Lesser yellowlegs in the Netherlands


This video from Florida in the USA is called Greater & Lesser Yellowlegs.

The lesser yellowlegs is a North American bird. Only rarely, an individual goes to Europe.

These days, one is in Starrevaart nature reserve near Voorschoten in the Netherlands.

UPDATE: the lesser yellowlegs is no longer at Starrevaart. Spotted redshanks are still there; see photo here.

UPDATE 5 september: the lesser yellowlegs is back at Starrevaart.

Florida panthers in the USA


This video from the USA says about itself:

May 9, 2013

Presented by The Park Service, Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and The US Environmental Protection Agency. Produced by Bridget Litten and Karrie Carnes. Directed by Erik D. Hutchins.

Florida Panthers 2013: In the 1980s, south Florida’s panther population was down to only 20 to 30 individuals. Today, they are on the rebound with an estimated population of around 120. To many, this is an endangered species success story.

AND Pharmaceuticals in our Waters: And all the pharmaceuticals that we use, our bodies don’t use them all up. All of our birth control pills, all the different medications that we have for all these different ailments, they pass through our bodies the go into our sewer systems. There’s one type of pharmaceutical that has scientists especially nervous about finding in our waters, called endocrine disrupters.

From Wildlife Extra:

Florida Panther sightings survey

Panther sightings reported throughout Florida

August 2013. The public has reported hundreds of sightings of Florida panthers to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). As of August 2013, the public had submitted 790 sightings.

Mistaken identity

Only 12 percent of the reports included a photograph and could be evaluated by Commission biologists. Of those with photos, the majority were confirmed as panthers. Other animals identified by FWC biologists were bobcats, foxes, coyotes, dogs, house cats and even a monkey. Most often the reported animal or tracks belonged to a bobcat, when it was not a panther. The verified panther reports were largely confined to southwest Florida, the well-documented breeding range for panthers in the state. There also were several verified sightings in south central Florida.

“The public’s willingness to share what they have seen or collected on game cameras is incredibly helpful and shows us where panthers presumably are roaming in Florida,” said Darrell Land, who heads the FWC’s panther team. “We thank everyone using the Report Florida Panther Sightings website and encourage others to participate in this citizen-science venture.”

“As the population of this endangered species grows, the FWC expects more Florida panthers to be seen in areas of the state where they have not lived for decades,” Land said. “To properly plan and manage for the expansion of the panther’s range in Florida, information about where the panthers are is vital.”

Identify tracks

The FWC has a new “E-Z guide to identify panther tracks” available at www.FloridaPantherNet.org.

100 – 160 panthers alive

The Florida panther population is estimated to be 100 to 160 adults and yearlings, a figure that does not include panther kittens. As recently as the 1970s, the Florida panther was close to disappearing, with as few as 20 animals in the wild.

Sightings can be reported to the FWC website launched a year ago, where people can record when and where they saw a panther or its tracks at MyFWC.com/PantherSightings.

Florida panther map

Young green turtles, new research


This video is called Green sea turtles, birth.

From New Scientist:

Green turtle youngsters roam far and wide

14 August 2013

WE HAVE all seen images of turtle hatchlings scrabbling down a beach to the sea. But between then and their appearance at foraging grounds as adults, no one knew where they went. Now a study of ocean currents and turtle genetics suggests an answer: they go pretty much everywhere.

Tagging doesn’t work on green turtles (Chelonia mydas) – they are just too small, says Nathan Putman of Oregon State University in Corvallis. “Any tags you put on them would sink them.” To figure out where they go, Putman teamed up with geneticist Eugenia Naro-Maciel of the City University of New York. They used a model of ocean circulation to estimate where the young turtles would be carried from natal beaches in the Atlantic, Mediterranean and Indian oceans. They also compared the genetic make-up of baby turtles at those beaches with adult turtles at foraging grounds. By combining the two methods, they were able to produce maps showing where turtles go after hatching (Proceedings of the Royal Society B, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1468).

Putman and Naro-Maciel think the turtles are found in two main areas. One covers most of the north Atlantic, plus the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. The other spans much of the south Atlantic and extends into the Indian Ocean south of Madagascar – a daunting challenge for conservationists hoping to preserve them, says Putman.

