oviposition site and starts applying mud to the egg clutch. This can go on for 30-40 times as long as all the eggs are covered. Once done, male starts calling again from the nearby area.

From National Geographic:

New Frog Mates Doing Handstands, Does “Pottery”

Posted by James Owen in Weird & Wild on May 16, 2014

A new species of frog with some bizarre mating rituals has been discovered in India, a new study says.

Found in swampy forests of the Western Ghats (map), the Kumbara night frog (Nyctibatrachus kumbara) mates while doing a handstand and then daubs its eggs with mud to protect them—the world’s only known frog species known to do so. (See: “Weird Purple Frog Seduces Females From Underground.”)

Hence the new frog’s name: Kumbara means “potter” in the language of the Uttara Kannada region of western India where the species lives, according to the research, published May 16 in the journal Zootaxa.

When the male and female meet, they stand on their hind legs and touch the potential egg-laying site—usually a twig, plant, or rock that overhangs a stream, said study co-author Kotambylu Vasudeva Gururaja, an amphibian researcher at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore.

Then, during mating, the female performs a handstand with the male still on her back and starts laying her eggs, said Gururaja, whose team has observed and filmed the nocturnal frog, which was first glimpsed in 2006.

Mating Acrobatics

The male, having fertilized the spawn, leaps off, but the female remains in the handstand egg-laying position for up to 20 minutes.

The study team suspects the pair start out standing on their hind legs in order to indicate where they want to lay the eggs, “but that needs to be checked out,” Gururaja said. (Also see: “Pictures: Mouth-Birthing Frog to Be Resurrected?“)

This ritual may also be a way for the female to check whether the male literally measures up.

“We hypothesized that the female might be checking the length of the male, since he will release sperms just a fraction of second prior to [egg laying],” he said. “If he is too small, sperms may not reach the eggs that are being attached against gravity.”

That may be why females don’t always go on to mate with smaller male suitors, Gururaja noted.

Amphibian Pottery

After the female lays up to seven eggs, the male takes over—revealing a previously unreported method of parental care by frogs. (Watch a video of a male Darwin’s frog spitting out its young.)

“They fill their two hands with mud, stand on their hind legs, then apply the mud,” Gururaja said. “They use their fingers in a similar way to us.”

This plastering job may take 25 minutes, and can involve 40 to 50 trips to the streambed and back, according to Gururaja.

The eggs themselves are secured tightly to the twig, he added, and are difficult for even a human to remove.

The study team suspects the frogs position their spawn above the stream and then conceal it to protect against aquatic predators like freshwater crabs, which “will eat anything, including frogs,” Gururaja said.

The mud casing may also play a role in helping to prevent the eggs from drying out. After a week or so, the tadpoles emerge and drop down into the stream.

Frog-Rich Region

The Kumbara night frog is just the latest in a string of recent frog discoveries from the Western Ghats, a range that extends up and down India for 990 miles (1,600 kilometers). (Related: “14 New ‘Dancing Frogs’ Discovered in India.”)

In 2011, Sathyabhama Das Biju, head of the Systematics Lab at the University of Delhi, described 12 new species of night frogs, including one that makes a meowing sound.

Nyctibatrachus as a genus has amazing diversity in breeding behavior,” Biju, who wasn’t involved in the new study, said in an email.

He agreed the males’ mud-plastering is “unique,” adding that some frogs cover their eggs with mud to camouflage them and prevent them from drying out.

But the new frog’s egg-plastering technique, in combination with its other unusual breeding antics, “is an exciting find.”

“I believe more species will be described from this genus in the coming years,” Biju said.

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Fourteen dancing frog species discovered in India


This video says about itself:

8 May 2014

Scientists have discovered 14 new species of so-called dancing frogs in the jungle mountains of southern India – just in time, as scientists fear they may soon become extinct.

From Associated Press:

Dancing frog species discovered in Indian jungle mountains

14 species of acrobatic amphibians found in Western Ghats, a region expected to be hit by changing rainfall patterns

Thursday 8 May 2014 10.18 BST

Scientists have discovered 14 new species of so-called dancing frogs in the jungle mountains of southern India.

Indian biologists say they found the tiny acrobatic amphibians, which earned their name with the unusual kicks they use to attract mates, declining dramatically in number during the 12 years in which they chronicled the species through morphological descriptions and molecular DNA markers. They breed after the yearly monsoon in fast-rushing streams, but their habitat appears to be becoming increasingly dry.

“It’s like a Hollywood movie, both joyful and sad. On the one hand, we have brought these beautiful frogs into public knowledge. But about 80% are outside protected areas, and in some places, it was as if nature itself was crying,” said the project’s lead scientist, University of Delhi professor Sathyabhama Das Biju.

Biju said that, as researchers tracked frog populations, forest soils lost moisture and perennial streams ran inexplicably dry. He acknowledged his team’s observations about forest conditions were only anecdotal; the scientists did not have time or resources to collect data demonstrating the declining habitat trends they believed they were witnessing.

The study listing the new species published Thursday in the Ceylon Journal of Science brings the number of known Indian dancing frog species to 24. They’re found exclusively in the Western Ghats, a lush mountain range that stretches 1,600 kilometers (990 miles) from the western state of Maharashtra down to the country’s southern tip.

See also here.

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Newt eating frog’s eggs, video


In this video, common frogs in the water try to protect their eggs.

Still, a common newt manages to feed on the eggs.

Renée Sips from the Netherlands made the video.