Endangered green sea turtles make a comeback in Florida: here.

Spike in endangered green turtles off Indonesia island risks destruction of food source: here.

Good Spanish osprey news


This video from Florida in the USA is called Osprey gets fish at 2008 PODS PGA golf tournament.

Fortunately, now better British-Spanish (more precisely: Scottish-Basque) news than sabre-rattling around Gibraltar

From Wildlife Extra:

Scottish ospreys released into Spain

Scottish ospreys help Spain reintroduction

August 2013. Twelve young Scottish ospreys have been released on the north Spanish coast near Bilbao, as the first stage of a five-year project to restore breeding ospreys to the Basque country.

Last year, the Biscay Regional Council and the Urdaibai Bird Center asked Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) for permission for the project. SNH issued a special licence in 2013 to Roy Dennis of the Highland Foundation for Wildlife to collect 12 young ospreys from nests with more than one young in the Scottish Highlands and Moray.

12 young ospreys released

In the past 10 days, the 12 ospreys have all been released in the Basque country and are faring extremely well. Five days after being released, one of the birds has even caught its first fish in the estuary. Once released, the young birds were able to come back to nest platforms containing a daily supply of fresh fish which they would take away and eat, as if a parent had provided food for them.

The birds were released at Urdaibai estuary to the north of Bilbao. This estuary is regularly used by migrating Scottish ospreys, travelling to and from West Africa in spring and autumn. In fact, it was the temporary home in spring 2008 of the famous osprey, Logie, tracked by Roy Dennis using the first GPS satellite transmitter fitted to a British osprey. At that time, Aitor Galarza, who is now involved in the osprey reintroduction, found and photographed Logie. This resulted in a partnership between Scotland and the Basque country to restore breeding ospreys.

Successfully introduced into Andalusia

This project follows the successful reintroduction of ospreys to Andalusia in southern Spain, which involved birds from Germany, Finland and Scotland. The first pair to breed in 2008 was a Scottish female and German male. In 2013, the project team in Andalusia identified 13 breeding pairs. The osprey had been extinct for many years in mainland Spain.

Roy Dennis said: “It’s been really great that we have been able to help the Basque people try to restore breeding ospreys and we are very grateful to SNH for their support and to all the people who helped us with the collection and translocation. We wish the project success.”

Susan Davies, SNH’s Director of Policy & Advice, said: “Ospreys are doing well in Scotland, so we’re in a terrific position to be able to help reintroduce these wonderful birds. A population of breeding ospreys in the Basque country should make the overall population in Europe stronger.”

Dr Aitor Galarza, the project director, added: “We are so pleased that we have young ospreys flying in Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve at the start of an exciting project. There is huge public interest and we are most grateful to Scotland for their support.”

Collected in Caithness & Strathspey

In early July this year, suitable nests were visited between Caithness and Strathspey and 12 young birds were selected. They came from nests on private land or Forestry Commission Scotland land. Birds were inspected by Jane Harley of the Grantown-on-Spey vet practice on 8 July and at dawn the next day they were taken to Aberdeen airport and flown by British Airways to Heathrow. Roy Dennis and Dr Aitor Galarza from the Biscay Department of the Environment accompanied the ospreys and were able to feed them en route to Spain at the Animal Reception Centre at Heathrow Airport.

Later that night, they reached the specially-built cages overlooking Urdaibai estuary to the north of Bilbao. Three birds were placed in each cage and were fed by the bird centre staff on fresh fish delivered through openings in the back of cages. The young ospreys were unable to see the people feeding them and during July they grew to full-size, learnt to fly and were able to watch activities on the estuary.

Save Bonaire conch shells


This video from the USA says about itself:

Florida Keys Queen Conch Transplant Part 1 – WATERWAYS

The Queen Conch is a symbol of Key West as well as a barometer for marine and reef health. On the endangered species list, the Florida Marine Research Institute staff transplant Queen Conch in an attempt to increase the reproduction of this mollusk, once common to Florida waters.

And here is Part 2 of that video series.