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New frog species discovery in Vietnam


This video says about itself:

Misty Mountains and Moss Frogs: Finding Frogs in Nests

30 July 2013

Jodi Rowley is a biologist at the Australian Museum discovering and documenting the diversity, ecology and conservation status of amphibians in Southeast Asia. Amphibians in the region are both highly threatened and poorly known, and Jodi and her colleagues conduct scientific expeditions to the forested mountains of Vietnam in search of rare, poorly-known and previously unknown species of amphibian. This video focuses on finding frogs in nests (yes that’s right- nests!).

From Wildlife Extra:

New pink and yellow frog discovered

April 2014: Biologist Jodi Rowley, an expert on Southeast Asian amphibians from the Australian Museum Research Institute in Sydney, recently found this striking pink and yellow frog in the remote Mount Ngoc Linh region of Vietnam.

The 5cm long frog lives in forests above 1,800m where the terrain is steep and rocky, and lacking in the standing water that might be expected to sustain frogs, but the research team found they thrived in water-filled hollows in the trees. The males have skin covered in keratin spines, which increase in size during the mating season and are thought to help females to identify males. The species has been named thorny tree frog (Gracixalus lumarius).

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Costa Rican frogs and spiders


Green-and-black poison frog, 17 March 2014

After yesterday, in the morning of 17 March 2014, still near the Sarapiqui river in Costa Rica. One of many animals there is this green-and-black poison dart frog.

Red-eyed tree frog, 17 March 2014

While a red-eyed tree frog was asleep under a leaf.

Masked tree frog, 17 March 2014

There was a masked tree frog as well.

Golden silk spider, female, 17 March 2017

In a big web, a golden silk spider couple.

Golden silk spider female, 17 March 2017

The female was much bigger than the male.

Golden silk spider male, 17 March 2017

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Common frogs’ mating season, video


This video is about common frogs‘ mating season, near Ruinen in the Netherlands.

Gert Gelmers made the video.

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Tree frog video


This is a video about an European tree frog.

Christ Grootzwagers from the Netherlands made the video.

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New marsupial frog species discovery in Peru


This video from Ecuador says about itself:

Marsupial Tree-Frog (Gastrotheca longipes) in the Yasuni

Dear friends,

This is a canopy species found in primary tropical moist lowland and montane tropical forest. A direct development species, its eggs are carried in a pouch on the females back. It is not present in modified habitats. The population status of this canopy species is unknown; this species faces no major threats; it is a widespread species with large areas of suitable habitat remaining. There is some localized habitat loss to selective logging and agricultural activities. It might be susceptible to chytrid infection, but this requires further investigation.

From Mongabay.com:

Scientists uncover new species of Andean marsupial frog

By: Jordanna Dulaney

March 05, 2014

The term “marsupial frog” might sound like a hoax, but, believe it or not, it’s real. Recently, herpetologists welcomed a new species, known as Gastrotheca dysprosita and described in the journal Phyllomedusa.

Unlike mammal marsupials, which typically carry their young in pouches on their torsos and are found primarily in Australia, the Gastrotheca genus of frogs, which contains 62 species, is found in the Andes region of South America and sport their pouches on their backs (also called a “dorsal brood pouch”). The female frog’s vascular tissue provides oxygen to the eggs, which she carries for three to four months until they hatch as fully-developed froglets and head off on their own.

This most recently described species owes its classification to William Duellman, of the University of Kansas. While announced in June 2013, the story of this frog’s discovery really began in 1972 when Fred G. Thompson, a malacologist from the University of Florida, collected the first specimen in the Peruvian Amazon. Thompson brought the mystery frog back to the U.S., and gave it to Duellman to identify and catalog.

The plot thickened when, in 1989, another research group both heard and caught another unidentifiable male in the same region. A second call was heard higher up the mountain, but rainy weather made it impossible to find another specimen.

“The jar containing the holotype [original specimen] of this new species has been gathering dust… I have been trying to clean up loose ends during the preparation of a monograph [a detailed study] on marsupial frogs,” Duellman wrote in his article announcing Gastrotheca dysprosita. “Thus, herein I eliminate a loose end by describing a new species.”

For his description, Duellman took meticulous measurements of the two frogs’ bodies, and compared them to known species. In life, the new species has bumpy, bright green skin with stripes of creamish and brown spots down its back and sides. Duellman describes the iris as a “reddish copper” color. The two individuals were found between 3,370 to 3,440 meters (11,000 to 11,300 feet) on the Cerro Barro Negro, a single mountain in Peru.

Little is known about the behavior patterns of Gastrotheca dysprosita since only two frogs have been found up to this point. Under the IUCN’s (the International Union for the Conservation of Nature) guidelines, it’s impossible to make a guess at population size because there simply isn’t enough data.

Even the name of the frog is mysterious: dysprosita, from the Greek word dysprositos, literally means “hard to find.” The name would thus be translated as the “hard-to-find marsupial frog.”

“The name reflects the difficulty in finding this elusive frog,” Duellman states in the species description.

Citations:

Duellman, William E. “An Elusive New Species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca) from the Andes of Northern Peru.” Phyllomedusa 12.3-11 (2013.

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Save amphibians from wells


This is a video from the Netherlands; about a common frog which had fallen into a well. Often, falling into a well means death for frogs, toads, shrews and other small animals. However, in this well, a ladder enabled the frog to escape.

This video from the USA says about itself:

FrogLog: Animal Escape Ramp for Swimming Pools

This video shows how small frogs and other animals use the FrogLog to escape from swimming pools. The FrogLog provides an escape ramp for lizards, chipmunks, squirrels, mice, birds, bats, ducklings, and other small animals.

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