From the Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance (DCNA), Sunday 11 Augustus 2013:

The Conch Restoration Project in Lac Bay, Bonaire, was part of a three-year, IUCN awarded initiative funded by the Dutch Postcode Lottery, called “What if We Change”, which aimed to demonstrate ecosystem restoration in action around the world. Now at an end, the project produced a ton of data and many new insights into the species, its behaviour and habitat. The intention was to allow Bonairean fishermen to become the custodians of their own fishing resources and to improve the ecosystem throughout the bay.

The focus of the project has been on the species itself, the Queen Conch (Lobatus gigas) and its primary habitat, the seagrass beds. However, soon after the start of the project, the researchers started to comprehend that the surrounding mangrove forest also plays a very important role. Mangrove forests are a dynamic ecosystem in the coastal zone, with a distinct zonation in species ranging from Red Mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) near the low tide line to Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans), White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) and Buttonwood (Conococarpus erectus) more inland.

Land reclamation by growing mangrove forests and die-off of mangroves further inland at Lac Bay are natural phenomena. Yet, the rate at which this is happening on Bonaire, is exceptionally high. In just over 35 years, 81 hectares of what used to be open bay, has now become new mangrove forest, while at the same time, further inland, almost the same amount was lost (82 hectares). Overall, the mangrove forest seems to be moving towards the sea and since the central bay of Lac together with the semi-enclosed ponds only cover a little over 400 hectares, the consequence at Lac Bay is that this movement will be at the expense of the seagrass beds, which is critical habitat for conch.

There are several processes influencing growth and die-off of mangroves, such as salinification, inundation, sedimentation and eutrophication. In order to find out which processes are the main drivers in Lac Bay, student researchers Iris Vreugdenhil and Tatiana Lodder of Wageningen University have done fieldwork in Lac Bay from October 2012 to January 2013. Presently, the collected data are being analysed and their thesis reports are being finalised.

The research focused on the effect of increased salinity, anaerobic conditions and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the two most important mangrove species, R. mangle and A. germinans. Since April 2010, tidal gauges have been installed in and around Lac to study the hydrological conditions. Additional dataloggers have been installed, and at most of these stations time series for salinity and dissolved oxygen have been collected. The locations for these dataloggers have been chosen based on the IMARES study by Davaasuren and Meesters in 2012 on mangroves using satellite imagery and accessibility of the area. The time series, together with soil physical data and mangrove vegetation data, will be used to model the growth of the species.
Additionally, niche differentiation of the four mangrove species under abiotic influences has been studied. The project focused on the effects of inundation time, salinity and nutrient resources on the growth of the four mangrove species occurring at Lac. Three types of forest have been studied: R. mangle forest, A. germinans, and a mixed plot of A. germinans, L. racemosa and C. erectus. Nutrients (N/P/K) of soil and leaves have been measured and other growth and vegetation characteristics have been studied, such as leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf area index (LAI). The findings of both projects will be published in two reports in the near future.

Text: Sabine Engel

Nature poetry competition


This video from the USA sas about itself:

Third Annual Peace Poetry Contest 2012

The third annual Peace Poetry Contest on May 12, 2012 sponsored by the Veterans for Peace, Gainesville, Florida Chapter. This year Marion county schools were added to Alachua county schools participating in the contest. The reading of winning poems was videotaped to create this production.

The purpose of the contest is to encourage young people to think about peace and describe their ideas in a creative way with no rules and no direction. The result of this process is a dialogue about peace and nonviolence that will hopefully develop into peaceful worldviews applied to real world situations when the now young poets grow up to be the future leaders of the world. The event was held at the Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Gainesville, Florida.

From BirdLife:

A call for BirdLife Poets

Thu, Aug 8, 2013

Following the outstanding success of its first competition in 2012, The Rialto Magazine have teamed up again with the RSPB (BirdLife in the UK), to launch a second Nature Poetry Competition, and are seeking entries from across the BirdLife Partnership.

Poetry draws on our deepest associations with nature.  Writing on all the zoology and botany books he owned, the Chilean poet, Pablo Neruda, explained how they, ‘allowed him to embrace the infinite world, the never ending labyrinth of nature. Books in which the earth is explored have always been my favourites, and rarely do I go to sleep within admiring the portraits of adorable island birds, or insects as complicated as clocks’.

With a deadline of the end of September, work submitted will be judged by the poet, Ruth Padel, whose most recent book, The Mara Crossing, took journeying and migration as its core theme.  The competition will help raise funds to support RSPB, and its critical conservation work, and will also help raise the profile of contemporary poetry and bring new audiences to The Rialto.  Prizes include publication in the magazine, cash of up to £1,000, and a place on a creative writing course at Welsh National Writers’ Centre Ty Newydd.

Rialto was established in 1984, and its first edition included poetry by the Honorary President of BirdLife’s Rare Bird Club, Margaret Atwood, as well as by the current British Poet Laureate, Carol Ann Duffy.

Matt Howard, who works for the RSPB, and is a Rialto adviser, says: “Poets have always written about the natural world and this competition is a way for them to take a direct step to work for the well-spring that provides so much inspiration. Creative engagement with our shared environment is ever-more important, particularly at a time when the state of nature is under such pressures from the way we live our lives.”

Indeed, writing in his introduction to The Poetry of Birds, the author, Tim Dee, noted it was the Blackbird which emerged as the most popular subject in a UK competition he judged in 2005, far out-numbering all other poems.  He echoed Aldous Huxley’s argument that taking birds out of English poetry would mean losing half the canon.  Nonetheless, Michael Mackmin, editor of The Rialto, makes it clear that “The judges will give a very wide interpretation to our theme of nature poetry.”

Last year’s competition saw more an astonishing 1,800 entrants contribute more than 3,500 poems from a total of 17 countries.  The winning entry by Pat Winslow, recalls a memorable encounter with a spider. It would be a huge boost for the RSPB, BirdLife more generally, for The Rialto, and for the role of poetry in celebrating birds, biodiversity, and the environment, if someone from the BirdLife family won in 2013.

To enter the competition, please follow the link here:

comp

Rescued Florida panther kitten now a mother in the wild


This video from Florida in the USA is called Waterways Episode 267 – Florida Panthers 2013 AND Pharmaceuticals in our Waters.

From Wildlife Extra:

Female Florida panther, raised in captivity, gives birth in the wild

Released female panther gives birth

June 2013. Biologists with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) have discovered that a female Florida panther that was rescued as an orphaned kitten and raised in captivity has given birth just a few months after her release back into the wild. Biologists found an approximately 1-month-old female kitten in the Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park in southwest Florida, near where they released the young adult panther on Jan. 31.

“We were very excited to find this panther’s kitten,” said Dave Onorato, FWC panther biologist. “The fact that this panther has given birth is positive news for the recovery of this endangered species and a testament to the hard work of all involved in its rescue and rehabilitation.”

Early conception

Biologists estimate the female panther became pregnant about three weeks after her release, when she was only 21 months old. That age is somewhat younger than the typical age of first conception for female panthers the FWC has documented. While biologists are encouraged the female became a contributor to the population so quickly, it was not completely unexpected, given that her home range is within prime panther habitat.

After discovering the kitten over the weekend, biologists evaluated its health and tagged it for identification purposes to document whether it eventually becomes part of the adult population. An estimated 100 to 160 adult and subadult panthers remain in south Florida.

“Kitten survival rates are pretty low, but this kitten looked healthy and feisty,” said Onorato. “The kitten has a chance of one day contributing to the population as well.”

Raised in captivity after mother died

The FWC rescued the now young adult panther and its brother as 5-month-old kittens in September 2011 after their mother was found dead. They were then raised at the White Oak Conservation Center in Yulee until they were ready for release. The FWC released the male panther in April at the Rotenberger Wildlife Management Area in south Florida.

Protect the Panther license plate

Florida residents can support panther conservation efforts through the purchase of a “Protect the Panther license plate.” Fees from license plate sales are the primary funding source for the FWC’s research and management of Florida panthers.

“The success story of this once orphaned panther giving birth in the wild following its rescue and rehabilitation would not be possible without license plate funds,” said Carol Knox, FWC’s Imperilled Species Section Leader.

Florida butterfly species extinct


This video is called Florida Butterflies.

From Wildlife Extra:

Two butterflies declared extinct in USA

Zestos skipper butterfly & Rockland grass skipper butterfly declared extinct

June 2013. Officials from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) have declared two species of butterfly as officially extinct. Both butterflies were previously found in South Florida, but have not been seen for 9 and 13 years respectively, despite extensive searches.

Zestos skipper butterfly – Not seen since 2004

The Zestos skipper butterfly has not been seen since 2004. The Zestos skipper was last recorded in the Florida Keys in 2004, but hadn’t been seen for several years before that on the mainland. The Zestos skipper wasn’t thought to be Endangered as it was widespread throughout the Bahamas. However it was recently discovered that the Zestos skipper in Florida was a distinct subspecies; sadly it was probably already extinct when that discovery was made.

The Zestos skipper occurs commonly throughout the Bahamas and eastern Antilles. Based on this information, the Zestos skipper was not considered imperiled, globally, and therefore the butterfly was never considered for listing as endangered in the United States. It was only recently discovered that the Zestos skipper in Florida was in fact a distinct subspecies, found nowhere else. Before conservation agencies could move to protect it, it was gone. Similarly, the rockland grass skipper was thought to be extinct in the 1980s. However, it was briefly rediscovered on Big Pine Key in 1999, but disappeared again before recovery actions could be implemented.

Rockland grass skipper butterfly – Not seen since 2000

The Rockland grass skipper was last seen in the Everglades National Park in 2000.

Causes of decline

US Wildlife Service scientists believe the main cause of decline and disappearance of butterflies in southern Florida is loss, modification and fragmentation, and in some instances inconsistent management, of the natural habitats that butterflies and their larval hostplants depend on. Other possible factors include: exotic predatory ants, small population size, poaching, use of pesticides for mosquito control and the influence of climate change.

This is called Video Essay: Saving the Miami Blue Butterfly.

Miami Blue butterfly going the same way?

Scientists also believe the pattern of the disappearance in the Zestos skipper is similar to that of the now critically endangered Miami Blue butterfly. Climate change is an acute threat to the Miami blue, as all sites within Key West National Wildlife Refuge known to currently support Miami blues appear to be losing habitat and hostplants due to the effects of sea level rise. The Service has funded surveys and research of Miami blue populations within Key West National Wildlife Refuge. In the near future, the Service, along with IBWG members will develop a recovery plan for the Miami blue.

Britain: butterflies are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature and new research has revealed that when summer weather turns bad the Silver-spotted skipper battles for survival: here.

See also here.

Gone, But Not Forgotten: Species We’ve Lost in the Last 10 Years: here.

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Ocean wildlife in danger


From Surprising Science blog in the USA:

May 17, 2013

Endangered Ocean Creatures Beyond the Cute and Cuddly

Staghorn coral

Staghorn coral is listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. NOAA Fisheries has proposed it be reclassified as endangered. Photo by Albert Kok

Our oceans are taking a beating from overfishing, pollution, acidification and warming, putting at risk the many creatures who make their home in seawater. But when most people think of struggling ocean species, the first animals that come to mind are probably whales, seals or sea turtles.

Sure, many of these large (and adorable) animals play an important part in the marine ecosystem and are threatened with extinction due to human activities, but in fact, of the 94 marine species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), only 45 are marine mammals and sea turtles. As such, these don’t paint the whole picture of what happens under the sea. What about the remaining 49 that form a myriad of other important parts of the underwater web?

These less charismatic members of the list include corals, sea birds, mollusks and, of course, fish. They fall under two categories: endangered or threatened. According to NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service (pdf), one of the groups responsible for implementing the ESA, a species is considered endangered if it faces imminent extinction, and and a species is considered threatened if it is likely to become endangered in the future. A cross section of these less-known members of the ESA’s list are described in detail below.

1. Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis), pictured above, is one of two species of coral listed as threatened under the ESA, although both are under review for reclassification to endangered. A very important reef-building coral in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, it primarily reproduces through asexual fragmentation. This means that its branches break off and reattach to a substrate on the ocean bottom where they grow into new colonies.

While this is a great recovery method when only part of a colony is damaged, it doesn’t work so well when most or all of the colony is killed—which often is the result from disturbances afflicting these corals. Since the 1980s, staghorn coral populations have steeply declined due to outbreaks of coral disease, increased sedimentation, bleaching and damage from hurricanes. Although only two coral species are currently on the ESA list, 66 additional coral species have been proposed for listing and are currently under review.

White abalone

The white abalone population off the coast of California continued to decline even after the closure of its short-lived fishery in the 1970s. Photo by John Butler, NOAA

2. The white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni), a large sea snail that can grow to ten inches long, was the first marine invertebrate to be listed under the ESA but its population hasn’t recovered. The commercial fishery for white abalone collapsed three decades ago because, being spawners that jet their eggs and sperm into the water for fertilization with the hope that the two will collide, the animals depend on a large enough population of males and females being in close proximity to one another to reproduce successfully.

Less than 0.1% of its pre-fished population survives today, and research published in 2012 showed that it has continued to decline since its ESA listing more than a decade ago. The researchers recommended human intervention, and aquaculture efforts have begun in an effort to save the species.

Johnson's seagrass

Johnson’s seagrass is the first, and only, marine plant listed under the Endangered Species Act. Photo by Lori Morris, St. Johns River Water Management District

3. Johnson’s seagrass (Halophila johnsonii), the lone marine plant species listed, is classified as threatened and makes coastal habitats and nurseries for fish and provides a food source for the also-endangered West Indian manatees and green sea turtles. However, its most important role may be long-term ocean carbon storage, known as blue carbon: seagrass beds can store more carbon than the world’s forests per hectare.

The main threats to Johnson’s seagrass are nutrient and sediment pollution, and damage from boating, dredging and storms. Its plight is aggravated by its tiny geographic range–it is only found on the southeast coast of Florida. The species may have more trouble recovering than other seagrass species because it seems to only reproduce asexually–while other seagrasses can reproduce like land plants, by producing a flower that is then fertilized by clumps of pollen released underwater, the Johnson’s seagrass relies on the sometimes slow process of new stems sprouting from the buried root systems of individual plants.

Short-tailed albatross

Short-tailed albatrosses have made a remarkable recovery since they were believed to be extinct in the 1940s. They still face threats today though, from habitat loss to being caught unintentionally by fishing gear. Photo by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

4. The short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) differs from some of its neighbors on the ESA list in that an extra layer of uncertainty is added to the mix: During breeding season, they nest on islands near Japan, but after breeding season ends, they spread their wings and fly to the U.S. In the late 19th century, the beautiful birds are thought to have been fairly common from coastal California up through Alaska. But in the 1940s, their population dropped from the tens of millions to such a small number that they were thought to be extinct. Their incredible decline was due to hunters collecting their feathers, compounded by volcanic damage to their breeding islands in the 1930s.

Today they are doing better, with over 2,000 birds counted in 2008, but only a few islands remain as nesting sites and they continue to be caught as bycatch, meaning that they are often mistakenly hooked by longline fishing gear.

Atlantic salmon

Atlantic salmon used to be found in most major rivers in New England, now they are only found in a small section of Maine. Photo by E. Peter Steenstra/USFWS

5. Salmon are a familiar fish frequently seen on the menu. But not all species are doing well enough to be served on our plates. Salmon split their time between freshwater (where they are born and later spawn) and the ocean (where they spend their time in between). Historically, Atlantic salmon in the U.S. were found in most major rivers on the Atlantic coast north of the Hudson, which flows through New York State. But damming, pollution and overfishing have pushed the species to a point where they are now only found along a small section of the Maine coast. Twenty-eight populations of Pacific salmon are also listed as threatened or endangered. Efforts on both coasts are underway to rebuild populations through habitat restoration, pollution reduction and aquaculture.

The five organisms listed here are just a few of the marine species on the ESA’s list. In fact, scientists expect that as they learn more about the oceans, they will reveal threats to more critters and plants.

“The charismatic marine species, like large whales [and] sea turtles…were the first to captivate us and pique our curiosity to look under the waves,” says Jonathan Shannon, from the NOAA Fisheries Office of Protected Species. “While we are learning more about the ocean and how it works every day, we still have much to learn about the different species in the ocean and the health of their populations.”

Smithsonian’s Ocean Portal

Learn more about the ocean from the Smithsonian’s Ocean Portal.

The health of the world’s oceans is deteriorating even faster than had previously been thought: here.